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POWER QUALITY ANALYSIS:
PROBLEMS SOLUTIONS
Faculty Name : C.Sakthivel
Designation : Asst.Professor
Year/Sem : IV/VII
Dept :EEE
INTRODUCTI
ON
 Power Quality means quality of the normal voltage
supplied to your facility.
 The growing use of microprocessors and
electronic equipments has made us to focus on power
quality .
 Equipment and machinery can be damaged or even fail
when subjected to power anomalies .
 Voltage provided should be as close as possible to
nominal voltage and waveform must be pure sine wave
free from any harmonics and other disturbances.
POWER QUALITY
PROBLEMS:
Power Quality problems can be broadly
classified into following categories.
•Voltage sags
•Micro-interruptions
•Long interruptions
•Voltage spikes
•Voltage swells
•Harmonic distortion
Voltage Sags
A decrease of the normal voltage level between 10 and 90% of the nominal
rms voltage at the power frequency, for durations of 0,5 cycle to 1 minute.
Causes:
•Faults on the transmission or distribution network.
•Faults in consumer’s installation.
•Connection of heavy loads and start-up of large motors.
Consequences:
•Malfunction of microprocessor-based control systems that may lead to a
process stoppage.
•Disconnection and loss of efficiency in electric rotating machines.
Micro-Interruptions
Total interruption of electrical supply for duration from few
milliseconds to one or two seconds.
Causes:
•Opening and automatic reclosure of protection devices.
•Insulation failure, lightning and insulator flashover.
Consequences:
•Tripping of protection devices.
•Loss of information and malfunction of data processing equipment.
•Stoppage of sensitive equipment (such as ASDs, PCs, PLCs).
Long Interruptions
 Total interruption of electrical supply for duration greater than 1 to 2 seconds.
Causes:
• Equipment failure in the power system network.
• Storms and objects (trees, cars, etc) striking lines or poles, fire.
• Human error, bad coordination or failure of protection devices.
Consequences:
• Stoppage of all equipment.
Voltage Spikes
Very fast variation of the voltage value for durations from a several
microseconds to few milliseconds.
Causes:
• Lightning.
• Switching of lines or power factor correction capacitors.
• Disconnection of heavy loads.
Consequences:
• Destruction of components and of insulation materials.
• Data processing errors or data loss.
• Electromagnetic interference.
Voltage Swells
Momentary increase of the voltage, at the power frequency, outside the
normal tolerances, with duration of more than one cycle and typically
less than a few seconds.
Causes:
•Start/stop of heavy loads.
•Poorly dimensioned power sources.
•Poorly regulated transformers.
Consequences:
•Flickering of lighting and screens.
•Damage or stoppage or damage of sensitive equipment.
Harmonic Distortion
Voltage or current waveforms assume non-sinusoidal shape. The
waveform corresponds to the sum of different sine-waves with
different magnitude and phase, having frequencies that are multiples
of power-system frequency.
Causes:
Classic sources:
electric machines working above the knee of the magnetization curve
(magnetic saturation), arc furnaces, welding machines, rectifiers, and DC
brush motors.
Modern sources:
all non-linear loads, such as power electronics equipment including
ASDs, switched mode power supplies, data processing equipment, high
efficiency lighting.
Consequences of harmonic distortion
• Increased probability of occurrence of resonance.
• Nuisance tripping of thermal protections.
• Electromagnetic interference.
• Increase in the losses.
• Loss of efficiency in electric machines (e.g. 5th harmonic).
SolutionS for PQ ProblemS
Many PQ problems have origin in T& D
network.
A proper planned and maintained grid will
avoid many PQ problems.
-High level of redundancy;
-Cleaning of insulators;
-Trimming of trees nearby power lines…
Grid Adequacy
1.Distributed Generation(DG)
2.Energy Storage (restoring technologies)
• Flywheels
• Supercapacitors
• SMES
Distributed Resources
Distributed Generation
•Used to provide “clean power” to critical loads, isolating them from disturbances
with origin in the grid.
•Backup generators to assure energy supply to critical loads during sustained
outages.
•The most common solution is the combination of electrochemical batteries UPS
and a diesel genset. At present, the integration of a flywheel and a diesel genset
in a single unit is also becoming a popular solution, offered by many
manufacturers.
Distributed Resources – Energy Storage
Systems
Restoring technologies
. Energy storage systems, also known as restoring
technologies, are used to provide the electric loads with
ride-through capability in poor PQ environment.
Flywheels
Electromechanical device that couples a rotating electric machine
(motor/generator) with a rotating mass to store energy for short
durations.
Super capacitors
New technology applied to capacitors
• High power density
• Long life and non-toxic
Superconducting Magnetic Energy
Storage (SMES)
Energy is stored in the magnetic field of a coil made of
superconductor material.
