SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Academic poster | MSc in Information System Management April 2016
Ahmad Reza Khawar | @00450058
Module: Digital innovation
Augmented Reality (AR)
In the context of privacy and surveillance
Augmented Reality Background
Augmented Reality (AR) is the technology which modifies the perception
of our senses either by augmenting (adding) virtual objects or diminishing the
existing to our real time view of the environment. AR was first introduced by
Ivan Sutherland in 1968 who created his first head mounted display (HMD).
After this many years augmented reality technology is getting improved and
involved in all human life aspects e.g. medical, education, and business, military
and so on. AR made data visualization easy for people who need a real-time
information. For instance when we visit museums, we can easily extract
information from an artifacts just by targeting it with AR technology or in
education teachers are beginning to provide students with deeper and
meaningful information by linking educational content with specific places and
objects.
Like any other technology, alongside the benefits AR brings about, there
are disadvantages or negative points that the technology can produce.
Individuals using augmented reality technology are excited of the features it
provides, but unaware of the challenges it entails in future which includes
vulnerability of privacy and others influence over private data and information.
Google glass is a good example in that people were excited for their new gadget
and the features it provided, but not for so long they started to reject the
gadget because of the feeling that google is stealing their privacy. Glasshole
was the word people invented to describe Google Glass wearers. They were
thrown out of bars and banned from movie theaters because of privacy and
intellectual property concerns. (Pease, 2015). Based on a report dated January
20, 2015 on CNN, people had concern that how google protect people s
information with his new augmented reality gadget . According to Wassom
(Wassom, 2015) on his book he illustrate privacy as emotional reaction of the
people
Augmented Reality positive and negative points
Augmented Reality like other technology has its positive and
negatives points. Following are positive and negative key points that AR
can bring about to businesses and society:
Key positive points
- Life data visualization
- Navigation
- Knowledge sharing
- Social media
- Consumer convenience
- Entertainment
Key negative points
- People surveillance
- Intrusion to people s privacy
- Disturbing ads while using AR apps
- Social detachment
- Misinformation
- Abuse others while their information are publicly available
Conclusion and recommendation
Augmented Reality is a technology that dramatically
impacts our life both in positive way as well as negative way.
Mankind, as a complex being, faces variety of challenges and
issues; AR, in its current pace, has already proven itself to be
useful technology that can address some of problems faced by
us. Although current progress in AR has been in limited areas of
life, which has already been successful, researchers and
businesses are continuously working to apply this technology in
other aspects of our life to ease our daily operations. Lots of
improvements and adaptations of AR and its supported devices
as tools and technology are expected to be soon observed in our
real life. However, the adaptation to AR will face the resistance
of public complaining on their right of privacy and surveillance.
Top 5 Companies involve on Augmented Reality
- Google | https://developers.google.com/glass
Products: google glass
- Microsoft | https://www.microsoft.com/microsoft-hololens/en-us
Products: Hololens
- Sony | http://developer.sonymobile.com/products/smarteyeglass
Products: smarteyeglass also in Sony gaming console
- Sphero | http://www.sphero.com/ollie
Products: different home products
- Intel | http://www.intel-vci.uni-saarland.de/en/projects.html
Products: different product for visualization
References
1. Allison, P. R., 2015. http://www.computerweekly.com. [Online]
2. al, O. e., 2015. Visualizing Big Data with augmented and virtual reality: challenges and research agenda.
Journal of Big Data , Issue big data.
3. Craig, A. B., 2013. Understanding Augmented Reality.. 1st ed. New York: ELSEVIER.
4. Furht, B., 2011. Handbook of Augmented Reality. 4 edition ed. New York: Department of Computer and
Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Florida Atlantic University .
5. Kim, M.-C., 2004. Surveillance Technology, Privacy and Social Control. Surveillance Technology, Privacy and
Social Control .
6. Kotsios, A., 2015. INTRODUCTION. Privacy in an augmented reality , p. 158.
7. Lorena Nessi, P. M., 2014. http://brainblogger.com. [Online]
8. Nelson, F. & Yam , M., 2014. www.tomshardware.com. [Online]
9. O'Brien, M., 2008. Information & Communications Technology Law. Law, privacy and information technology:
a sleepwalk through the surveillance society?.
10. Pease, M., 2015. CNN. [Online]
11. Wassom, B. D., 2015. Augmented Reality Law, Privacy and Ethics. 1st ed. Walthm: Elsevier Inc.
12. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-01-13/goldman-sachs-has-four-charts-showing-the-huge-
potential-in-virtual-and-augmented-reality
1961/8 1975 1990 1995 2000 2004 2010 2015 Now
Augmented Reality (AR) 1968
Ivan Sutherland is credited with creating the
first head-mounted display (HMD)
Augmented Reality (AR) 1975
Enhanced image produced by putting a computer generated
display over a real-time view of one s surroundings
Augmented Reality (AR) 1990
The term Augmented Reality was coined by Boeing researcher Tom
Caudell.
Augmented Reality (AR) 1994
AR is the first used for entertainment purposes when Julie
Martin creates what is believed to be the first AR theater
production, Dancing in Cyberspace
Augmented Reality (AR) 1999
Naval researchers begin work on Battle-field Augmented Reality system
(BARS), the original mode of early wearable system for soldiers.
NASA turns to AR with the X-38 program, which would allow researchers to
better understand what technologies would be needed to build inexpensive
and reliable spacecraft.
Augmented Reality (AR) 2004, 2009
A group of German researchers brought see-through AR cell phones
2009: ARToolkit bring AR to Web browsers
Augmented Reality (AR) 2013
Car manufactures use AR to replace vehicle service manuals.
Toshiba introduces a 3D augmented reality hybrid theater planning
application for medical procedures.
Augmented Reality (AR) 2014
wearable AR make headlines, mostly thanks to Google. Other
companies like Epson, have also developed their own smart
glasses.
Augmented Reality (AR)
Based on the on-going researches on AR
it will soon appear in all aspect of our life
History of Augmented Reality
1961 - Now
Sensing input
Transforming sensing
objects
Augmented/added objects
Rendering the transforming
objects
Projection/display to
the user
How Augmented Reality work
Sensing, processing and exhibit of AR
Gaming, $11.60
Live events, $4.10
Video entertainment,
$3.20
Retail, $1.60
Real estate, $2.60
Education, $0.70
Healthcare, $5.10
Engineering, $4.70
Military, $1.40
Value (billion), Software assumptions by use case in 2025 AR/VR
Desktop PC, $62.00
Notebook PC, $111.00
Tablet PC, $63.00
TV, $99.00
Accelerated Uptake,
$110.00
Base Case, $45.00
Game Console, $14.00
Delayed Uptake,
$15.00
VALUE (BILLION), HARDWARE ASSUMPTIONS BY USE CASE IN 2025 AR/VR
Source: Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research
AUGMENTED REALITY
PRIVACY AND SURVEILLANCE
AHMAD REZA KHAWAR (@00450058)
UNIVERSITY OF SALFORD
APRIL 15, 2016
Contents
1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................................1
2 Augmented Reality in context of privacy and surveillance...................................................................2
3 Conclusion and Recommendations.......................................................................................................3
4 References ............................................................................................................................................4
1
1 Introduction
It has always been the end goal of technologists, researchers and companies to enhance human
capabilities with technological might, we have come a long way since our first message through digital
world, and today we are talking about living in a virtual world with all the amenities of our physical
existence. Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) are digital “realities” of our today’s
technological progress, where companies are spending huge amount of money and resources to tap into
this growing market. According to Dr. Furht’s book on Augment Reality, he defines AR as “simplifying the
user’s life by bringing virtual information not only to his immediate surroundings, but also to any indirect
view of the real-world environment” (Furht, 2011). Or in other words we have our real-world intact, but
only augmented by computer imagery or virtual information. But when our surroundings are completely
changed into and replaced by a digital projection via technology, then it becomes Virtual Reality (VR).
“Technology or Virtual Environment as called by Milgram, completely immerses users in a synthetic world
without seeing the real world” (Furht, 2011). Researchers and companies are pursuing both concepts to
bring them as mature technology to the human life. Augmented Reality (AR) is the focus of this literature
review, I will illustrate the augmented reality in the context of privacy and surveillance and its impacts on
business and society. Augmented Reality (AR) can be solution to many of today’s problems, it can have a
broad use in our business, social and private lives, it can give us real time information for right decision
making and can help us in utilizing our resources at best, and as well said in Dr. Furht, book on Augmented
