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Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
1 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
2 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
UNIT-1
Perspective of Indian Economy: Indian Economy as a Developing Economy, Basic Characteristics Overview
of Economic Planning, Role of Monetary policy and Fiscal Policy, Budget terminology, Economic Growth,
GDP and GDP Trends, Money Supply & Inflation, Inflation trends, RBI – overview of role and functions,
Capital Markets – overview of role and functions, Concept of Poverty, Estimates of Poverty, Poverty Line,
Economic Reforms and Reduction of Poverty, Concept of Inclusion, Need of inclusive growth, Financial
inclusion. Concept of Hard & Soft Infrastructure. Hard Infrastructure - Transport Infrastructure, Energy
Infrastructure, Water management infrastructure, Communication Infrastructure, Solid waste
management, Earth monitoring and measuring networks. Soft Infrastructure - Governance Infrastructure,
Economic infrastructure, Social infrastructure, Critical Infrastructure, Urban infrastructure, Green
infrastructure, Education Infrastructure, Health Infrastructure
1. What is the classification of India as a developing economy, and what are the criteria
used to determine this classification?
2. What are some of the key characteristics that distinguish India as a developing
economy?
3. What are the primary sectors contributing to India's GDP, and how have they evolved
over the years?
4. Can you explain the concept of "informal economy" in the context of India's
development?
5. How has industrialization contributed to India's economic growth and development?
6. What is the role of agriculture in the Indian economy, and what challenges does the
sector face?
7. What are the key indicators used to measure economic development in India, and
how have they changed over time?
8. How has urbanization impacted India's development, and what are the challenges
associated with rapid urban growth?
9. What are some of the major economic reforms and policies that have shaped India's
development trajectory?
10. Can you discuss the role of foreign direct investment (FDI) in India's economic
development?
11. What is the significance of the "Make in India" initiative, and how does it relate to
India's manufacturing sector?
12. How has India's services sector, particularly IT and outsourcing, contributed to its
economic development?
13. What are the challenges and opportunities in the Indian labor market, including issues
related to skill development and unemployment?
14. How does income inequality impact India's development, and what measures are
being taken to address it?
15. Can you explain the concept of demographic dividend and its implications for India's
economic growth?
16. What are the major sectors driving India's exports and imports, and how does
international trade impact its economy?
17. How does the Indian government manage fiscal and monetary policies to achieve
economic stability and growth?
18. What are the key challenges facing India's infrastructure development, and how do
they affect economic growth?
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
3 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
19. How does the banking and financial sector contribute to India's economic
development, and what reforms have been introduced in this sector?
20. Can you discuss the environmental and sustainability challenges that India faces as a
developing economy?
21. What role does social infrastructure, such as education and healthcare, play in India's
development?
22. How does India address poverty alleviation and social inclusion in its development
policies?
23. Can you describe some of the initiatives aimed at promoting rural development and
inclusive growth in India?
24. What are the economic implications of India's energy policies and efforts to transition
to renewable energy sources?
25. How does India engage in international trade and economic cooperation with other
countries and organizations?
26. What is the classification of India as a developing economy, and what are the criteria
used to determine this classification?
27. What are some of the key characteristics that distinguish India as a developing
economy?
28. What are the primary sectors contributing to India's GDP, and how have they evolved
over the years?
29. Can you explain the concept of "informal economy" in the context of India's
development?
30. How has industrialization contributed to India's economic growth and development?
31. What is the role of agriculture in the Indian economy, and what challenges does the
sector face?
32. What are the key indicators used to measure economic development in India, and
how have they changed over time?
33. How has urbanization impacted India's development, and what are the challenges
associated with rapid urban growth?
34. What are some of the major economic reforms and policies that have shaped India's
development trajectory?
35. Can you discuss the role of foreign direct investment (FDI) in India's economic
development?
36. What is the significance of the "Make in India" initiative, and how does it relate to
India's manufacturing sector?
37. How has India's services sector, particularly IT and outsourcing, contributed to its
economic development?
38. What are the challenges and opportunities in the Indian labor market, including issues
related to skill development and unemployment?
39. How does income inequality impact India's development, and what measures are
being taken to address it?
40. Can you explain the concept of demographic dividend and its implications for India's
economic growth?
41. What are the major sectors driving India's exports and imports, and how does
international trade impact its economy?
42. How does the Indian government manage fiscal and monetary policies to achieve
economic stability and growth?
43. What are the key challenges facing India's infrastructure development, and how do
they affect economic growth?
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
4 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
44. How does the banking and financial sector contribute to India's economic
development, and what reforms have been introduced in this sector?
45. Can you discuss the environmental and sustainability challenges that India faces as a
developing economy?
46. What role does social infrastructure, such as education and healthcare, play in India's
development?
47. How does India address poverty alleviation and social inclusion in its development
policies?
48. Can you describe some of the initiatives aimed at promoting rural development and
inclusive growth in India?
49. What are the economic implications of India's energy policies and efforts to transition
to renewable energy sources?
50. How does India engage in international trade and economic cooperation with other
countries and organizations?
51. What is the primary objective of monetary policy in an economy, and how does it
differ from fiscal policy?
52. What are the key tools or instruments used by a central bank to implement monetary
policy?
53. How does a central bank, such as the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), influence interest
rates to achieve its policy goals?
54. Can you explain the concept of the repo rate and reverse repo rate and their role in
monetary policy?
55. How does changes in the policy rate impact commercial banks and their lending and
deposit rates?
56. What is the role of open market operations (OMOs) in controlling the money supply
and influencing interest rates?
57. How does the central bank use reserve requirements as a tool of monetary policy?
58. What are the goals of inflation targeting in monetary policy, and how is it
implemented in India?
59. How does a central bank intervene in the foreign exchange market, and what are
the implications for monetary policy?
60. Can you discuss the trade-offs and challenges faced by central banks in conducting
monetary policy, especially during times of economic crisis?
61. What is fiscal policy, and what are its main objectives in an economy?
62. How does fiscal policy differ from monetary policy in terms of its tools and authorities
responsible for implementation?
63. Can you explain the concept of government revenue sources, including taxation and
non-tax revenue, and their role in fiscal policy?
64. How do changes in government spending affect aggregate demand and economic
activity in an economy?
65. What is the fiscal deficit, and how does it relate to government borrowing and debt
management?
66. How can fiscal policy be used to address economic recessions or downturns? Provide
examples.
67. What is the crowding-out effect, and how does it influence the effectiveness of fiscal
policy?
68. How does fiscal policy impact income distribution and social welfare in a country?
69. Can you discuss the challenges associated with implementing countercyclical fiscal
policies during economic crises?
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
5 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
70. What role does fiscal policy play in promoting sustainable economic growth and
development?
71. How do monetary and fiscal policies complement each other in achieving
macroeconomic stability and growth?
72. Can you explain the concept of the "liquidity trap" and how it may influence the
effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policies?
73. How does coordination between the central bank and the government impact the
overall effectiveness of economic policies?
74. In what ways can conflicts between monetary and fiscal policies arise, and how can
they be mitigated?
75. How do monetary and fiscal policies respond to supply-side shocks, such as changes
in oil prices or natural disasters?
76. What is a budget, and why is it important for individuals and organizations?
77. Define "revenue" and "expenditure" in the context of a budget.
78. What is the primary purpose of a budget, whether for personal finance or government
finance?
79. Explain the difference between a balanced budget and a budget surplus.
80. What is a budget deficit, and how is it calculated?
81. Define "appropriation" and its role in government budgeting.
82. What does it mean for a budget to be "in the black" or "in the red"?
83. Describe the concept of a "line item" in a budget and its significance.
84. What is the difference between a "capital budget" and an "operating budget"?
85. How does the concept of "zero-based budgeting" differ from traditional budgeting
methods?
86. What are "tax revenues," and how do they contribute to government finances?
87. Explain the term "non-tax revenues" and provide examples.
88. What is an "appropriation bill," and how does it relate to government spending?
89. Define "fiscal deficit" and "revenue deficit" in the context of a government budget.
90. What is a "contingency fund," and what is its purpose in government budgeting?
91. Describe the meaning and significance of "disinvestment" in a government budget.
92. What does the term "capital expenditure" refer to in government budget terminology?
93. Explain the concept of "revenue expenditure" and provide examples.
94. What is the "consolidated fund" in government budgeting, and how is it different from
the "public account"?
95. What is the significance of the "Finance Bill" in the context of the annual budget
presentation in India?
96. What is the primary function of capital markets in the global economy?
97. Explain the difference between primary and secondary capital markets.
98. How do stock markets contribute to the financing of companies?
99. What are Initial Public Offerings (IPOs), and why are they significant in capital markets?
100.Describe the role of bond markets in raising capital for governments and
corporations.
101.What are the key differences between stocks and bonds in capital markets?
102.How do commodity markets differ from stock and bond markets?
103.What is the purpose of derivative markets, and how do they manage risk?
104.How do capital markets facilitate price discovery?
105.Why is liquidity important in capital markets, and how is it maintained?
106.How do capital markets influence economic growth and development?
107.Discuss the concept of risk transfer in capital markets. Provide an example.
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
6 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
108.What role do regulatory authorities play in capital markets, and why are regulations
necessary?
109.Explain the term "market volatility" and its impact on capital markets.
110.How can individual investors participate in capital markets, and what are the
associated risks?
111.Describe the factors that can influence the prices of financial assets in capital
markets.
112.What role do institutional investors, such as mutual funds and pension funds, play in
capital markets?
113.How can capital markets contribute to the diversification of investment portfolios?
114.Discuss the ethical considerations associated with trading in capital markets.
115.What are the potential benefits and challenges of globalization in capital markets?
116.How do currency exchange markets fit into the broader capital market ecosystem?
117.Explain the concept of "market efficiency" and its relevance to capital markets.
118.What are the main differences between traditional floor-based stock exchanges and
electronic trading platforms?
119.Describe the impact of technology and digital innovations on capital markets.
120.How do economic indicators and geopolitical events influence capital markets?
121.What is the concept of poverty, and how does it vary across different societies and
cultures?
122.Define absolute poverty and relative poverty. How do they differ?
123.Explain the multidimensional approach to measuring poverty.
124.How does poverty impact individuals and communities beyond just income and
financial aspects?
125.Discuss the cycle of poverty and its implications for breaking the poverty cycle.
126.What are the root causes of poverty, and how can they be addressed?
127.Describe the concept of the poverty trap. How does it affect individuals and families?
128.How is poverty typically measured at the national level, and what are the common
indicators used for this purpose?
129.What role do poverty surveys play in estimating poverty rates?
130.Explain the difference between absolute poverty and relative poverty thresholds in
poverty measurement.
131.How do policymakers and researchers define and measure extreme poverty?
132.Discuss the challenges and limitations associated with estimating poverty rates.