•High power density
•Very fast response
•Very expensive (on development)
Codes and Standards
Need to regulate:
•the minimum PQ level that utilities have to provide to consumers, and
•the immunity level that equipment should have.
Most relevant standards:
• CBEMA curve
• ITIC curve
• IEC 61000
• EN 50160:2001
• IEEE standards
- 519-1992 →Harmonics
- 1100-1992 →Powering and grounding sensitive equipment
- 1159-1992 →Monitoring power quality
- 1250-1995 →Service of sensitive equipment
CBEMA curve.
ITIC curve
Enhanced Interface Devices
•Using proper interface devices, one can isolate the loads from disturbances deriving from
the grid. Some of the enhanced interface devices are:
A. Dynamic Voltage Restorer
A dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) acts like a voltage source connected in series with the
load. The output voltage of the DVR is kept approximately constant voltage at the load
terminals.
B. Transient Voltage Surge suppressors (TVSS)
Transient voltage surge suppressors are used as interface between the power source and
sensitive loads, so that the transient voltage is clamped by the TVSS before it reaches the
load.
C. Noise Filters
Noise filters are used to avoid unwanted frequency current or voltage signals (noise) from
reaching sensitive equipment.
D.Static VAR Compensators
Static VAR compensators (SVR) use a combination of capacitors and reactors to regulate
the voltage quickly.
E. Harmonic Filters
Harmonic filters are used to reduce undesirable harmonics. They can be divided in
two groups:
•passive filters
•active filters.
Passive filters (left) consist in a low impedance path to the frequencies of the
harmonics to be attenuated using passive components (inductors, capacitors and
resistors).
Active filters (right) analyse the current consumed by the load and create a
current that cancel the harmonic current generated by the loads.
Make End-use Devices
Less Sensitive
• In most cases, making the end-use devices less sensitive to PQ
disturbances is more cost effective than buying equipment to
mitigate these problems.
•Some measures to increase equipment immunity:
– Add a capacitor with larger capacity to power supplies;
– Use cables with larger neutral conductors;
– Derate transformers;
Conclusions
The availability of electric power with high quality is crucial for the
running of the modern society. If some sectors are satisfied with the
quality of the power provided by utilities, some others are more
demanding.
To avoid the huge losses related to PQ problems, the most demanding
consumers must take action to prevent the problems. Among the
various measures, selection of less sensitive equipment can play an
important role. When even the most robust equipment is affected,
then other measures must be taken, such as installation of restoring
technologies, distributed generation or an interface device to avoid PQ
problems.
63-pq.ppt

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63-pq.ppt

  • 1. POWER QUALITY ANALYSIS: PROBLEMS SOLUTIONS Faculty Name : C.Sakthivel Designation : Asst.Professor Year/Sem : IV/VII Dept :EEE
  • 2. INTRODUCTI ON  Power Quality means quality of the normal voltage supplied to your facility.  The growing use of microprocessors and electronic equipments has made us to focus on power quality .  Equipment and machinery can be damaged or even fail when subjected to power anomalies .  Voltage provided should be as close as possible to nominal voltage and waveform must be pure sine wave free from any harmonics and other disturbances.
  • 3. POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS: Power Quality problems can be broadly classified into following categories. •Voltage sags •Micro-interruptions •Long interruptions •Voltage spikes •Voltage swells •Harmonic distortion
  • 4. Voltage Sags A decrease of the normal voltage level between 10 and 90% of the nominal rms voltage at the power frequency, for durations of 0,5 cycle to 1 minute. Causes: •Faults on the transmission or distribution network. •Faults in consumer’s installation. •Connection of heavy loads and start-up of large motors. Consequences: •Malfunction of microprocessor-based control systems that may lead to a process stoppage. •Disconnection and loss of efficiency in electric rotating machines.
  • 5. Micro-Interruptions Total interruption of electrical supply for duration from few milliseconds to one or two seconds. Causes: •Opening and automatic reclosure of protection devices. •Insulation failure, lightning and insulator flashover. Consequences: •Tripping of protection devices. •Loss of information and malfunction of data processing equipment. •Stoppage of sensitive equipment (such as ASDs, PCs, PLCs).
  • 6. Long Interruptions  Total interruption of electrical supply for duration greater than 1 to 2 seconds. Causes: • Equipment failure in the power system network. • Storms and objects (trees, cars, etc) striking lines or poles, fire. • Human error, bad coordination or failure of protection devices. Consequences: • Stoppage of all equipment.
  • 7. Voltage Spikes Very fast variation of the voltage value for durations from a several microseconds to few milliseconds. Causes: • Lightning. • Switching of lines or power factor correction capacitors. • Disconnection of heavy loads. Consequences: • Destruction of components and of insulation materials. • Data processing errors or data loss. • Electromagnetic interference.