Reality “a real-time direct or indirect view of a physical real-world environment that has been
enhanced/augmented by adding virtual computer-generated information to it” (Furht, 2011).
Historically, Augmented Reality was first introduced in 1968 (Nelson & Yam, 2014) by “Ivan Sutherland”
with creating the first head-mounted display (HMD) system. Sutherland described the Augmented Reality
as “enhanced image produced by putting a computer generated display over a real-time view of one’s
surroundings” (Nelson & Yam, 2014). However work on AR concept has been going on since 1961 but was
not accepted as a functional concept. Even today researchers have difference of opinion on augmented
reality; is augmented reality a technology, concept or a method? For instance Craig considers augmented
reality “to be a medium, as opposed to a technology. By medium” he means “that it mediates ideas
between humans and computers, humans and humans, and computers and humans” (Craig, 2013). But
most other scholars considers AR as a technology, like Dr. Wassom defines AR as “a technology that gives
us more to see, smell, touch, taste, or hear in the physical world than we would otherwise get through our
2
non-augmented facilities” (Wassom, 2015). Also according to Kotsios, he called AR as technology “AR is
the technology that is trying to erase that ‘noise” (Kotsios, 2015). These different idea still continues
between the different researchers.
2 Augmented Reality in context of privacy and surveillance
As almost everything can be impacted by Augmented Reality, therefore it’s difficult subject to address.
Major commercial entities are working on business aspects of its development, while the governments
and legal institutions are trying to develop legal coverage for most of its use. The privacy and surveillance
is differently defined and addressed in almost every context, it will be a challenging task to develop a
universally accepted definition for privacy, and we have seen many debates and differences of opinion on
the issue, and all it did, is made the subject more controversial. With Augmented Reality the debate on
privacy will be there, but there should be a capacity or an option with the user to set his own privacy rules,
though AR will touch every aspect of our life, but we expect that the user also develop the right skill set
to use it optimally with limited impacts on privacy or any other aspects of social life, as pointed out
“Augmented reality mobile systems need to be personal, meaning that the displayed information should
only be viewed by others if the user allows it.” (Furht, 2011). The companies will also mobilize their
resources to make their AR products user friendly as well as lesser intruding, with today’s ever increasing
exposure to digital world and use of technology in almost all aspects of our lives, privacy and surveillance
will be a key discussion or consideration in every upcoming technology. Just like, Google launched their
Google Glass people reacted with concerns for privacy of involved individuals “third persons who are part
of the environment of the device, namely persons whose image can be captured and therefore digitized by
the wearable AR device, thus leading to the processing of their information” (Kotsios, 2015). As we have
seen so far, usually laws or legal documentations lacks the speed on which technology is changing, so it
would be safer to say that we may see many usable models of augmented reality gadget before we see
compatible laws or policies on the government’s sides. In less developed or developing countries, utilizing
AR where considerable ICT infrastructure as well as skilled users are required it will be an interesting
endeavor to see how business and social life adopts AR and how the governments defines rules for its
usage.
As technologies are adopted by individual users to make their life easy, the same goes for governments
where they try to utilize technology for better provision of services, sometime these better intentions
causes the government to overstep their bounds and step in to private space. Although it is almost an
3
accepted practice that governments collects enormous amounts of data, which is sometimes used for
monitoring and surveillance purposes, but in large as it’s always said, anything which goes online can be
tracked and monitored, so it’s up to the user to consider these “give and takes” of using technology, and
decide for him/herself. As third person in the environment where people use AR, you will never know
when you will be monitored (surveillance) by people who have AR devices; Governments can always use
the governing laws to monitor people for security concerns, but for private citizens or businesses where
AR devices are used, it will be a challenging task to convince people that how their collected data will be
used. But as we have seen with other technologies as well, we as humans arrive to a point where our
definition of privacy changes, “when wearable AR devices become a mainstream technology, no one will
really notice them, since people will be so used to the device.” (Kotsios, 2015)
3 Conclusion and Recommendations
Augmented Reality impacts every aspect of our life, though we are complex beings and face variety of
issues, but AR has proven to be useful technologies where it have address many problems faced by us. In
some aspects of our lives, AR has already been proven useful. Researchers and business are continuously
working to apply AR in other areas as well. According to Dr. Furht “AR can potentially apply to all senses,
augmenting smell, touch and hearing as well” (Furht, 2011). We expect to see a lot of improvement and
adoption of AR as technology as well as its supported devices, but as the adoption increases there will be
louder calls for the rights of privacy and surveillance of it is users. Changes in general faces resist, and AR
will change majority of our dealings, it may become as a normal of our living as pointed out by Kotsios in
previous section, but until we adopt and provide ample infrastructure including legal and policy
documents for its use, it will be a hotly debated controversial topic.
4
4 References
1. Allison, P. R., 2015. http://www.computerweekly.com. [Online]
Available at: http://www.computerweekly.com/feature/Augmented-reality-business-
applications-start-to-get-real
[Accessed 18 4 2016].
2. al, O. e., 2015. Visualizing Big Data with augmented and virtual reality: challenges and research
agenda. Journal of Big Data , Issue big data.
3. Craig, A. B., 2013. Understanding Augmented Reality.. 1st ed. New York: ELSEVIER.
4. Furht, B., 2011. Handbook of Augmented Reality. 4 edition ed. New York: Department of
Computer and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Florida Atlantic University .
5. Kim, M.-C., 2004. Surveillance Technology, Privacy and Social Control. Surveillance Technology,
Privacy and Social Control .
6. Kotsios, A., 2015. INTRODUCTION. Privacy in an augmented reality , p. 158.
7. Lorena Nessi, P. M., 2014. http://brainblogger.com. [Online]
Available at: http://brainblogger.com/2014/12/04/how-will-augmented-reality-change-our-lives
[Accessed 16 4 2016].
8. Nelson, F. & Yam , M., 2014. www.tomshardware.com. [Online]
Available at: http://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/ar-vr-technology-discussion,3811-3.html
[Accessed 16 4 2016].
9. O'Brien, M., 2008. Information & Communications Technology Law. Law, privacy and information
technology: a sleepwalk through the surveillance society?.
10. Pease, M., 2015. CNN. [Online]
Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2015/01/20/opinion/pease-google-glass-what-went-wrong/
[Accessed 19 4 2016].
11. SAWERS, P., 2012. http://thenextweb.com. [Online]
Available at: http://thenextweb.com/insider/2011/07/03/augmented-reality-the-past-present-
and-future/
[Accessed 16 4 2016].
12. Wassom, B. D., 2015. Augmented Reality Law, Privacy and Ethics. 1st ed. Walthm: Elsevier Inc.
5
Digital innovation in the context of
Digital business, Mobilebusiness and Valuechain
One of the human tendency is innovate, we adapt to change and continuously work towards making life
better, from the invention of first circular object to today’s information age, we as humans continuously
evolve and innovate. Today digital media is part of our everyday life, every business who want to survive
in today’s competitive market need to have a strong digital profile, though it is considered to be a reality
but many business lacks either the intention to skill set to continuously innovate and adapt. Digital
innovation doesn’t mean that a company should forsake it is core values, it’s mainly providing main
services or products with the use of technology; according to many researches mobile penetration is on
the rise almost every second person on the planet owns or have access to mobile phone. In this context
it’s ever important that business innovate with the intention of providing their services or maintain the
same value of service through usage of digital means. Today’s customer is technology savvy, they need
equal value of service through digital and mobile means, it’s not a requirement anymore that a business
should maintain a strong digital presence, it’s gradually becoming a survival issue which need to be
considered in every business decisions. Innovating through technology should not be considered an
expense, it’s an investment which can provide business very useful data of the customer choices and
through utilization of value chain principles, business can leverage this data by providing customized
products and services. Today’s digital technology enables businesses to pinpoint specific customer
choices, and innovate service delivery, if utilized well, the overall value these innovations, digital and
mobile presence bring to business can be many folds to investment they make in the infrastructure for
these endeavors.