133.What is the significance of the poverty gap index in poverty assessment?
134.How do regional disparities and urban-rural differences affect poverty estimates?
135.What is a poverty line, and how is it determined by governments and international
organizations?
136.Describe the concept of a subsistence poverty line. How does it relate to basic
human needs?
137.Explain the concept of a relative poverty line. How does it take into account income
inequality?
138.How do variations in the cost of living influence the establishment of poverty lines?
139.Discuss the criticisms and controversies surrounding the use of poverty lines.
140.What are some alternative approaches to measuring poverty that do not rely solely
on fixed poverty lines?
141.How do poverty lines differ among countries with different economic and social
contexts?
142.What are the policy implications of setting and revising poverty lines?
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
7 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
143.Describe the relationship between poverty lines and social welfare programs.
144.How can poverty lines be adjusted to account for changing economic conditions
and standards of living?
145.What are economic reforms, and why are they implemented by governments?
146.Discuss the different types of economic reforms, such as market-oriented reforms and
structural reforms.
147.How do economic reforms aim to improve economic performance and growth?
148.Provide examples of countries that have successfully implemented economic
reforms to spur economic growth.
149.Explain the role of liberalization in economic reforms. What are the key components
of liberalization?
150.What is privatization, and how can it be a part of economic reform programs?
151.Describe the role of deregulation in economic reforms and its impact on various
sectors.
152.How do fiscal reforms, such as tax policy changes and public expenditure
management, contribute to economic development?
153.Explain the relationship between economic growth and poverty reduction. How are
they interconnected?
154.Discuss the potential positive and negative effects of economic reforms on poverty
reduction.
155.How can trade liberalization and globalization contribute to poverty reduction in
developing countries?
156.Describe the impact of labor market reforms on employment opportunities and
poverty levels.
157.How do financial sector reforms, such as access to credit and microfinance, affect
poverty alleviation efforts?
158.Discuss the importance of education and healthcare reforms in reducing poverty
and improving human capital.
159.Explain how targeted social safety net programs can complement economic reforms
in addressing poverty.
160.Provide examples of countries that have successfully combined economic reforms
with poverty reduction strategies.
161.What are some of the challenges and risks associated with implementing economic
reforms in developing countries?
162.Discuss the potential inequality and distributional consequences of economic
reforms.
163.How can political factors influence the success or failure of economic reform
programs aimed at reducing poverty?
164.Describe the role of international organizations and donors in supporting economic
reforms in developing nations.
165.What are some common criticisms of economic reforms in the context of poverty
reduction?
166.Explain the concept of "inclusive growth" and how it relates to poverty reduction
through economic reforms.
167.What does the term "inclusion" mean in a societal context?
168.Explain the difference between inclusion and exclusion.
169.How does the concept of inclusion relate to diversity and equal opportunity?
170.What are the key dimensions of inclusion, and why are they important?
171.Provide examples of policies or practices that promote social inclusion.
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
8 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
172.Define inclusive growth. Why is it considered essential for sustainable development?
173.How does inclusive growth differ from traditional economic growth?
174.What are the potential consequences of growth that is not inclusive?
175.Explain the link between income inequality and the need for inclusive growth.
176.How can inclusive growth benefit both individuals and society as a whole?
177.Define financial inclusion. What does it mean to be financially excluded?
178.Why is financial inclusion a crucial component of inclusive growth?
179.Provide examples of financial services that are typically included in financial inclusion
efforts.
180.What are the barriers that hinder financial inclusion in many societies?
181.How does digital technology contribute to improving financial inclusion?
182.Describe the role of microfinance in promoting financial inclusion.
183.Discuss the importance of access to credit and savings for financial inclusion.
184.How do financial literacy and education programs support financial inclusion?
185.What role do governments and regulatory bodies play in advancing financial
inclusion?
186.Share examples of countries or regions that have made significant progress in
achieving financial inclusion.
187.What are some common challenges faced in achieving financial inclusion?
188.Explain how income levels and geographic location can affect access to financial
services.
189.How can public-private partnerships contribute to expanding financial inclusion?
190.Describe the concept of "last-mile" financial services and its importance in rural areas.
191.What strategies can be employed to reach marginalized and underserved
populations with financial inclusion initiatives?
192.Discuss the potential economic and social benefits of increasing financial inclusion.
193.How does financial inclusion contribute to poverty reduction and economic
development?
194.Provide examples of how access to financial services can empower individuals and
communities.
195.Explain the relationship between financial inclusion and entrepreneurship.
196.Share case studies or success stories that illustrate the positive impact of financial
inclusion on people's lives.
197.What is hard infrastructure, and how does it differ from soft infrastructure?
198.Provide examples of hard infrastructure in urban and rural settings.
199.How does hard infrastructure contribute to economic development and quality of
life?
200.Explain the role of governments in planning, funding, and maintaining hard
infrastructure.
201.Discuss the long-term planning considerations for hard infrastructure projects.
202.What are the environmental and sustainability challenges associated with hard
infrastructure development?
203.How does hard infrastructure impact transportation, energy, and communication
systems?
204.Define soft infrastructure and its importance in supporting a functioning society.
205.Give examples of soft infrastructure elements that facilitate economic activities.
206.How does soft infrastructure differ from social infrastructure?
207.Explain the role of education and healthcare in soft infrastructure.
208.Describe how regulatory frameworks and legal systems are part of soft infrastructure.
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
9 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
209.What is the relationship between soft infrastructure and human capital
development?
210.How can investments in soft infrastructure improve the overall well-being of a
population?
211.Discuss the role of information technology and digital infrastructure in soft
infrastructure.
212.How do hard and soft infrastructure interact and complement each other in
economic development?
213.Provide examples of how a well-developed legal system (soft infrastructure) can
support foreign investment in physical infrastructure (hard infrastructure).
214.Explain how advancements in technology (soft infrastructure) influence the design
and efficiency of transportation systems (hard infrastructure).
215.What challenges can arise when there is a mismatch between hard and soft
infrastructure development?
216.How can governments and policymakers strike a balance between investing in hard
and soft infrastructure for optimal societal benefits?
217.Discuss the factors that influence decisions on allocating resources between hard
and soft infrastructure projects.
218.What criteria should be considered when prioritizing infrastructure investments?
219.How can public-private partnerships (PPPs) be utilized to fund both hard and soft
infrastructure projects?
220.Describe the role of risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis in infrastructure
planning.
221.Explain how infrastructure investment can impact a country's competitiveness on a
global scale.
222.What are the sustainability challenges associated with both hard and soft
infrastructure?
223.How can green and sustainable practices be integrated into infrastructure
development?
224.Discuss emerging trends in infrastructure development, including smart cities and
digital governance.
225.How might climate change affect the planning and design of future infrastructure
projects?
226.What is the role of innovation and research in shaping the future of hard and soft
infrastructure?
227.What is transport infrastructure, and why is it essential for economic development?
228.Describe the components of a comprehensive transport infrastructure system.
229.How does investment in transport infrastructure impact job creation and economic
growth?
230.Provide examples of different modes of transport infrastructure (e.g., roads, railways,
airports, ports).
231.Discuss the challenges of maintaining and upgrading existing transport infrastructure.
232.Explain the concept of multimodal transportation and its advantages.
233.How does transport infrastructure contribute to urban planning and development?
234.Define energy infrastructure and its role in providing power to communities.
235.Give examples of various energy infrastructure components (e.g., power plants, grids,
pipelines).
236.How does the reliability of energy infrastructure affect industrial and residential users?
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
10 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
237.Discuss the challenges of transitioning to more sustainable and renewable energy
infrastructure.
238.Explain the concept of a smart grid and its benefits for energy management.
239.How do energy infrastructure projects impact the environment, and what mitigation
measures can be taken?
240.Describe the relationship between energy infrastructure and energy security.
241.What is water management infrastructure, and why is it critical for water supply and
sanitation?
242.Provide examples of water management infrastructure (e.g., dams, reservoirs, water
treatment plants).
243.How does water infrastructure play a role in flood control and irrigation?
244.Discuss the challenges of managing water infrastructure in the face of climate
change.
245.Explain the importance of wastewater treatment in water management
infrastructure.
246.How can sustainable practices be incorporated into water infrastructure projects?
247.Describe the role of international cooperation in trans boundary water management.
248.Define communication infrastructure and its significance in the digital age.
249.Give examples of communication infrastructure elements (e.g., fiber-optic networks,
cell towers).
250.How does communication infrastructure contribute to connectivity and information
access?
251.Discuss the challenges of bridging the digital divide through communication
infrastructure.
252.Explain the concept of 5G technology and its potential impacts on communication
infrastructure.
253.What are the security considerations related to critical communication
infrastructure?
254.Describe the role of satellite networks in global communication infrastructure.
255.What is solid waste management infrastructure, and why is proper waste disposal
important?
256.Provide examples of solid waste management infrastructure components (e.g.,
landfills, recycling centers).
257.How do sustainable waste management practices reduce environmental impacts?
258.Discuss the challenges of managing electronic waste (e-waste) in modern society.
259.Explain the concept of waste-to-energy facilities and their role in waste
management.
260.Describe community-based waste management initiatives and their benefits.
261.How can public awareness and education contribute to effective solid waste
management?
262.Define earth monitoring and measuring networks and their role in scientific research.
263.Give examples of instruments and technologies used in earth monitoring networks.
264.How do monitoring networks contribute to disaster early warning systems?
265.Discuss the challenges of maintaining and expanding global climate monitoring
networks.
266.Explain the importance of space-based earth observation systems in monitoring
environmental changes.
267.Describe how earth monitoring networks support natural resource management.
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
11 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
268.What are the ethical and privacy considerations related to earth monitoring and
data collection?
269.What is governance infrastructure, and how does it contribute to effective
governance?
270.Explain the role of legal and regulatory frameworks in governance infrastructure.
271.How does digital governance infrastructure enhance transparency and
accountability in government operations?
272.Discuss the importance of political stability and rule of law in governance
infrastructure.
273.Provide examples of government agencies and institutions that are part of
governance infrastructure.
274.What challenges can arise when there is a lack of strong governance infrastructure?
275.Define economic infrastructure and its significance in supporting economic activities.
276.Give examples of economic infrastructure elements (e.g., financial institutions,
transportation networks).
277.How does economic infrastructure influence a country's competitiveness in the
global economy?
278.Discuss the role of investment in economic infrastructure in promoting job creation.
279.Explain the concept of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in financing economic
infrastructure projects.
280.Describe the role of special economic zones (SEZs) in economic infrastructure
development.
281.What is social infrastructure, and how does it contribute to the well-being of a
society?
282.Provide examples of social infrastructure components (e.g., healthcare facilities,
schools, community centers).
283.How does access to social infrastructure services impact the quality of life for
individuals and communities?