  • 8. Voltage Swells Momentary increase of the voltage, at the power frequency, outside the normal tolerances, with duration of more than one cycle and typically less than a few seconds. Causes: •Start/stop of heavy loads. •Poorly dimensioned power sources. •Poorly regulated transformers. Consequences: •Flickering of lighting and screens. •Damage or stoppage or damage of sensitive equipment.
  • 9. Harmonic Distortion Voltage or current waveforms assume non-sinusoidal shape. The waveform corresponds to the sum of different sine-waves with different magnitude and phase, having frequencies that are multiples of power-system frequency. Causes: Classic sources: electric machines working above the knee of the magnetization curve (magnetic saturation), arc furnaces, welding machines, rectifiers, and DC brush motors. Modern sources: all non-linear loads, such as power electronics equipment including ASDs, switched mode power supplies, data processing equipment, high efficiency lighting.
  • 10. Consequences of harmonic distortion • Increased probability of occurrence of resonance. • Nuisance tripping of thermal protections. • Electromagnetic interference. • Increase in the losses. • Loss of efficiency in electric machines (e.g. 5th harmonic).
  • 11. SolutionS for PQ ProblemS
  • 12. Many PQ problems have origin in T& D network. A proper planned and maintained grid will avoid many PQ problems. -High level of redundancy; -Cleaning of insulators; -Trimming of trees nearby power lines… Grid Adequacy
  • 13. 1.Distributed Generation(DG) 2.Energy Storage (restoring technologies) • Flywheels • Supercapacitors • SMES Distributed Resources
  • 14. Distributed Generation •Used to provide “clean power” to critical loads, isolating them from disturbances with origin in the grid. •Backup generators to assure energy supply to critical loads during sustained outages. •The most common solution is the combination of electrochemical batteries UPS and a diesel genset. At present, the integration of a flywheel and a diesel genset in a single unit is also becoming a popular solution, offered by many manufacturers.
  • 15. Distributed Resources – Energy Storage Systems Restoring technologies . Energy storage systems, also known as restoring technologies, are used to provide the electric loads with ride-through capability in poor PQ environment.
  • 16. Flywheels Electromechanical device that couples a rotating electric machine (motor/generator) with a rotating mass to store energy for short durations.
  • 17. Super capacitors New technology applied to capacitors • High power density • Long life and non-toxic
  • 18. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) Energy is stored in the magnetic field of a coil made of superconductor material. •High power density •Very fast response •Very expensive (on development)
  • 19. Codes and Standards Need to regulate: •the minimum PQ level that utilities have to provide to consumers, and •the immunity level that equipment should have. Most relevant standards: • CBEMA curve • ITIC curve • IEC 61000 • EN 50160:2001 • IEEE standards - 519-1992 →Harmonics - 1100-1992 →Powering and grounding sensitive equipment - 1159-1992 →Monitoring power quality - 1250-1995 →Service of sensitive equipment
  • 21. Enhanced Interface Devices •Using proper interface devices, one can isolate the loads from disturbances deriving from the grid. Some of the enhanced interface devices are: A. Dynamic Voltage Restorer A dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) acts like a voltage source connected in series with the load. The output voltage of the DVR is kept approximately constant voltage at the load terminals. B. Transient Voltage Surge suppressors (TVSS) Transient voltage surge suppressors are used as interface between the power source and sensitive loads, so that the transient voltage is clamped by the TVSS before it reaches the load. C. Noise Filters Noise filters are used to avoid unwanted frequency current or voltage signals (noise) from reaching sensitive equipment. D.Static VAR Compensators Static VAR compensators (SVR) use a combination of capacitors and reactors to regulate the voltage quickly.
  • 22. E. Harmonic Filters Harmonic filters are used to reduce undesirable harmonics. They can be divided in two groups: •passive filters •active filters. Passive filters (left) consist in a low impedance path to the frequencies of the harmonics to be attenuated using passive components (inductors, capacitors and resistors). Active filters (right) analyse the current consumed by the load and create a current that cancel the harmonic current generated by the loads.
  • 23. Make End-use Devices Less Sensitive • In most cases, making the end-use devices less sensitive to PQ disturbances is more cost effective than buying equipment to mitigate these problems. •Some measures to increase equipment immunity: – Add a capacitor with larger capacity to power supplies; – Use cables with larger neutral conductors; – Derate transformers;
  • 24. Conclusions The availability of electric power with high quality is crucial for the running of the modern society. If some sectors are satisfied with the quality of the power provided by utilities, some others are more demanding. To avoid the huge losses related to PQ problems, the most demanding consumers must take action to prevent the problems. Among the various measures, selection of less sensitive equipment can play an important role. When even the most robust equipment is affected, then other measures must be taken, such as installation of restoring technologies, distributed generation or an interface device to avoid PQ problems.