More Related Content

What's hot

EON-XR Center Grant Programs 2021
EON-XR Center Grant Programs 2021EON-XR Center Grant Programs 2021
EON-XR Center Grant Programs 2021
Senthilkumar R
 
Designing for an Augmented Reality world
Designing for an Augmented Reality worldDesigning for an Augmented Reality world
Designing for an Augmented Reality world
thomas.purves
 
Cool new gadgets do space
Cool new gadgets do spaceCool new gadgets do space
Cool new gadgets do space
Brian Pichman
 
15 vr trends 2017 yariv levski
15 vr trends 2017 yariv levski15 vr trends 2017 yariv levski
15 vr trends 2017 yariv levski
AppReal-VR
 
IRJET- Deep Dive into Augmented Reality
IRJET-  	  Deep Dive into Augmented RealityIRJET-  	  Deep Dive into Augmented Reality
IRJET- Deep Dive into Augmented Reality
IRJET Journal
 
What Is Mixed Reality & Its Applications?
What Is Mixed Reality & Its Applications?What Is Mixed Reality & Its Applications?
What Is Mixed Reality & Its Applications?
Sushil Deshmukh
 
Virtual and Augmented Reality: State of Technology, Market & Trends
Virtual and Augmented Reality: State of Technology, Market & TrendsVirtual and Augmented Reality: State of Technology, Market & Trends
Virtual and Augmented Reality: State of Technology, Market & Trends
Hughes Systique Corporation
 
Experience Design for Mobile Augmented Reality
Experience Design for Mobile Augmented RealityExperience Design for Mobile Augmented Reality
Experience Design for Mobile Augmented Reality
Lightning Laboratories
 