284.Discuss the challenges of providing equitable access to social infrastructure in urban
and rural areas.
285.Explain the relationship between social infrastructure and human capital
development.
286.Describe the role of NGOs and civil society organizations in supporting social
infrastructure.
287.Define critical infrastructure and its role in maintaining national security and public
safety.
288.Give examples of critical infrastructure sectors (e.g., energy, transportation, water
supply).
289.How do cyber threats and physical vulnerabilities impact critical infrastructure?
290.Discuss the importance of resilience and disaster preparedness in critical
infrastructure protection.
291.Explain the role of government agencies and regulations in safeguarding critical
infrastructure.
292.What are the potential consequences of a failure or disruption in critical
infrastructure?
293.What is urban infrastructure, and why is it crucial in managing urbanization?
294.Provide examples of urban infrastructure components (e.g., roads, public
transportation, sanitation systems).
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
12 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
295.How does urban infrastructure planning contribute to sustainable urban
development?
296.Discuss the challenges of addressing infrastructure needs in rapidly growing urban
areas.
297.Explain the concept of smart cities and the integration of technology in urban
infrastructure.
298.Describe the role of green and sustainable practices in urban infrastructure
development.
299.Define green infrastructure and its role in environmental conservation and urban
planning.
300.Give examples of green infrastructure elements (e.g., parks, green roofs, permeable
pavements).
301.How does green infrastructure contribute to climate resilience and biodiversity
conservation?
302.Discuss the economic benefits of investing in green infrastructure.
303.Explain the concept of ecosystem services and their relationship with green
infrastructure.
304.What are the challenges of retrofitting existing urban areas with green infrastructure?
305.What is education infrastructure, and why is it essential for quality education?
306.Provide examples of education infrastructure components (e.g., schools, libraries,
digital resources).
307.How does access to education infrastructure impact student learning outcomes?
308.Discuss the challenges of ensuring equitable access to education infrastructure in
underserved regions.
309.Explain the role of teachers and educators in maintaining and utilizing education
infrastructure.
310.Describe the relationship between education infrastructure and lifelong learning.
311.Define health infrastructure and its role in providing healthcare services.
312.Give examples of health infrastructure elements (e.g., hospitals, clinics, medical
equipment).
313.How does access to healthcare infrastructure influence public health outcomes?
314.Discuss the challenges of providing healthcare infrastructure in rural and remote
areas.
315.Explain the importance of healthcare workforce and training in utilizing health
infrastructure.
316.Describe the role of telemedicine and digital health in modern healthcare
infrastructure.
Unit-II
Human Resources and Economic Development : The Theory of Demographic Transition, Size
and Growth RateofPopulationinIndia, QuantitativePopulation Growth Differentials in Different
Countries, The Sex Composition of Population, Age Composition of Population, Density of
Population, Urbanization and Economic Growth in India, The Quality of Population, Population
Projections (2001-2026), Demographic Dividend. Human Development in India
- The Concept and Measures of Human Development, Human development Index for Various States in India,
National Human Development Report, Changing profile of GDP and employment in India, GDP, Employment
and Productivity per Worker in India, Relative Shift in the Shares of NSDP and Employment in Agriculture,
Industry and Services in Different States.
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
13 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
317.What is the Theory of Demographic Transition?
318.Outline the four stages of the Demographic Transition Model.
319.Explain the key characteristics of each stage in the Demographic Transition Model.
320.Identify and discuss the factors that contribute to the transition from one stage to
another in the Demographic Transition Model.
321.How do economic factors influence demographic transitions?
322.Describe how population pyramids can be used to illustrate the stages of
demographic transition.
323.Analyze a population pyramid and determine the stage of demographic transition it
represents.
324.Compare and contrast the demographic transition experiences of developed and
developing countries.
325.Discuss regional variations in the progress of demographic transition.
326.What are some criticisms of the Demographic Transition Model?
327.Discuss any limitations in applying the Demographic Transition Model to all countries.
328.Choose a specific country and analyze its demographic transition over the past
century.
329.How has the demographic transition impacted the social and economic
development of a particular region or country?
330.Predict the future demographic trends for a specific country based on its current
position in the Demographic Transition Model.
331.Discuss the potential challenges and opportunities associated with the ongoing
demographic transition in various regions.
332.Explore how government policies can influence the pace and nature of
demographic transition.
333.Provide examples of successful or unsuccessful policies aimed at managing
demographic transitions.
334.Explain the relationship between demographic transition and health outcomes.
335.Discuss the role of education in shaping demographic transition.
336.Analyze the environmental implications of different stages in the Demographic
Transition Model.
337.Discuss how population growth patterns impact natural resources and the
environment.
338.What is the current estimated population of India?
339.How does India's population size compare to other countries?
340.Discuss the factors contributing to the large population size in India.
341.What is the current population growth rate in India?
342.Compare the population growth rate of India to global trends.
343.Explain the significance of understanding population growth rates for policymaking.
344.In which stage of the demographic transition model is India currently positioned?
345.How has India's demographic transition changed over the past few decades?
346.Discuss the implications of India's demographic transition for its economic
development.
347.Explore the relationship between urbanization and population growth in India.
348.Analyze the challenges and opportunities posed by rapid urbanization in the context
of population growth.
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
14 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
349.Examine the population policies implemented by the Indian government to control
population growth.
350.Evaluate the effectiveness of past and current population control measures in India.
351.Discuss regional variations in population size and growth rates within India.
352.How do factors such as education, healthcare, and economic development
contribute to regional variations in population dynamics?
353.Analyze the age structure of the Indian population.
354.What are the implications of India's age structure for social and economic policies?
355.Discuss the issue of gender imbalance in India and its impact on population
dynamics.
356.How do cultural and social factors contribute to gender-based demographic
challenges?
357.Project the potential population size and growth rate of India in the next few
decades.
358.What are the key factors that could influence future population trends in India?
359.Compare the population dynamics of India with those of other countries in the region
or with similar economic characteristics.
360.How do global population trends impact India, and how does India contribute to
global demographic patterns?
361.Compare and contrast the population growth rates of two or more countries.
362.What factors contribute to the variations in population growth rates among different
countries?
363.Analyze how the demographic transition model explains population growth
differentials in various countries.
364.Explore how countries at different stages of the demographic transition model
experience distinct population growth patterns.
365.Investigate the role of economic factors in influencing population growth
differentials.
366.How do disparities in income, employment opportunities, and economic
development contribute to population growth variations?
367.Discuss how social and cultural factors impact population growth in different
countries.
368.Provide examples of cultural practices that either contribute to or inhibit population
growth.
369.Examine the role of government policies in shaping population growth differentials.
370.How do family planning programs, healthcare policies, and other government
interventions affect population growth in specific countries?
371.Explore the relationship between urbanization, migration, and population growth.
372.How do patterns of rural-to-urban migration influence population dynamics in
different countries?
373.Analyze the correlation between healthcare quality, life expectancy, and
population growth.
374.How do differences in healthcare infrastructure contribute to population growth
differentials?
375.Discuss the connection between education levels, especially women's education,
and fertility rates.
376.How does education contribute to variations in population growth among countries?
377.Explore population growth differentials within regions of a country.
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
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378.Discuss how regional disparities in development and resources impact population
growth.
379.Investigate how environmental factors, such as climate and resource availability,
influence population growth.
380.Discuss how countries with different environmental conditions experience varied
population growth patterns.
381.Compare the population growth differentials of developed and developing
countries.
382.How do the population dynamics of emerging economies differ from those of
established industrialized nations?
383.Project future population growth differentials for selected countries based on current
trends and factors.
384.What are the potential consequences of these projections for global demographics?
385.
386.Define the sex ratio of a population.
387.Explain how the sex ratio is calculated.
388.Why is the sex ratio an important demographic indicator?
389.Compare the sex ratios of different countries.
390.Discuss any regional variations in sex ratios and their potential causes.
391.Explore the factors that influence the sex ratio of a population.
392.How do cultural, social, and economic factors contribute to variations in sex ratios?
393.Analyze age-specific sex ratios within a population.
394.Discuss the significance of age-specific sex ratios in understanding population
dynamics.
395.Explain the concept of sex-selective practices and its impact on sex ratios at birth.
396.How do cultural norms and technological advances contribute to sex-selective
practices?
397.Discuss the relationship between gender equality and the sex composition of a
population.
398.How do policies promoting gender equality influence sex ratios?
399.Investigate the correlation between urbanization and sex ratios.
400.Discuss how migration patterns and urban development impact the sex composition
of urban populations.
401.Explore the connection between healthcare access, disease prevalence, and the
sex ratio.
402.How do health disparities between genders influence sex ratios?
403.Discuss the social, economic, and psychological consequences of imbalanced sex
ratios.
404.How does an imbalanced sex ratio affect marriage patterns and family structures?
405.Examine government policies aimed at addressing imbalanced sex ratios.
406.How effective are these policies in promoting a balanced sex composition in the
population?
407.Analyze historical trends in the sex composition of populations.
408.How have social and cultural changes over time influenced sex ratios?
409.Explore how the sex ratio changes in aging populations.
410.Discuss the implications of an imbalanced sex ratio in older age groups.
411.Discuss how the sex composition of a population is related to different stages of the
demographic transition model.
412.How does the sex ratio change as a society transitions through demographic stages?
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
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413.Define age structure in the context of population demographics.
414.Why is understanding the age composition of a population important for
policymakers?
415.Analyze the age distribution patterns in developed and developing countries.
416.How does the age composition vary across different regions of the world?
417.Explain how population pyramids visually represent the age composition of a
population.
418.Interpret a population pyramid and identify key features related to age distribution.
419.Define dependency ratios and explain how they are calculated.
420.Discuss the significance of dependency ratios in assessing the economic burden on
a population.
421.Define the concept of a youth bulge in the age composition of a population.
422.Discuss the potential social and economic implications of a youth bulge.
423.Discuss the characteristics of an aging population.
424.How do factors such as increased life expectancy contribute to population aging?
425.Analyze the impacts of an aging population on healthcare, social services, and the
labor market.
426.Discuss potential challenges and opportunities associated with population aging.
427.Explore government policies implemented to address the challenges of an aging
population.
428.How effective are policies aimed at promoting active aging and addressing the
needs of older populations?
429.Examine the relationship between youth demographics and employment
opportunities.
430.How do age demographics influence youth unemployment rates?
431.Discuss how age composition influences migration patterns, especially among the
youth.
432.Explore the impact of youth migration on both origin and destination countries.
433.Analyze how the age composition of a population contributes to social cohesion.
434.Discuss the role of intergenerational relationships in maintaining social harmony.
435.Investigate the connection between urbanization and the age composition of urban
populations.
436.How does the age structure differ between rural and urban areas?
437.Discuss how the age composition of a population relates to environmental
sustainability.
438.Explore the potential environmental consequences of specific age demographics.