Technological Singularity & A.I. 2018 - PPT
Technological Singularity & A.I. 2018 - PPTTechnological Singularity & A.I. 2018 - PPT
Technological Singularity & A.I. 2018 - PPT
Rahul John
 
Augmented Reality and Education: Learning connected to life - Reloaded
Augmented Reality and Education: Learning connected to life - ReloadedAugmented Reality and Education: Learning connected to life - Reloaded
Augmented Reality and Education: Learning connected to life - Reloaded
Raúl Reinoso
 
signmesh snapshot - tech of tomorrow (that’s already here)
signmesh snapshot - tech of tomorrow (that’s already here) signmesh snapshot - tech of tomorrow (that’s already here)
signmesh snapshot - tech of tomorrow (that’s already here)
signmesh
 
Apple & Augmented Reality
Apple & Augmented RealityApple & Augmented Reality
Apple & Augmented Reality
Christopher Grayson
 
Future of immersive education by calongne
Future of immersive education by calongneFuture of immersive education by calongne
Future of immersive education by calongne
Cynthia Calongne
 
Project under Google X
 Project under Google X  Project under Google X
Project under Google X
Amal G
 
Post digital research
Post digital researchPost digital research
Post digital research
Shuayb Dawood
 
Augmented Reality (AR) in Education
Augmented Reality (AR) in EducationAugmented Reality (AR) in Education
Augmented Reality (AR) in Education
Steve Yuen
 
The Pedagogical Potential of Augmented Reality Apps
The Pedagogical Potential of Augmented Reality AppsThe Pedagogical Potential of Augmented Reality Apps
The Pedagogical Potential of Augmented Reality Apps
inventionjournals
 
Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality in Education
Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality in EducationVirtual Reality and Augmented Reality in Education
Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality in Education
Hedrick Ellis
 
Social Interaction Design For Augmented Reality: Patterns and Principles for ...
Social Interaction Design For Augmented Reality: Patterns and Principles for ...Social Interaction Design For Augmented Reality: Patterns and Principles for ...
Social Interaction Design For Augmented Reality: Patterns and Principles for ...
Joe Lamantia
 
What Is Immersive Technology? by Advrtas
What Is Immersive Technology?  by AdvrtasWhat Is Immersive Technology?  by Advrtas
What Is Immersive Technology? by Advrtas
Katrina LaShelle Jefferson
 

What's hot (20)

EON-XR Center Grant Programs 2021
EON-XR Center Grant Programs 2021EON-XR Center Grant Programs 2021
EON-XR Center Grant Programs 2021
 
Designing for an Augmented Reality world
Designing for an Augmented Reality worldDesigning for an Augmented Reality world
Designing for an Augmented Reality world
 
Cool new gadgets do space
Cool new gadgets do spaceCool new gadgets do space
Cool new gadgets do space
 
15 vr trends 2017 yariv levski
15 vr trends 2017 yariv levski15 vr trends 2017 yariv levski
15 vr trends 2017 yariv levski
 
IRJET- Deep Dive into Augmented Reality
IRJET-  	  Deep Dive into Augmented RealityIRJET-  	  Deep Dive into Augmented Reality
IRJET- Deep Dive into Augmented Reality
 
What Is Mixed Reality & Its Applications?
What Is Mixed Reality & Its Applications?What Is Mixed Reality & Its Applications?
What Is Mixed Reality & Its Applications?
 
Virtual and Augmented Reality: State of Technology, Market & Trends
Virtual and Augmented Reality: State of Technology, Market & TrendsVirtual and Augmented Reality: State of Technology, Market & Trends
Virtual and Augmented Reality: State of Technology, Market & Trends
 
Experience Design for Mobile Augmented Reality
Experience Design for Mobile Augmented RealityExperience Design for Mobile Augmented Reality
Experience Design for Mobile Augmented Reality
 
Technological Singularity & A.I. 2018 - PPT
Technological Singularity & A.I. 2018 - PPTTechnological Singularity & A.I. 2018 - PPT
Technological Singularity & A.I. 2018 - PPT
 
Augmented Reality and Education: Learning connected to life - Reloaded
Augmented Reality and Education: Learning connected to life - ReloadedAugmented Reality and Education: Learning connected to life - Reloaded
Augmented Reality and Education: Learning connected to life - Reloaded
 
signmesh snapshot - tech of tomorrow (that’s already here)
signmesh snapshot - tech of tomorrow (that’s already here) signmesh snapshot - tech of tomorrow (that’s already here)
signmesh snapshot - tech of tomorrow (that’s already here)
 
Apple & Augmented Reality
Apple & Augmented RealityApple & Augmented Reality
Apple & Augmented Reality
 
Future of immersive education by calongne
Future of immersive education by calongneFuture of immersive education by calongne
Future of immersive education by calongne
 
Project under Google X
 Project under Google X  Project under Google X
Project under Google X
 
Post digital research
Post digital researchPost digital research
Post digital research
 
Augmented Reality (AR) in Education
Augmented Reality (AR) in EducationAugmented Reality (AR) in Education
Augmented Reality (AR) in Education
 
The Pedagogical Potential of Augmented Reality Apps
The Pedagogical Potential of Augmented Reality AppsThe Pedagogical Potential of Augmented Reality Apps
The Pedagogical Potential of Augmented Reality Apps
 
Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality in Education
Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality in EducationVirtual Reality and Augmented Reality in Education
Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality in Education
 
Social Interaction Design For Augmented Reality: Patterns and Principles for ...
Social Interaction Design For Augmented Reality: Patterns and Principles for ...Social Interaction Design For Augmented Reality: Patterns and Principles for ...
Social Interaction Design For Augmented Reality: Patterns and Principles for ...
 