439.Project the potential changes in the age composition of a specific population based
on current demographic trends.
440.What are the implications of these projections for social and economic planning?
441.Define population density.
442.Explain how population density is calculated.
443.Why is population density an important measure in demography?
444.Compare the population densities of different countries.
445.Discuss regional variations in population density and their causes.
446.Explore the factors that influence population density.
447.How do physical geography, climate, and topography affect population density?
448.Compare the population density of urban and rural areas.
449.Discuss the factors that contribute to higher population density in urban settings.
450.Identify and analyze examples of high-density cities around the world.
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
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451.Discuss the challenges and advantages associated with high population density in
urban areas.
452.Explore regions with low population density.
453.Discuss the factors that contribute to low population density in certain areas.
454.Analyze the environmental impact of high population density.
455.Discuss how densely populated areas may face unique environmental challenges.
456.Discuss the relationship between population density and infrastructure development.
457.How does population density influence the demand for services like transportation,
housing, and utilities?
458.Examine government policies that address population density concerns.
459.Discuss the effectiveness of policies aimed at managing population density.
460.Analyze historical changes in population density in specific regions.
461.How have technological advancements and societal changes influenced
population density over time?
462.Discuss the relationship between population density and the quality of life.
463.Explore how high or low population density may impact the well-being of residents.
464.Analyze how migration patterns contribute to changes in population density.
465.Discuss the impact of both international and internal migration on population density.
466.Explore the relationship between population density and economic development.
467.Discuss how population density may be a factor in the economic growth or decline
of a region.
468.Project potential changes in population density for specific regions based on current
demographic trends.
469.Discuss the implications of these projections for urban planning and resource
management.
470.Define urbanization and economic growth.
471.Explain how urbanization and economic growth are measured in the context of
India.
472.Discuss the historical trends of urbanization in India.
473.Analyze the current state of urbanization and the pace of urban growth in India.
474.Identify key economic indicators used to measure economic growth in India.
475.How do factors such as GDP, employment rates, and industrial output reflect
economic growth?
476.Discuss the role of cities in driving economic development in India.
477.How do urban areas contribute to national economic growth?
478.Explore the relationship between urbanization and infrastructure development in
India.
479.Discuss the impact of infrastructure projects on economic growth.
480.Analyze the link between urbanization and employment opportunities in India.
481.How does urbanization contribute to changes in the labor market?
482.Identify and discuss the challenges associated with rapid urbanization in India.
483.How do issues like inadequate housing, transportation, and sanitation affect
economic growth?
484.Explain the Smart Cities initiative in India.
485.Evaluate the effectiveness of this initiative in promoting sustainable urbanization and
economic growth.
486.Discuss the impact of rural-urban migration on both urbanization and economic
growth.
487.Analyze the factors driving migration from rural to urban areas.
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
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488.Explore the significance of the informal sector in urban economies.
489.Discuss how informal economic activities contribute to or hinder overall economic
growth.
490.Discuss the role of urban planning in fostering economic growth.
491.How do well-planned cities contribute to the economic development of a region?
492.Analyze the environmental consequences of rapid urbanization in India.
493.Discuss how sustainable urban development practices can mitigate environmental
challenges.
494.Examine government policies aimed at managing urbanization and promoting
economic growth.
495.Evaluate the effectiveness of these policies in achieving their objectives.
496.Discuss the concept of inclusive urbanization.
497.How can urbanization in India be made more inclusive to ensure equitable economic
growth?
498.Compare the urbanization and economic growth patterns of India with other
countries.
499.What lessons can be learned from successful urbanization experiences in other
nations?
500.Define the concept of the quality of population.
501.What factors contribute to determining the quality of a population?
502.Discuss how health indicators, such as life expectancy and disease prevalence,
contribute to the overall quality of a population.
503.How do healthcare infrastructure and access affect the quality of population health?
504.Explore the relationship between education levels, literacy rates, and the quality of
population.
505.How does education contribute to the intellectual and economic quality of a
population?
506.Discuss how the economic productivity and skills of a population impact its quality.
507.Explore the role of vocational training and higher education in enhancing economic
quality.
508.Analyze the impact of nutrition and food security on the quality of a population.
509.How do issues like malnutrition and food disparities affect overall population quality?
510.Discuss the role of social cohesion and inclusivity in determining the quality of a
population.
511.How do social disparities impact the overall well-being of a population?
512.Analyze the importance of gender equality in assessing the quality of a population.
513.Discuss the implications of gender disparities on the overall quality of life.
514.Explore how demographic structure and dependency ratios influence the quality of
population.
515.Discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with changing demographic
patterns.
516.Discuss the role of environmental awareness and sustainability practices in
determining the quality of a population.
517.How does the population's impact on the environment affect its overall quality?
518.Analyze the role of mental health in determining the quality of a population.
519.Discuss the factors that contribute to mental well-being and resilience in a
population.
520.Examine government policies that aim to improve the quality of a population.
521.Discuss the effectiveness of these policies in achieving their goals.
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
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522.Discuss how the quality of population contributes to global health and development.
523.How can international cooperation enhance the quality of populations worldwide?
524.Explore the significance of technological literacy in determining the quality of a
population.
525.How does access to technology impact educational and economic opportunities?
526.Compare the quality of populations in different countries or regions.
527.How do cultural, economic, and social factors contribute to variations in population
quality?
528.Project potential future trends in the quality of population based on current
demographic and social indicators.
529.Discuss the implications of these projections for global well-being.
530.What are population projections, and why are they important for demographers and
policymakers?
531.Explain the methods commonly used for making population projections.
532.Discuss the data sources used for population projections from 2001 to 2026.
533.How accurate are population projections, and what factors can influence their
accuracy?
534.Analyze global and regional population trends from 2001 to 2026.
535.Discuss any significant shifts in population distribution during this period.
536.Identify and discuss the key factors influencing population growth during the
specified period.
537.How do factors such as fertility rates, mortality rates, and migration contribute to
population changes?
538.Break down the population projections into age-specific categories.
539.Analyze how different age groups are expected to change over the projection
period.
540.Explore how urbanization is projected to change from 2001 to 2026.
541.Discuss the implications of urbanization on population distribution and social
dynamics.
542.Analyze projected migration patterns during the specified period.
543.How might international and internal migration impact population changes in various
regions?
544.Discuss the economic implications of population projections.
545.How might changes in population size and structure affect labor markets and
economic development?
546.Analyze how improvements in healthcare and increased longevity are reflected in
population projections.
547.Discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with an aging population.
548.Explore potential policy responses to the population projections.
549.How can governments and organizations prepare for the demographic changes
anticipated from 2001 to 2026?
550.Break down population projections by gender.
551.Discuss any gender-specific trends or disparities projected during this period.
552.Analyze the projected changes in the education levels of the population.
553.Discuss how workforce composition is expected to change and its implications for
the economy.
554.Discuss the potential environmental impact of population projections.
555.How might changes in population size and behavior affect resource consumption
and environmental sustainability?
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
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556.Explore regional disparities in population projections.
557.Discuss the factors contributing to variations in population growth across different
regions.
558.Compare the population projections of different countries or regions.
559.What are the factors that contribute to variations in population trends among
different areas?
560.What is the demographic dividend?
561.Explain the concept of a demographic transition and its relationship to the
demographic dividend.
562.What factors contribute to the emergence of a demographic dividend?
563.How does the demographic dividend impact a country's economic growth?
564.Provide examples of countries that have successfully harnessed the demographic
dividend for economic development.
565.What are the potential challenges or risks associated with the demographic
dividend?
566.Outline specific policies that governments can implement to maximize the benefits
of the demographic dividend.
567.How can investments in education and skill development contribute to capitalizing
on the demographic dividend?
568.Discuss the role of gender equality in optimizing the demographic dividend.
569.How does the demographic dividend vary across different regions of the world?
570.Can the demographic dividend be a double-edged sword? Discuss both positive
and negative aspects.
571.What are the implications of the demographic dividend for global migration
patterns?
572.How do social and cultural factors influence the realization of the demographic
dividend?
573.Discuss the relationship between family planning and the demographic dividend.
574.What role does urbanization play in the demographic dividend?
575.How might advancements in technology impact the demographic dividend in the
future?
576.Consider the aging population in some developed countries. How does this affect
the demographic dividend?
577.Discuss potential changes in global demographics and their implications for the
demographic dividend.
578. Analyze a specific country's experience with the demographic dividend,
highlighting key policies and outcomes.
579.Compare and contrast the demographic dividend experiences of two or more
countries.
580.Examine the role of the private sector in leveraging the demographic dividend.
581.What is human capital, and how does it contribute to economic development?
582.Explain the difference between physical capital and human capital in economic
growth.
583.How does education impact a country's economic development?
584.Describe the concept of the demographic dividend and its significance for
economic growth.
585.Discuss the role of skills development and vocational training in enhancing human
capital.
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
21 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
586.What is the size and composition of the labor force, and why is it important for
economic development?
587.Explain the impact of labor force participation rates on economic growth.
588.Discuss the challenges of underemployment and informal labor markets in
developing countries.
589.How does unemployment affect both individuals and the overall economy?
590.Describe the role of labor mobility and migration in economic development.
591.What policies and investments can governments make to improve human capital
development?
592.Explain the significance of access to quality healthcare in human capital
development.
593.How do social safety nets and poverty reduction programs impact human capital?
594.Discuss the role of early childhood education in shaping future human capital.
595.Describe the challenges and opportunities of investing in gender equality and
women's empowerment for economic development.
596.How does a skilled and educated workforce contribute to innovation and
technological advancement?
597.Explain the concept of a knowledge-based economy and its relationship with human
resources.
598.Discuss the role of research and development in harnessing human capital for
economic growth.
599.Provide examples of countries that have leveraged their human capital to become
leaders in technology and innovation.
600.What are the economic consequences of inadequate investments in human capital
development?
601.Describe the impact of health crises, such as pandemics, on human capital and
economic development.
602.How does conflict and political instability affect human capital and economic
growth?
603.Discuss the relationship between income inequality and human capital
development.
604.Explain how globalization affects the demand for skilled labor and human capital in
developing countries.
605.Discuss the role of international migration and remittances in human resources and
economic development.
606.What challenges do countries face in retaining and repatriating skilled workers who
have emigrated for better opportunities?
607.How can human capital development be aligned with the principles of sustainable
development?
608.Describe the relationship between environmental education and sustainable
economic development.
609.Discuss the challenges of balancing economic growth and environmental
sustainability in human resources development.
610.What are some emerging trends and challenges in human resources and economic
development in the 21st century?
611.How can artificial intelligence and automation impact the future of the labor force
and human capital development?
612.Explain the concept of "gig economy" and its implications for labor and economic
development.
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
22 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
613.What is the Human Development Index (HDI)?