What Is Immersive Technology? by Advrtas
What Is Immersive Technology?  by AdvrtasWhat Is Immersive Technology?  by Advrtas
What Is Immersive Technology? by Advrtas
 

Similar to Ahmad Reza Khawar - Mid-term DI

What Is Augmented Reality or AR?
What Is Augmented Reality or AR?What Is Augmented Reality or AR?
What Is Augmented Reality or AR?
Sushil Deshmukh
 
Augment reality (a walk through) – the blend of real world and virtual world
Augment reality (a walk through) – the blend of real world and virtual worldAugment reality (a walk through) – the blend of real world and virtual world
Augment reality (a walk through) – the blend of real world and virtual world
EZ Rankings
 
XR - The Future of Intelligence
XR - The Future of IntelligenceXR - The Future of Intelligence
XR - The Future of Intelligence
Tish Shute
 
Tish Shute (HuaweiXR): - The Future of Intelligence
Tish Shute (HuaweiXR): - The Future of IntelligenceTish Shute (HuaweiXR): - The Future of Intelligence
Tish Shute (HuaweiXR): - The Future of Intelligence
AugmentedWorldExpo
 
Augmented Reality
Augmented RealityAugmented Reality
Augmented Reality
Saurabh Tripathi
 
Ar on Brand Communication: A Case Study of Sephora
Ar on Brand Communication: A Case Study of SephoraAr on Brand Communication: A Case Study of Sephora
Ar on Brand Communication: A Case Study of Sephora
Chutimon Sawaddichai
 
Diving Into the World of Extended Reality: AR
Diving Into the World of Extended Reality: ARDiving Into the World of Extended Reality: AR
Diving Into the World of Extended Reality: AR
Fibonalabs
 
Augmented Reality.pdf
Augmented Reality.pdfAugmented Reality.pdf
Augmented Reality.pdf
TEWMAGAZINE
 
AN EVALUATION OF THE USE OF AUDIO GUIDANCE IN AUGMENTED REALITY SYSTEMS IMPLE...
AN EVALUATION OF THE USE OF AUDIO GUIDANCE IN AUGMENTED REALITY SYSTEMS IMPLE...AN EVALUATION OF THE USE OF AUDIO GUIDANCE IN AUGMENTED REALITY SYSTEMS IMPLE...
AN EVALUATION OF THE USE OF AUDIO GUIDANCE IN AUGMENTED REALITY SYSTEMS IMPLE...
ijma
 
An Evaluation of the use of Audio Guidance in Augmented Reality Systems Imple...
An Evaluation of the use of Audio Guidance in Augmented Reality Systems Imple...An Evaluation of the use of Audio Guidance in Augmented Reality Systems Imple...
An Evaluation of the use of Audio Guidance in Augmented Reality Systems Imple...
ijma
 
Report_Maryna Razakhatskaya
Report_Maryna RazakhatskayaReport_Maryna Razakhatskaya
Report_Maryna Razakhatskaya
Marina Razakhatskaya
 
Augmented reality's uses
Augmented reality's usesAugmented reality's uses
Augmented reality's uses
EnjoyDigitAll by BNP Paribas
 
W4
W4W4
Augmentation
AugmentationAugmentation
Augmentation
Siddhika Bhogle
 
Mixede reality project report
Mixede reality project reportMixede reality project report
Mixede reality project report
sanamsanam7
 
Augmented Reality - Everything you need to know by Vaibhav Dwivedi
Augmented Reality - Everything you need to know by Vaibhav DwivediAugmented Reality - Everything you need to know by Vaibhav Dwivedi
Augmented Reality - Everything you need to know by Vaibhav Dwivedi
Vaibhav Dwivedi
 
A case study on Adstuck's Augmented Reality ventures (Amity University) by Pa...
A case study on Adstuck's Augmented Reality ventures (Amity University) by Pa...A case study on Adstuck's Augmented Reality ventures (Amity University) by Pa...
A case study on Adstuck's Augmented Reality ventures (Amity University) by Pa...
Dr Ritesh Malik
 
Virtual Reality Report
Virtual Reality ReportVirtual Reality Report
Virtual Reality Report
Rashmi Gupta
 
IRJET-Mixed Reality in Healthcare Education
IRJET-Mixed Reality in Healthcare EducationIRJET-Mixed Reality in Healthcare Education
IRJET-Mixed Reality in Healthcare Education
IRJET Journal
 
Unit 8 – Task 4 – Virtual Reality
Unit 8 – Task 4 – Virtual RealityUnit 8 – Task 4 – Virtual Reality
Unit 8 – Task 4 – Virtual Reality
Chelsie Brandrick
 

Similar to Ahmad Reza Khawar - Mid-term DI (20)

What Is Augmented Reality or AR?
What Is Augmented Reality or AR?What Is Augmented Reality or AR?
What Is Augmented Reality or AR?
 
Augment reality (a walk through) – the blend of real world and virtual world
Augment reality (a walk through) – the blend of real world and virtual worldAugment reality (a walk through) – the blend of real world and virtual world
Augment reality (a walk through) – the blend of real world and virtual world
 
XR - The Future of Intelligence
XR - The Future of IntelligenceXR - The Future of Intelligence
XR - The Future of Intelligence
 
Tish Shute (HuaweiXR): - The Future of Intelligence
Tish Shute (HuaweiXR): - The Future of IntelligenceTish Shute (HuaweiXR): - The Future of Intelligence
Tish Shute (HuaweiXR): - The Future of Intelligence
 
Augmented Reality
Augmented RealityAugmented Reality
Augmented Reality
 
Ar on Brand Communication: A Case Study of Sephora
Ar on Brand Communication: A Case Study of SephoraAr on Brand Communication: A Case Study of Sephora
Ar on Brand Communication: A Case Study of Sephora
 
Diving Into the World of Extended Reality: AR
Diving Into the World of Extended Reality: ARDiving Into the World of Extended Reality: AR
Diving Into the World of Extended Reality: AR
 
Augmented Reality.pdf
Augmented Reality.pdfAugmented Reality.pdf
Augmented Reality.pdf
 
AN EVALUATION OF THE USE OF AUDIO GUIDANCE IN AUGMENTED REALITY SYSTEMS IMPLE...
AN EVALUATION OF THE USE OF AUDIO GUIDANCE IN AUGMENTED REALITY SYSTEMS IMPLE...AN EVALUATION OF THE USE OF AUDIO GUIDANCE IN AUGMENTED REALITY SYSTEMS IMPLE...
AN EVALUATION OF THE USE OF AUDIO GUIDANCE IN AUGMENTED REALITY SYSTEMS IMPLE...
 