614.Explain the three dimensions of human development that the HDI measures.
615.How does HDI differ from traditional measures of economic development?
616.Discuss the components used to calculate the HDI for a region or country.
617.How is the HDI score interpreted in terms of human development levels?
618.Can you explain any recent changes or updates in the methodology used to
calculate HDI?
619.Analyze the regional disparities in HDI across various states in India.
620.Identify states with high HDI scores and discuss the factors contributing to their higher
human development levels.
621.What are some of the challenges faced by states with lower HDI scores?
622.Discuss the role of education in determining the HDI of a state.
623.How does healthcare infrastructure impact the health component of HDI?
624.Explore the relationship between income levels and the standard of living
component of HDI.
625.Describe specific government policies that have positively influenced the HDI of a
particular state.
626.Discuss the role of social welfare programs in improving human development
outcomes.
627.Evaluate the effectiveness of state-level initiatives in addressing regional disparities in
HDI.
628.Compare the HDI of two or more states and analyze the factors contributing to the
differences.
629.Examine how urban and rural disparities within a state affect its overall HDI.
630.Compare the HDI of Indian states with those of other countries in the region.
631.Identify common challenges faced by states in improving their HDI.
632.Discuss the potential opportunities for states to enhance their human development
outcomes.
633.How can addressing gender disparities contribute to improvements in HDI?
634.Predict how ongoing demographic changes may impact the HDI of specific states.
635.Discuss potential future challenges and opportunities for improving human
development in India.
636.Explore the role of technology and innovation in influencing HDI trends.
637.What is the National Human Development Report (NHDR)?
638.Explain the purpose and significance of NHDR in the context of a country's
development.
639.How often is the NHDR typically published, and what factors influence its thematic
focus?
640.Discuss a specific NHDR and its thematic focus. What are the key issues addressed?
641.How does the choice of themes in NHDRs reflect the current development priorities
of a country?
642.Explore how NHDRs contribute to policy formulation and decision-making.
643.Describe the data sources and methodology used in the preparation of NHDRs.
644.How is the Human Development Index (HDI) or other relevant indices calculated and
interpreted in NHDRs?
645.Discuss any recent changes or improvements in the data collection and analysis
process.
646.Analyze how NHDRs address regional disparities in human development within a
country.
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
23 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
647.Provide examples of specific regions highlighted in NHDRs for their development
challenges or successes.
648.How can NHDRs contribute to the reduction of regional inequalities?
649.Summarize the policy recommendations provided in a recent NHDR.
650.Discuss the feasibility and implementation challenges of the recommendations.
651.How have governments responded to NHDR recommendations in the past?
652.Explore how NHDRs address issues of inclusivity and equity, particularly with regard to
vulnerable or marginalized groups.
653.Discuss the role of NHDRs in promoting social justice and reducing discrimination.
654.Provide examples of policies or initiatives recommended in NHDRs to address
inclusivity.
655.Compare the NHDR of a specific country with those of other countries in the region
or globally.
656.Discuss how global trends and challenges are reflected in NHDRs.
657.Explore the role of international collaboration in shaping the content of NHDRs.
658.Discuss the role of community engagement and stakeholder participation in the
preparation of NHDRs.
659.How can NHDRs effectively communicate complex development issues to a broader
audience?
660.Provide examples of successful community-driven initiatives mentioned in NHDRs.
661.How do NHDRs align with and contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs)?
662.Discuss any specific SDGs that are prominently featured in recent NHDRs.
663.Explore the challenges and opportunities in integrating NHDRs with SDG monitoring
and reporting.
664.Predict future trends and challenges that NHDRs might address in the coming years.
665.Discuss how emerging issues, such as climate change or technological
advancements, could be incorporated into future NHDRs.
666.Explore potential improvements in the NHDR process to make it more dynamic and
responsive to evolving development needs.
667.What is the current state of India's GDP and employment landscape?
668.How has the profile of GDP and employment changed over the past decade?
669.What are the key sectors contributing to GDP and employment in India?
670.Discuss the structural changes in the Indian economy in terms of the share of
agriculture, industry, and services in GDP.
671.How have technological advancements influenced the structural transformation of
the economy?
672.Analyze the role of government policies in shaping the structural changes in GDP and
employment.
673.Provide a sector-wise breakdown of GDP and employment trends in India.
674.How has the service sector evolved over time, and what impact has it had on overall
economic growth and employment?
675.Discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with the agriculture sector in
terms of GDP and employment.
676.Analyze the dichotomy between informal and formal employment in India.
677.What are the reasons behind the prevalence of informal employment, and how does
it impact economic growth?
678.Discuss policy measures to formalize the informal sector for better economic
outcomes.
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
24 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
679.How does the changing nature of industries impact the skill requirements for
employment?
680.Discuss government initiatives to enhance skill development and their effectiveness.
681.Explore the role of education in preparing the workforce for emerging industries.
682.Analyze the relationship between urbanization and changes in employment
patterns.
683.Discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with rural-to-urban migration in
the context of employment.
684.How does urbanization contribute to the GDP profile of the country?
685.Explore the impact of globalization on India's GDP and employment.
686.Discuss how trade policies have influenced the country's economic growth and job
creation.
687.Analyze the challenges and benefits of integrating into the global economy.
688.Discuss gender disparities in the Indian workforce and their implications for GDP.
689.Explore initiatives aimed at promoting gender equality in employment.
690.How can closing the gender gap contribute to overall economic growth?
691.Analyze the influence of technology on the nature of employment in India.
692.Discuss the challenges posed by automation and digitization to traditional job
sectors.
693.Explore policies to address the impact of technological advancements on
employment.
694.Summarize recent policy interventions aimed at influencing the GDP and
employment profile.
695.Discuss the effectiveness of government programs in promoting inclusive growth.
696.What further policy measures can be implemented to address existing challenges?
697.Define GDP, employment, and productivity per worker.
698.Explain the interconnection between GDP, employment, and productivity in the
context of economic development.
699.How do changes in productivity impact GDP and employment levels?
700.Provide an overview of the recent trends in India's GDP growth.
701.Discuss the factors influencing GDP growth in the country.
702.How does the GDP growth rate in India compare to global trends?
703.Analyze the current state of employment in India, considering both formal and
informal sectors.
704.Explore the distribution of employment across various sectors and regions.
705.Discuss the impact of demographic factors on employment trends.
706.Define and explain productivity per worker.
707.Analyze the productivity levels in different sectors of the Indian economy.
708.Discuss the factors influencing variations in productivity per worker.
709.Provide a sector-wise breakdown of GDP contributions in India.
710.Discuss the employment patterns and productivity variations across sectors.
711.How can sectors with low productivity levels be improved?
712.Discuss the role of government policies in influencing GDP growth.
713.Analyze specific policy measures aimed at promoting economic growth.
714.How do fiscal and monetary policies impact GDP and employment?
715.Explore the dynamics of the labor market in India, considering factors such as wage
levels, job security, and skill requirements.
716.Discuss the impact of labor market conditions on productivity.
717.How can the labor market be more effectively aligned with economic growth goals?
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
25 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
718.Analyze the influence of technology on productivity in the Indian workforce.
719.Discuss the role of innovation in driving productivity improvements.
720.Explore potential challenges associated with technological advancements and
productivity.
721.Discuss the impact of globalization on employment patterns in India.
722.Analyze how international trade influences both GDP and employment.
723.Explore the role of global value chains in shaping productivity in different sectors.
724.Discuss the concept of inclusive growth in the context of GDP, employment, and
productivity.
725.Explore policies that can promote inclusive growth in India.
726.How can addressing income inequality contribute to both higher GDP and improved
productivity?
727.Analyze how economic shocks, such as the global financial crisis or the COVID-19
pandemic, have affected India's GDP, employment, and productivity.
728.Discuss the resilience of the Indian economy in the face of external shocks.
729.Explore policy responses to mitigate the impact of economic shocks on GDP and
employment.
730.Predict future trends in GDP growth, employment patterns, and productivity in India.
731.Discuss potential challenges that could hinder economic development.
732.Explore strategies to overcome challenges and foster sustainable growth.
733.Define Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) and explain its significance in economic
analysis.
734.Discuss the importance of the agricultural sector in terms of employment in the
context of NSDP.
735.How does the relative shift in NSDP and employment in agriculture reflect economic
development?
736.Provide an overview of recent trends in NSDP growth in your selected region.
737.Analyze the changes in employment patterns in the agricultural sector over the past
decade.
738.How are NSDP and agricultural employment correlated in your region?
739.Discuss the factors that contribute to a relative shift in the shares of NSDP and
agricultural employment.
740.Explore the impact of technological advancements, policy changes, and
globalization on this shift.
741.How do demographic changes influence the dynamics of NSDP and agricultural
employment?
742.Explain the concept of structural transformation in the context of economic
development.
743.Discuss how the relative shift in NSDP and agricultural employment is indicative of
structural changes.
744.Provide examples of countries or regions that have undergone successful structural
transformation.
745.Analyze the role of government policies in influencing the relative shares of NSDP and
agricultural employment.
746.Discuss specific interventions aimed at promoting agricultural growth or
diversification.
747.How can government policies balance the need for economic growth with ensuring
employment opportunities in agriculture?
748.Explore the impact of the relative shift on the livelihoods of rural populations.
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26 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
749.Discuss challenges faced by individuals dependent on agriculture as the sector
undergoes changes.
750.Analyze the role of non-farm activities in supplementing rural incomes.
751.Discuss the environmental implications of the relative shift, especially in terms of land
use and resource utilization in agriculture.
752.Explore sustainable practices and policies that can be integrated into the shift.
753.How can the relative shift contribute to or mitigate environmental challenges?
754.Compare the relative shift in NSDP and agricultural employment in your selected
region with other regions or countries.
755.Discuss lessons that can be learned from successful cases of balancing economic
growth and agricultural employment.
756.Explore the influence of global trends on the relative shares.
757.Analyze the role of technological advancements in agriculture and their impact on
productivity.
758.Discuss how increased productivity in agriculture influences the relative shares of
NSDP and employment.
759.Explore potential challenges associated with technological changes in agriculture.
760.Discuss the implications of the relative shift on income inequality in rural areas.
761.Analyze social consequences, such as migration patterns and changes in social
structures, resulting from the shift.
762.How can policies address social challenges associated with the changing shares?
763.Discuss the resilience of the economy to external shocks, such as global economic
downturns or climate-related events.
764.Explore the role of agricultural diversification in building resilience.
765.How can policies enhance the adaptive capacity of the agricultural sector?
766.Predict future scenarios for the relative shares of NSDP and agricultural employment
in your selected region.
767.Discuss potential challenges and opportunities that may arise in the coming years.
768.Explore policy measures to ensure a balanced and sustainable shift.
769.Define the industry and services sectors in the context of economic activities.
770.Why is the distribution of industry and services across states important for
understanding regional economic development?
771.Discuss the role of industry and services in contributing to a state's Gross State
Domestic Product (GSDP).
772.Analyze the disparities in the distribution of industry and services among different
states in a country.
773.Discuss the factors that contribute to regional variations in industrial and service
sector development.
774.How do regional disparities impact overall economic growth and development?
775.Provide an overview of the key industries dominating the economy in a selected
state.
776.Discuss the growth and contribution of the services sector, including IT, finance,
healthcare, etc.
777.Explore how the composition of key industries varies across states.
778.Analyze the role of government policies in promoting industrial growth in a specific
state.
779.Discuss the impact of state-level policies on attracting investments and fostering
industrial development.
780.How do government initiatives differ among states in supporting industries?
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
27 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
781.Evaluate the investment climate in different states for industries and services.
782.Discuss factors that attract or deter investors in specific regions.
783.How can states improve their investment climate to boost industrial and service
sector growth?
784.Analyze the employment generation potential of the industry and services sectors in
a selected state.
785.Discuss the types of jobs created and their impact on the local workforce.
786.Explore initiatives that states have implemented to enhance employment
opportunities.
787.Discuss the relationship between urbanization, infrastructure development, and the
growth of industry and services.
788.Analyze how well-developed infrastructure attracts businesses and contributes to
economic development.
789.Explore challenges and opportunities associated with urbanization in different states.
790.Select two or more states and conduct a comparative case study on their industrial
and services sector development.
791.Analyze the factors that have contributed to the success or challenges faced by
each state.
792.What lessons can be learned from the case studies to inform policies in other states?
793.Discuss how globalization has influenced the industrial and services sectors in different
states.
794.Analyze the role of international trade in shaping the economic landscape of
specific regions.
795.Explore how states navigate challenges and leverage opportunities in the global
market.
796.Explore how states encourage innovation and technology adoption in their industrial
and services sectors.
797.Discuss the impact of technological advancements on the competitiveness of
industries.
798.How do states foster an environment conducive to research and development?
799.Discuss the environmental implications of industrial and services sector activities in
different states.
800.Explore state-level policies aimed at promoting sustainable practices.
801.How can states balance economic growth with environmental conservation?
802.Predict future prospects for the industry and services sectors in specific states.
803.Discuss potential challenges that states might face in sustaining growth.
804.Explore strategies for states to remain competitive and resilient in the evolving
economic landscape.
Unit-III
Sectoral composition of Indian Economy: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Sectors, Issues in Agriculture
sector in India ,land reforms, Green Revolution and agriculture policies of India , Industrial development
, small scale and cottage industries, Industrial Policy, Public sector in India, Services sector in India. Areas
of Market Failure and Need for State Intervention, Redefining the Role of the State, Liberalization,
Privatization and Globalization (LPG) Model of Development, Planning commission v/s NITI Aayog,
Public Versus Private Sector Debate, Unorganised Sector and India's Informal Economy
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
28 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
805.What is the contribution of agriculture to India's GDP?
806.Name the major crops grown in different regions of India.
807.Discuss the challenges faced by Indian farmers in the agricultural sector.
808.Explain the significance of the manufacturing sector in India.
809.How has industrialization impacted the economic development of India?
810.Discuss the role of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Indian industrial sector.
811.What is the contribution of the services sector to India's GDP?
812.Explain the growth of the IT and software services industry in India.
813.Discuss the challenges and opportunities in the service sector.
814.What is the role of the quaternary sector in the Indian economy?
815.Discuss the importance of research and development in India's economic growth.
816.How has the digital revolution impacted the quaternary sector in India?
817.Explain the role of the government in the Indian economy.
818.Discuss the importance of public sector enterprises in India.
819.What measures can the government take to promote economic growth?
820.How has globalization impacted the sectoral composition of the Indian economy?
821.Discuss the role of foreign direct investment (FDI) in shaping India's economic sectors.
822.What are the challenges and benefits of India's integration into the global economy?
823.Discuss the impact of economic reforms on the different sectors of the Indian
economy.
824.How have policies like Make in India and Digital India influenced industrial and
service sectors?
825.Evaluate the effectiveness of recent government policies in promoting inclusive
growth.
826.What are the primary reasons behind the distress faced by Indian farmers?
827.Discuss the role of indebtedness in the agrarian crisis in India.
828.How do factors like crop failures and market fluctuations contribute to farmers'
distress?
829.Explain the concept of land fragmentation in the context of Indian agriculture.
830.What challenges does land fragmentation pose for Indian farmers, and how does it
impact agricultural productivity?
831.Discuss the issue of water scarcity in Indian agriculture.
832.How can improved irrigation practices address water-related challenges in
agriculture?
833.Explain the challenges faced by farmers in accessing markets for their produce.
834.How do price fluctuations affect the income of farmers in India?
835.What is the role of technology in modernizing Indian agriculture?
836.Discuss the challenges and benefits of technology adoption by Indian farmers.
837.Evaluate the effectiveness of government policies in supporting the agriculture
sector.
838.Discuss the impact of subsidies and loan waiver programs on the agriculture
economy.
839.Why is crop diversification important for sustainable agriculture?
840.What challenges do farmers face in adopting crop diversification practices in India?
841.How does climate change pose a threat to agriculture in India?
842.Discuss adaptive strategies that farmers can employ to mitigate the impact of
climate change.
843.Explore the link between rural distress and rural-urban migration.
844.What measures can be taken to address the issue of migration from rural areas?
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
29 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
845.Discuss the potential benefits and challenges of promoting organic farming in India.
846.How can sustainable agriculture practices contribute to the long-term viability of the
sector?
847.What is the concept of land reform, and why is it essential for agricultural
development?
848.Discuss the historical context that led to the initiation of land reforms in India.
849.Explain the zamindari system and its impact on rural landownership.
850.Discuss the measures taken to abolish the zamindari system in India.
851.What are tenancy reforms, and why are they crucial for agrarian transformation?
852.Discuss the provisions of tenancy reforms aimed at protecting the rights of tenants.
853.Explain the concept of land ceiling and its objectives in the context of agrarian
reforms.
854.Discuss the impact of land ceiling laws on land distribution and agricultural
productivity.
855.How was land redistributed during the implementation of land reforms in India?
856.Evaluate the success and challenges of land redistribution programs.
857.Discuss the concept of community land and its significance in land reforms.
858.How can the protection of common property resources contribute to sustainable
agriculture?
859.Identify and discuss the challenges faced in the effective implementation of land
reforms.
860.How have political and administrative factors influenced the success of land reform
programs?
861.Evaluate the impact of land reforms on the rural economy in India.
862.Discuss how changes in landownership patterns have influenced agricultural
productivity and rural livelihoods.
863.Explain the importance of maintaining accurate land records in the context of land
reforms.
864.Discuss the role of technology in improving land titling and registration processes.
865.Assess the contemporary relevance of land reforms in the context of evolving
agricultural practices and rural development.
866.What new challenges and opportunities exist in the present-day scenario that
warrant attention in land reform policies?
867.Define the Green Revolution and its objectives in the context of Indian agriculture.
868.What were the main driving forces behind the initiation of the Green Revolution in
India?
869.Discuss the key components of the Green Revolution, including technological
advancements and high-yielding crop varieties.
870.How did the introduction of modern agricultural practices contribute to increased
productivity during the Green Revolution?
871.Evaluate the impact of the Green Revolution on major crops such as wheat and rice.
872.Discuss the role of irrigation and fertilizers in enhancing crop yields during the Green
Revolution.
873.Analyze the regional disparities in the adoption and impact of the Green Revolution
in India.
874.What factors contributed to the uneven spread of the Green Revolution across
different states?
875.Discuss the social and economic impacts of the Green Revolution on farmers and
rural communities.
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
30 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
876.How did changes in agricultural practices influence the livelihoods of farmers?
877.Explore the relationship between land reforms and the development of agriculture in
India.
878.How have land reform policies influenced landownership patterns and productivity?
879.Discuss the impact of liberalization and globalization on Indian agriculture.
880.How have trade policies and market reforms affected farmers and agricultural
production?
881.Outline the key features of recent national agriculture policies in India.
882.Evaluate the effectiveness of these policies in addressing contemporary challenges
in agriculture.
883.Discuss the importance of crop diversification and sustainable agriculture in current
agricultural policies.
884.How can policies promote environmentally sustainable farming practices?
885.Explore the role of technology adoption and innovation in recent agriculture policies.
886.How can policies encourage the use of modern technologies while addressing
concerns about their equitable distribution?
887.Discuss the various welfare programs and initiatives aimed at improving the
livelihoods of farmers.
888.Evaluate the effectiveness of these programs in addressing the challenges faced by
farmers.
889.Discuss the role of industrialization in promoting economic growth.
890.How does industrial development contribute to job creation and poverty reduction?
891.Identify and explain the key factors that influence industrialization in a country.
892.Discuss the relationship between infrastructure development and industrial growth.
893.Trace the historical evolution of industries in India from the pre-independence era to
the present day.
894.Discuss the impact of economic policies on industrial development in different
decades.
895.Highlight the importance of SMEs in industrial development.
896.Discuss the challenges faced by SMEs in India and potential solutions.
897.Explain the role of FDI in promoting industrial growth.
898.Discuss the impact of liberalization on FDI in the industrial sector.
899.Discuss the significance of technological advancements in industrial development.
900.How has Industry 4.0 influenced manufacturing and production processes?
901.Explore the concept of sustainable industrial development.
902.Discuss the measures industries can take to minimize their environmental impact.
903.Analyze the role of government policies in shaping industrial development.
904.Discuss specific policies that have had a significant impact on industrial growth in
India.
905.Discuss how globalization has influenced industrialization on a global scale.
906.Explore the challenges and opportunities for industries in the era of globalization.
907.Explain the concept of industrial clusters and their role in regional development.
908.Discuss the advantages and challenges associated with the concentration of
industries in specific regions.
909.Explore the impact of digitalization and e-commerce on traditional industries.
910.How can industries leverage digital technologies for enhanced competitiveness?
911.Discuss the importance of skill development for the industrial workforce.
912.How can industries address the skill gap and ensure a skilled workforce?
913.Define small-scale and cottage industries and outline their key characteristics.
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
31 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
914.Discuss the distinguishing features that differentiate them from large-scale industries.
915.Explain the role of small-scale and cottage industries in the economic development
of a country.
916.How do these industries contribute to employment generation and income
distribution?
917.Identify and discuss the challenges faced by small-scale industries in terms of finance,
technology, and marketing.
918.How can government policies address these challenges?
919.Outline the various initiatives and support mechanisms provided by the government
to promote small-scale and cottage industries.
920.Evaluate the effectiveness of these policies in fostering the growth of such industries.
921.Discuss the importance of technological upgradation for small-scale and cottage
industries.