An Evaluation of the use of Audio Guidance in Augmented Reality Systems Imple...
An Evaluation of the use of Audio Guidance in Augmented Reality Systems Imple...An Evaluation of the use of Audio Guidance in Augmented Reality Systems Imple...
An Evaluation of the use of Audio Guidance in Augmented Reality Systems Imple...
 
Report_Maryna Razakhatskaya
Report_Maryna RazakhatskayaReport_Maryna Razakhatskaya
Report_Maryna Razakhatskaya
 
Augmented reality's uses
Augmented reality's usesAugmented reality's uses
Augmented reality's uses
 
W4
W4W4
W4
 
Augmentation
AugmentationAugmentation
Augmentation
 
Mixede reality project report
Mixede reality project reportMixede reality project report
Mixede reality project report
 
Augmented Reality - Everything you need to know by Vaibhav Dwivedi
Augmented Reality - Everything you need to know by Vaibhav DwivediAugmented Reality - Everything you need to know by Vaibhav Dwivedi
Augmented Reality - Everything you need to know by Vaibhav Dwivedi
 
A case study on Adstuck's Augmented Reality ventures (Amity University) by Pa...
A case study on Adstuck's Augmented Reality ventures (Amity University) by Pa...A case study on Adstuck's Augmented Reality ventures (Amity University) by Pa...
A case study on Adstuck's Augmented Reality ventures (Amity University) by Pa...
 
Virtual Reality Report
Virtual Reality ReportVirtual Reality Report
Virtual Reality Report
 
IRJET-Mixed Reality in Healthcare Education
IRJET-Mixed Reality in Healthcare EducationIRJET-Mixed Reality in Healthcare Education
IRJET-Mixed Reality in Healthcare Education
 
Unit 8 – Task 4 – Virtual Reality
Unit 8 – Task 4 – Virtual RealityUnit 8 – Task 4 – Virtual Reality
Unit 8 – Task 4 – Virtual Reality
 