922.How can these industries adapt to emerging technologies to enhance productivity?
923.Explore the role of entrepreneurship in the success of small-scale and cottage
industries.
924.Discuss the challenges and opportunities for individuals starting small-scale ventures.
925.Explain the concept of cluster development in the context of small-scale industries.
926.How can networking among small-scale industries enhance their competitiveness?
927.Discuss the challenges small-scale industries face in accessing markets and
competing globally.
928.What strategies can be employed to promote the export of products from small-
scale industries?
929.Evaluate the availability of credit facilities for small-scale and cottage industries.
930.Discuss the importance of financial inclusion in supporting these industries.
931.Explore how small-scale and cottage industries can adopt environmentally
sustainable practices.
932.Discuss the role of eco-friendly initiatives in enhancing the competitiveness of these
industries.
933.Highlight success stories of small-scale and cottage industries in different sectors.
934.Analyze the factors that contributed to their success.
935.Discuss emerging trends and innovations in small-scale and cottage industries.
936.How can these industries stay competitive in the face of technological
advancements?
937.Define industrial policy and its significance in the economic development of a
country.
938.Discuss the objectives of formulating industrial policies.
939.Trace the historical evolution of industrial policies in India from the pre-independence
era to the present day.
940.Highlight key policy changes and their impact on industrial development.
941.Discuss the shift from a controlled economy to a liberalized economy in the context
of industrial policy.
942.Evaluate the impact of economic reforms on industrial growth in India.
943.Explain the role of public sector enterprises in industrial policy.
944.Discuss the rationale behind privatization and its impact on the industrial sector.
945.Outline the FDI policies and regulations governing the industrial sector in India.
946.Discuss the impact of FDI on industrialization and economic growth.
947.Discuss the role of industrial policy in promoting exports and international trade.
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
32 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
948.Evaluate the effectiveness of trade policies in enhancing the competitiveness of
Indian industries.
949.Explore the measures taken by industrial policies to promote technology and
innovation.
950.Discuss the importance of research and development in industrial growth.
951.Analyze the provisions in industrial policies aimed at supporting the growth of SMEs.
952.Discuss challenges faced by SMEs and how policies address them.
953.Discuss the incorporation of environmental and social responsibility in industrial
policies.
954.How can policies balance economic development with sustainability?
955.Explain how industrial policies contribute to creating an ease of doing business
environment.
956.Discuss the role of regulatory frameworks in shaping industrial practices.
957.Discuss how industrial policies address regional imbalances through the promotion of
industrial clusters.
958.Evaluate the impact of such policies on regional development.
959.Explore how industrial policies adapt to the challenges and opportunities presented
by globalization.
960.Discuss the role of industrial policies in integrating domestic industries into the global
economy.
961.What is the structure of governance in the Indian public sector?
962.Explain the role of the President, Prime Minister, and Council of Ministers in public
administration.
963.How is the administrative machinery organized at the central and state levels in
India?
964.Discuss the constitutional provisions related to the public sector in India.
965.Explain the concept of federalism and its impact on the functioning of the public
sector.
966.Provide an overview of the major PSUs in India and their role in the economy.
967.Discuss the challenges faced by PSUs in terms of efficiency, competition, and
financial performance.
968.Analyze the role of public policy in shaping the development of the public sector.
969.How does public policy influence the growth and functioning of government
institutions?
970.Explain the budgetary process in the Indian public sector.
971.Discuss the challenges and reforms needed in public financial management.
972.Assess the impact of corruption on the efficiency of public sector organizations.
973.Discuss measures to enhance transparency and accountability in the public sector.
974.Evaluate the role of PPP in infrastructure development in India.
975.Discuss the challenges and benefits associated with PPP projects in the country.
976.Describe the structure and functioning of Panchayati Raj institutions in India.
977.Analyze the importance of local governance in promoting inclusive development.
978.Discuss the role of the public sector in implementing social welfare programs.
979.Evaluate the effectiveness of major social welfare schemes in India.
980.Explain the concept of e-governance and its significance in the Indian context.
981.Discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with the implementation of e-
governance initiatives.
982.What is the significance of the services sector in the Indian economy?
983.Identify and explain the major components of the services sector.
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
33 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
984.Discuss the growth and impact of the IT and IT-enabled services industry in India.
985.What factors have contributed to India's success in the global IT outsourcing market?
986.Analyze the role of tourism in the services sector.
987.Discuss the challenges and opportunities for the tourism industry in India.
988.Examine the role of banking and financial services in the Indian economy.
989.Discuss recent reforms and trends in the financial services sector.
990.Assess the state of healthcare services in India.
991.Discuss the challenges and initiatives in the healthcare sector.
992.Describe the landscape of education services in India.
993.Discuss the role of education in the overall development of the services sector.
994.Analyze the growth and impact of the telecommunications sector in India.
995.Discuss the role of technology in shaping the telecommunications industry.
996.Explain the significance of transportation and logistics in the services sector.
997.Discuss challenges and improvements needed in the transportation and logistics
infrastructure.
998.Highlight key government initiatives to promote the services sector.
999.Assess the effectiveness of policies in encouraging the growth of specific service
industries.
1000. Discuss the evolution and impact of e-commerce in the services sector.
1001. Analyze the challenges and opportunities for digital services in India.
1002. Explain the importance of skill development for the services sector.
1003. Discuss initiatives and programs aimed at enhancing skills in service-related
industries.
1004. Analyze the impact of globalization on the Indian services sector.
1005. Discuss strategies for Indian service industries to compete globally.
1006. Define market failure and provide examples of situations where markets fail to
allocate resources efficiently.
1007. How do externalities contribute to market failure? Provide examples.
1008. Explain the characteristics of public goods.
1009. Why do public goods tend to be underprovided in a purely market-driven
economy?
1010. Define positive and negative externalities.
1011. Provide examples of policies or interventions that address externalities.
1012. Discuss the concept of information asymmetry.
1013. How does information asymmetry lead to market failure, and what role can the
government play in addressing it?
1014. What are incomplete markets, and how can they lead to inefficiencies?
1015. Provide examples of situations where incomplete markets may fail to allocate
resources optimally.
1016. Explain how monopoly power can lead to market failure.
1017. Discuss the role of antitrust laws and regulatory bodies in addressing monopolistic
practices.
1018. How does income inequality relate to market failure?
1019. Discuss potential government interventions to address issues of income inequality.
1020. Define merit and demerit goods and explain how their consumption may lead to
market failure.
1021. Discuss the role of taxes and subsidies in addressing the consumption of merit and
demerit goods.
1022. How can markets fail to adequately provide for public health and safety?
Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy
34 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
1023. Provide examples of government regulations aimed at ensuring public health and
safety.
1024. Discuss the environmental challenges arising from market failures.
1025. How can environmental externalities be addressed through government policies?
1026. Explain how market mechanisms may fail to address cyclical unemployment.
1027. Discuss fiscal and monetary policies that governments can implement to address
cyclical unemployment.
1028. How can global markets experience failure, and what role can international
cooperation play in addressing these failures?
1029. Provide examples of global market failures and potential solutions.
1030. Discuss the need for consumer protection in markets.
1031. Explain the role of government agencies in ensuring consumer rights and safety.
1032. Define the traditional roles of the state in governance and economics.
1033. What does it mean to redefine the role of the state, and why is it necessary in
contemporary times?
1034. Discuss the arguments in favor of a reduced role for the state in economic affairs.
1035. How do market-oriented approaches propose to address societal issues
traditionally handled by the state?
1036. Explain the concept of PPPs in redefining the role of the state.
1037. Provide examples of successful PPP initiatives and their impact on governance.
1038. Discuss the benefits and challenges of privatization as a means to redefine the role
of the state.
1039. How can privatization be implemented without compromising public interests?
1040. How can the state redefine its role in ensuring social welfare and inclusivity?
1041. Discuss policy measures that promote both economic growth and social equity.
1042. Explain the role of the state in establishing and enforcing regulatory frameworks.
1043. Discuss the challenges of balancing regulatory oversight with promoting business
and economic growth.
1044. How can the state foster innovation and technological development in the
economy?
1045. Discuss the balance between regulatory control and fostering innovation.
1046. Discuss the role of the state in addressing environmental challenges.
1047. How can environmental sustainability be integrated into the state's policy
framework?
1048. How does globalization impact the role of the state in economic governance?
1049. Discuss the importance of international cooperation in redefining the state's role in
a globalized world.
1050. How can the state adopt a more responsive and citizen-centric approach in
governance?
1051. Discuss the use of technology in enhancing government responsiveness.
1052. Discuss the role of fiscal policies in shaping the state's economic role.
1053. How can fiscal policies be designed to achieve both economic stability and social
objectives?
1054. In times of economic crises, how should the state redefine its role for effective crisis
management?
1055. Discuss examples of successful state interventions during economic downturns.
1056. How can the state support and promote entrepreneurship in the economy?
1057. Discuss policy measures that encourage innovation and small business growth.
108 INDIAN ECONOMYUnitwise QuestionBank.pdf
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  • 1. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 1 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati
  • 2. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 2 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati UNIT-1 Perspective of Indian Economy: Indian Economy as a Developing Economy, Basic Characteristics Overview of Economic Planning, Role of Monetary policy and Fiscal Policy, Budget terminology, Economic Growth, GDP and GDP Trends, Money Supply & Inflation, Inflation trends, RBI – overview of role and functions, Capital Markets – overview of role and functions, Concept of Poverty, Estimates of Poverty, Poverty Line, Economic Reforms and Reduction of Poverty, Concept of Inclusion, Need of inclusive growth, Financial inclusion. Concept of Hard & Soft Infrastructure. Hard Infrastructure - Transport Infrastructure, Energy Infrastructure, Water management infrastructure, Communication Infrastructure, Solid waste management, Earth monitoring and measuring networks. Soft Infrastructure - Governance Infrastructure, Economic infrastructure, Social infrastructure, Critical Infrastructure, Urban infrastructure, Green infrastructure, Education Infrastructure, Health Infrastructure 1. What is the classification of India as a developing economy, and what are the criteria used to determine this classification? 2. What are some of the key characteristics that distinguish India as a developing economy? 3. What are the primary sectors contributing to India's GDP, and how have they evolved over the years? 4. Can you explain the concept of "informal economy" in the context of India's development? 5. How has industrialization contributed to India's economic growth and development? 6. What is the role of agriculture in the Indian economy, and what challenges does the sector face? 7. What are the key indicators used to measure economic development in India, and how have they changed over time? 8. How has urbanization impacted India's development, and what are the challenges associated with rapid urban growth? 9. What are some of the major economic reforms and policies that have shaped India's development trajectory? 10. Can you discuss the role of foreign direct investment (FDI) in India's economic development? 11. What is the significance of the "Make in India" initiative, and how does it relate to India's manufacturing sector? 12. How has India's services sector, particularly IT and outsourcing, contributed to its economic development? 13. What are the challenges and opportunities in the Indian labor market, including issues related to skill development and unemployment? 14. How does income inequality impact India's development, and what measures are being taken to address it? 15. Can you explain the concept of demographic dividend and its implications for India's economic growth? 16. What are the major sectors driving India's exports and imports, and how does international trade impact its economy? 17. How does the Indian government manage fiscal and monetary policies to achieve economic stability and growth? 18. What are the key challenges facing India's infrastructure development, and how do they affect economic growth?