Ahmad Reza Khawar - Mid-term DI

  • 1. Academic poster | MSc in Information System Management April 2016 Ahmad Reza Khawar | @00450058 Module: Digital innovation Augmented Reality (AR) In the context of privacy and surveillance Augmented Reality Background Augmented Reality (AR) is the technology which modifies the perception of our senses either by augmenting (adding) virtual objects or diminishing the existing to our real time view of the environment. AR was first introduced by Ivan Sutherland in 1968 who created his first head mounted display (HMD). After this many years augmented reality technology is getting improved and involved in all human life aspects e.g. medical, education, and business, military and so on. AR made data visualization easy for people who need a real-time information. For instance when we visit museums, we can easily extract information from an artifacts just by targeting it with AR technology or in education teachers are beginning to provide students with deeper and meaningful information by linking educational content with specific places and objects. Like any other technology, alongside the benefits AR brings about, there are disadvantages or negative points that the technology can produce. Individuals using augmented reality technology are excited of the features it provides, but unaware of the challenges it entails in future which includes vulnerability of privacy and others influence over private data and information. Google glass is a good example in that people were excited for their new gadget and the features it provided, but not for so long they started to reject the gadget because of the feeling that google is stealing their privacy. Glasshole was the word people invented to describe Google Glass wearers. They were thrown out of bars and banned from movie theaters because of privacy and intellectual property concerns. (Pease, 2015). Based on a report dated January 20, 2015 on CNN, people had concern that how google protect people s information with his new augmented reality gadget . According to Wassom (Wassom, 2015) on his book he illustrate privacy as emotional reaction of the people Augmented Reality positive and negative points Augmented Reality like other technology has its positive and negatives points. Following are positive and negative key points that AR can bring about to businesses and society: Key positive points - Life data visualization - Navigation - Knowledge sharing - Social media - Consumer convenience - Entertainment Key negative points - People surveillance - Intrusion to people s privacy - Disturbing ads while using AR apps - Social detachment - Misinformation - Abuse others while their information are publicly available Conclusion and recommendation Augmented Reality is a technology that dramatically impacts our life both in positive way as well as negative way. Mankind, as a complex being, faces variety of challenges and issues; AR, in its current pace, has already proven itself to be useful technology that can address some of problems faced by us. Although current progress in AR has been in limited areas of life, which has already been successful, researchers and businesses are continuously working to apply this technology in other aspects of our life to ease our daily operations. Lots of improvements and adaptations of AR and its supported devices as tools and technology are expected to be soon observed in our real life. However, the adaptation to AR will face the resistance of public complaining on their right of privacy and surveillance. Top 5 Companies involve on Augmented Reality - Google | https://developers.google.com/glass Products: google glass - Microsoft | https://www.microsoft.com/microsoft-hololens/en-us Products: Hololens - Sony | http://developer.sonymobile.com/products/smarteyeglass Products: smarteyeglass also in Sony gaming console - Sphero | http://www.sphero.com/ollie Products: different home products - Intel | http://www.intel-vci.uni-saarland.de/en/projects.html Products: different product for visualization References 1. Allison, P. R., 2015. http://www.computerweekly.com. [Online] 2. al, O. e., 2015. Visualizing Big Data with augmented and virtual reality: challenges and research agenda. Journal of Big Data , Issue big data. 3. Craig, A. B., 2013. Understanding Augmented Reality.. 1st ed. New York: ELSEVIER. 4. Furht, B., 2011. Handbook of Augmented Reality. 4 edition ed. New York: Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Florida Atlantic University . 5. Kim, M.-C., 2004. Surveillance Technology, Privacy and Social Control. Surveillance Technology, Privacy and Social Control . 6. Kotsios, A., 2015. INTRODUCTION. Privacy in an augmented reality , p. 158. 7. Lorena Nessi, P. M., 2014. http://brainblogger.com. [Online] 8. Nelson, F. & Yam , M., 2014. www.tomshardware.com. [Online] 9. O'Brien, M., 2008. Information & Communications Technology Law. Law, privacy and information technology: a sleepwalk through the surveillance society?. 10. Pease, M., 2015. CNN. [Online] 11. Wassom, B. D., 2015. Augmented Reality Law, Privacy and Ethics. 1st ed. Walthm: Elsevier Inc. 12. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-01-13/goldman-sachs-has-four-charts-showing-the-huge- potential-in-virtual-and-augmented-reality 1961/8 1975 1990 1995 2000 2004 2010 2015 Now Augmented Reality (AR) 1968 Ivan Sutherland is credited with creating the first head-mounted display (HMD) Augmented Reality (AR) 1975 Enhanced image produced by putting a computer generated display over a real-time view of one s surroundings Augmented Reality (AR) 1990 The term Augmented Reality was coined by Boeing researcher Tom Caudell. Augmented Reality (AR) 1994 AR is the first used for entertainment purposes when Julie Martin creates what is believed to be the first AR theater production, Dancing in Cyberspace Augmented Reality (AR) 1999 Naval researchers begin work on Battle-field Augmented Reality system (BARS), the original mode of early wearable system for soldiers. NASA turns to AR with the X-38 program, which would allow researchers to better understand what technologies would be needed to build inexpensive and reliable spacecraft. Augmented Reality (AR) 2004, 2009 A group of German researchers brought see-through AR cell phones 2009: ARToolkit bring AR to Web browsers Augmented Reality (AR) 2013 Car manufactures use AR to replace vehicle service manuals. Toshiba introduces a 3D augmented reality hybrid theater planning application for medical procedures. Augmented Reality (AR) 2014 wearable AR make headlines, mostly thanks to Google. Other companies like Epson, have also developed their own smart glasses. Augmented Reality (AR) Based on the on-going researches on AR it will soon appear in all aspect of our life History of Augmented Reality 1961 - Now Sensing input Transforming sensing objects Augmented/added objects Rendering the transforming objects Projection/display to the user How Augmented Reality work Sensing, processing and exhibit of AR Gaming, $11.60 Live events, $4.10 Video entertainment, $3.20 Retail, $1.60 Real estate, $2.60 Education, $0.70 Healthcare, $5.10 Engineering, $4.70 Military, $1.40 Value (billion), Software assumptions by use case in 2025 AR/VR Desktop PC, $62.00 Notebook PC, $111.00 Tablet PC, $63.00 TV, $99.00 Accelerated Uptake, $110.00 Base Case, $45.00 Game Console, $14.00 Delayed Uptake, $15.00 VALUE (BILLION), HARDWARE ASSUMPTIONS BY USE CASE IN 2025 AR/VR Source: Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research
  • 2. AUGMENTED REALITY PRIVACY AND SURVEILLANCE AHMAD REZA KHAWAR (@00450058) UNIVERSITY OF SALFORD APRIL 15, 2016
  • 3. Contents 1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................................1 2 Augmented Reality in context of privacy and surveillance...................................................................2 3 Conclusion and Recommendations.......................................................................................................3 4 References ............................................................................................................................................4
  • 4. 1 1 Introduction It has always been the end goal of technologists, researchers and companies to enhance human capabilities with technological might, we have come a long way since our first message through digital world, and today we are talking about living in a virtual world with all the amenities of our physical existence. Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) are digital “realities” of our today’s technological progress, where companies are spending huge amount of money and resources to tap into this growing market. According to Dr. Furht’s book on Augment Reality, he defines AR as “simplifying the user’s life by bringing virtual information not only to his immediate surroundings, but also to any indirect view of the real-world environment” (Furht, 2011). Or in other words we have our real-world intact, but only augmented by computer imagery or virtual information. But when our surroundings are completely changed into and replaced by a digital projection via technology, then it becomes Virtual Reality (VR). “Technology or Virtual Environment as called by Milgram, completely immerses users in a synthetic world without seeing the real world” (Furht, 2011). Researchers and companies are pursuing both concepts to bring them as mature technology to the human life. Augmented Reality (AR) is the focus of this literature review, I will illustrate the augmented reality in the context of privacy and surveillance and its impacts on business and society. Augmented Reality (AR) can be solution to many of today’s problems, it can have a broad use in our business, social and private lives, it can give us real time information for right decision making and can help us in utilizing our resources at best, and as well said in Dr. Furht, book on Augmented Reality “a real-time direct or indirect view of a physical real-world environment that has been enhanced/augmented by adding virtual computer-generated information to it” (Furht, 2011). Historically, Augmented Reality was first introduced in 1968 (Nelson & Yam, 2014) by “Ivan Sutherland” with creating the first head-mounted display (HMD) system. Sutherland described the Augmented Reality as “enhanced image produced by putting a computer generated display over a real-time view of one’s surroundings” (Nelson & Yam, 2014). However work on AR concept has been going on since 1961 but was not accepted as a functional concept. Even today researchers have difference of opinion on augmented reality; is augmented reality a technology, concept or a method? For instance Craig considers augmented reality “to be a medium, as opposed to a technology. By medium” he means “that it mediates ideas between humans and computers, humans and humans, and computers and humans” (Craig, 2013). But most other scholars considers AR as a technology, like Dr. Wassom defines AR as “a technology that gives us more to see, smell, touch, taste, or hear in the physical world than we would otherwise get through our
  • 5. 2 non-augmented facilities” (Wassom, 2015). Also according to Kotsios, he called AR as technology “AR is the technology that is trying to erase that ‘noise” (Kotsios, 2015). These different idea still continues between the different researchers. 2 Augmented Reality in context of privacy and surveillance As almost everything can be impacted by Augmented Reality, therefore it’s difficult subject to address. Major commercial entities are working on business aspects of its development, while the governments and legal institutions are trying to develop legal coverage for most of its use. The privacy and surveillance is differently defined and addressed in almost every context, it will be a challenging task to develop a universally accepted definition for privacy, and we have seen many debates and differences of opinion on the issue, and all it did, is made the subject more controversial. With Augmented Reality the debate on privacy will be there, but there should be a capacity or an option with the user to set his own privacy rules, though AR will touch every aspect of our life, but we expect that the user also develop the right skill set to use it optimally with limited impacts on privacy or any other aspects of social life, as pointed out “Augmented reality mobile systems need to be personal, meaning that the displayed information should only be viewed by others if the user allows it.” (Furht, 2011). The companies will also mobilize their resources to make their AR products user friendly as well as lesser intruding, with today’s ever increasing exposure to digital world and use of technology in almost all aspects of our lives, privacy and surveillance will be a key discussion or consideration in every upcoming technology. Just like, Google launched their Google Glass people reacted with concerns for privacy of involved individuals “third persons who are part of the environment of the device, namely persons whose image can be captured and therefore digitized by the wearable AR device, thus leading to the processing of their information” (Kotsios, 2015). As we have seen so far, usually laws or legal documentations lacks the speed on which technology is changing, so it would be safer to say that we may see many usable models of augmented reality gadget before we see compatible laws or policies on the government’s sides. In less developed or developing countries, utilizing AR where considerable ICT infrastructure as well as skilled users are required it will be an interesting endeavor to see how business and social life adopts AR and how the governments defines rules for its usage. As technologies are adopted by individual users to make their life easy, the same goes for governments where they try to utilize technology for better provision of services, sometime these better intentions causes the government to overstep their bounds and step in to private space. Although it is almost an
  • 6. 3 accepted practice that governments collects enormous amounts of data, which is sometimes used for monitoring and surveillance purposes, but in large as it’s always said, anything which goes online can be tracked and monitored, so it’s up to the user to consider these “give and takes” of using technology, and decide for him/herself. As third person in the environment where people use AR, you will never know when you will be monitored (surveillance) by people who have AR devices; Governments can always use the governing laws to monitor people for security concerns, but for private citizens or businesses where AR devices are used, it will be a challenging task to convince people that how their collected data will be used. But as we have seen with other technologies as well, we as humans arrive to a point where our definition of privacy changes, “when wearable AR devices become a mainstream technology, no one will really notice them, since people will be so used to the device.” (Kotsios, 2015) 3 Conclusion and Recommendations Augmented Reality impacts every aspect of our life, though we are complex beings and face variety of issues, but AR has proven to be useful technologies where it have address many problems faced by us. In some aspects of our lives, AR has already been proven useful. Researchers and business are continuously working to apply AR in other areas as well. According to Dr. Furht “AR can potentially apply to all senses, augmenting smell, touch and hearing as well” (Furht, 2011). We expect to see a lot of improvement and adoption of AR as technology as well as its supported devices, but as the adoption increases there will be louder calls for the rights of privacy and surveillance of it is users. Changes in general faces resist, and AR will change majority of our dealings, it may become as a normal of our living as pointed out by Kotsios in previous section, but until we adopt and provide ample infrastructure including legal and policy documents for its use, it will be a hotly debated controversial topic.
  • 7. 4 4 References 1. Allison, P. R., 2015. http://www.computerweekly.com. [Online] Available at: http://www.computerweekly.com/feature/Augmented-reality-business- applications-start-to-get-real [Accessed 18 4 2016]. 2. al, O. e., 2015. Visualizing Big Data with augmented and virtual reality: challenges and research agenda. Journal of Big Data , Issue big data. 3. Craig, A. B., 2013. Understanding Augmented Reality.. 1st ed. New York: ELSEVIER. 4. Furht, B., 2011. Handbook of Augmented Reality. 4 edition ed. New York: Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Florida Atlantic University . 5. Kim, M.-C., 2004. Surveillance Technology, Privacy and Social Control. Surveillance Technology, Privacy and Social Control . 6. Kotsios, A., 2015. INTRODUCTION. Privacy in an augmented reality , p. 158. 7. Lorena Nessi, P. M., 2014. http://brainblogger.com. [Online] Available at: http://brainblogger.com/2014/12/04/how-will-augmented-reality-change-our-lives [Accessed 16 4 2016]. 8. Nelson, F. & Yam , M., 2014. www.tomshardware.com. [Online] Available at: http://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/ar-vr-technology-discussion,3811-3.html [Accessed 16 4 2016]. 9. O'Brien, M., 2008. Information & Communications Technology Law. Law, privacy and information technology: a sleepwalk through the surveillance society?. 10. Pease, M., 2015. CNN. [Online] Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2015/01/20/opinion/pease-google-glass-what-went-wrong/ [Accessed 19 4 2016]. 11. SAWERS, P., 2012. http://thenextweb.com. [Online] Available at: http://thenextweb.com/insider/2011/07/03/augmented-reality-the-past-present- and-future/ [Accessed 16 4 2016]. 12. Wassom, B. D., 2015. Augmented Reality Law, Privacy and Ethics. 1st ed. Walthm: Elsevier Inc.
  • 8. 5 Digital innovation in the context of Digital business, Mobilebusiness and Valuechain One of the human tendency is innovate, we adapt to change and continuously work towards making life better, from the invention of first circular object to today’s information age, we as humans continuously evolve and innovate. Today digital media is part of our everyday life, every business who want to survive in today’s competitive market need to have a strong digital profile, though it is considered to be a reality but many business lacks either the intention to skill set to continuously innovate and adapt. Digital innovation doesn’t mean that a company should forsake it is core values, it’s mainly providing main services or products with the use of technology; according to many researches mobile penetration is on the rise almost every second person on the planet owns or have access to mobile phone. In this context it’s ever important that business innovate with the intention of providing their services or maintain the same value of service through usage of digital means. Today’s customer is technology savvy, they need equal value of service through digital and mobile means, it’s not a requirement anymore that a business should maintain a strong digital presence, it’s gradually becoming a survival issue which need to be considered in every business decisions. Innovating through technology should not be considered an expense, it’s an investment which can provide business very useful data of the customer choices and through utilization of value chain principles, business can leverage this data by providing customized products and services. Today’s digital technology enables businesses to pinpoint specific customer choices, and innovate service delivery, if utilized well, the overall value these innovations, digital and mobile presence bring to business can be many folds to investment they make in the infrastructure for these endeavors.