  • 3. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 3 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 19. How does the banking and financial sector contribute to India's economic development, and what reforms have been introduced in this sector? 20. Can you discuss the environmental and sustainability challenges that India faces as a developing economy? 21. What role does social infrastructure, such as education and healthcare, play in India's development? 22. How does India address poverty alleviation and social inclusion in its development policies? 23. Can you describe some of the initiatives aimed at promoting rural development and inclusive growth in India? 24. What are the economic implications of India's energy policies and efforts to transition to renewable energy sources? 25. How does India engage in international trade and economic cooperation with other countries and organizations? 26. What is the classification of India as a developing economy, and what are the criteria used to determine this classification? 27. What are some of the key characteristics that distinguish India as a developing economy? 28. What are the primary sectors contributing to India's GDP, and how have they evolved over the years? 29. Can you explain the concept of "informal economy" in the context of India's development? 30. How has industrialization contributed to India's economic growth and development? 31. What is the role of agriculture in the Indian economy, and what challenges does the sector face? 32. What are the key indicators used to measure economic development in India, and how have they changed over time? 33. How has urbanization impacted India's development, and what are the challenges associated with rapid urban growth? 34. What are some of the major economic reforms and policies that have shaped India's development trajectory? 35. Can you discuss the role of foreign direct investment (FDI) in India's economic development? 36. What is the significance of the "Make in India" initiative, and how does it relate to India's manufacturing sector? 37. How has India's services sector, particularly IT and outsourcing, contributed to its economic development? 38. What are the challenges and opportunities in the Indian labor market, including issues related to skill development and unemployment? 39. How does income inequality impact India's development, and what measures are being taken to address it? 40. Can you explain the concept of demographic dividend and its implications for India's economic growth? 41. What are the major sectors driving India's exports and imports, and how does international trade impact its economy? 42. How does the Indian government manage fiscal and monetary policies to achieve economic stability and growth? 43. What are the key challenges facing India's infrastructure development, and how do they affect economic growth?
  • 4. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 4 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 44. How does the banking and financial sector contribute to India's economic development, and what reforms have been introduced in this sector? 45. Can you discuss the environmental and sustainability challenges that India faces as a developing economy? 46. What role does social infrastructure, such as education and healthcare, play in India's development? 47. How does India address poverty alleviation and social inclusion in its development policies? 48. Can you describe some of the initiatives aimed at promoting rural development and inclusive growth in India? 49. What are the economic implications of India's energy policies and efforts to transition to renewable energy sources? 50. How does India engage in international trade and economic cooperation with other countries and organizations? 51. What is the primary objective of monetary policy in an economy, and how does it differ from fiscal policy? 52. What are the key tools or instruments used by a central bank to implement monetary policy? 53. How does a central bank, such as the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), influence interest rates to achieve its policy goals? 54. Can you explain the concept of the repo rate and reverse repo rate and their role in monetary policy? 55. How does changes in the policy rate impact commercial banks and their lending and deposit rates? 56. What is the role of open market operations (OMOs) in controlling the money supply and influencing interest rates? 57. How does the central bank use reserve requirements as a tool of monetary policy? 58. What are the goals of inflation targeting in monetary policy, and how is it implemented in India? 59. How does a central bank intervene in the foreign exchange market, and what are the implications for monetary policy? 60. Can you discuss the trade-offs and challenges faced by central banks in conducting monetary policy, especially during times of economic crisis? 61. What is fiscal policy, and what are its main objectives in an economy? 62. How does fiscal policy differ from monetary policy in terms of its tools and authorities responsible for implementation? 63. Can you explain the concept of government revenue sources, including taxation and non-tax revenue, and their role in fiscal policy? 64. How do changes in government spending affect aggregate demand and economic activity in an economy? 65. What is the fiscal deficit, and how does it relate to government borrowing and debt management? 66. How can fiscal policy be used to address economic recessions or downturns? Provide examples. 67. What is the crowding-out effect, and how does it influence the effectiveness of fiscal policy? 68. How does fiscal policy impact income distribution and social welfare in a country? 69. Can you discuss the challenges associated with implementing countercyclical fiscal policies during economic crises?
  • 5. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 5 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 70. What role does fiscal policy play in promoting sustainable economic growth and development? 71. How do monetary and fiscal policies complement each other in achieving macroeconomic stability and growth? 72. Can you explain the concept of the "liquidity trap" and how it may influence the effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policies? 73. How does coordination between the central bank and the government impact the overall effectiveness of economic policies? 74. In what ways can conflicts between monetary and fiscal policies arise, and how can they be mitigated? 75. How do monetary and fiscal policies respond to supply-side shocks, such as changes in oil prices or natural disasters? 76. What is a budget, and why is it important for individuals and organizations? 77. Define "revenue" and "expenditure" in the context of a budget. 78. What is the primary purpose of a budget, whether for personal finance or government finance? 79. Explain the difference between a balanced budget and a budget surplus. 80. What is a budget deficit, and how is it calculated? 81. Define "appropriation" and its role in government budgeting. 82. What does it mean for a budget to be "in the black" or "in the red"? 83. Describe the concept of a "line item" in a budget and its significance. 84. What is the difference between a "capital budget" and an "operating budget"? 85. How does the concept of "zero-based budgeting" differ from traditional budgeting methods? 86. What are "tax revenues," and how do they contribute to government finances? 87. Explain the term "non-tax revenues" and provide examples. 88. What is an "appropriation bill," and how does it relate to government spending? 89. Define "fiscal deficit" and "revenue deficit" in the context of a government budget. 90. What is a "contingency fund," and what is its purpose in government budgeting? 91. Describe the meaning and significance of "disinvestment" in a government budget. 92. What does the term "capital expenditure" refer to in government budget terminology? 93. Explain the concept of "revenue expenditure" and provide examples. 94. What is the "consolidated fund" in government budgeting, and how is it different from the "public account"? 95. What is the significance of the "Finance Bill" in the context of the annual budget presentation in India? 96. What is the primary function of capital markets in the global economy? 97. Explain the difference between primary and secondary capital markets. 98. How do stock markets contribute to the financing of companies? 99. What are Initial Public Offerings (IPOs), and why are they significant in capital markets? 100.Describe the role of bond markets in raising capital for governments and corporations. 101.What are the key differences between stocks and bonds in capital markets? 102.How do commodity markets differ from stock and bond markets? 103.What is the purpose of derivative markets, and how do they manage risk? 104.How do capital markets facilitate price discovery? 105.Why is liquidity important in capital markets, and how is it maintained? 106.How do capital markets influence economic growth and development? 107.Discuss the concept of risk transfer in capital markets. Provide an example.
  • 6. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 6 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 108.What role do regulatory authorities play in capital markets, and why are regulations necessary? 109.Explain the term "market volatility" and its impact on capital markets. 110.How can individual investors participate in capital markets, and what are the associated risks? 111.Describe the factors that can influence the prices of financial assets in capital markets. 112.What role do institutional investors, such as mutual funds and pension funds, play in capital markets? 113.How can capital markets contribute to the diversification of investment portfolios? 114.Discuss the ethical considerations associated with trading in capital markets. 115.What are the potential benefits and challenges of globalization in capital markets? 116.How do currency exchange markets fit into the broader capital market ecosystem? 117.Explain the concept of "market efficiency" and its relevance to capital markets. 118.What are the main differences between traditional floor-based stock exchanges and electronic trading platforms? 119.Describe the impact of technology and digital innovations on capital markets. 120.How do economic indicators and geopolitical events influence capital markets? 121.What is the concept of poverty, and how does it vary across different societies and cultures? 122.Define absolute poverty and relative poverty. How do they differ? 123.Explain the multidimensional approach to measuring poverty. 124.How does poverty impact individuals and communities beyond just income and financial aspects? 125.Discuss the cycle of poverty and its implications for breaking the poverty cycle. 126.What are the root causes of poverty, and how can they be addressed? 127.Describe the concept of the poverty trap. How does it affect individuals and families? 128.How is poverty typically measured at the national level, and what are the common indicators used for this purpose? 129.What role do poverty surveys play in estimating poverty rates? 130.Explain the difference between absolute poverty and relative poverty thresholds in poverty measurement. 131.How do policymakers and researchers define and measure extreme poverty? 132.Discuss the challenges and limitations associated with estimating poverty rates. 133.What is the significance of the poverty gap index in poverty assessment? 134.How do regional disparities and urban-rural differences affect poverty estimates? 135.What is a poverty line, and how is it determined by governments and international organizations? 136.Describe the concept of a subsistence poverty line. How does it relate to basic human needs? 137.Explain the concept of a relative poverty line. How does it take into account income inequality? 138.How do variations in the cost of living influence the establishment of poverty lines? 139.Discuss the criticisms and controversies surrounding the use of poverty lines. 140.What are some alternative approaches to measuring poverty that do not rely solely on fixed poverty lines? 141.How do poverty lines differ among countries with different economic and social contexts? 142.What are the policy implications of setting and revising poverty lines?
  • 7. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 7 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 143.Describe the relationship between poverty lines and social welfare programs. 144.How can poverty lines be adjusted to account for changing economic conditions and standards of living? 145.What are economic reforms, and why are they implemented by governments? 146.Discuss the different types of economic reforms, such as market-oriented reforms and structural reforms. 147.How do economic reforms aim to improve economic performance and growth? 148.Provide examples of countries that have successfully implemented economic reforms to spur economic growth. 149.Explain the role of liberalization in economic reforms. What are the key components of liberalization? 150.What is privatization, and how can it be a part of economic reform programs? 151.Describe the role of deregulation in economic reforms and its impact on various sectors. 152.How do fiscal reforms, such as tax policy changes and public expenditure management, contribute to economic development? 153.Explain the relationship between economic growth and poverty reduction. How are they interconnected? 154.Discuss the potential positive and negative effects of economic reforms on poverty reduction. 155.How can trade liberalization and globalization contribute to poverty reduction in developing countries? 156.Describe the impact of labor market reforms on employment opportunities and poverty levels. 157.How do financial sector reforms, such as access to credit and microfinance, affect poverty alleviation efforts? 158.Discuss the importance of education and healthcare reforms in reducing poverty and improving human capital. 159.Explain how targeted social safety net programs can complement economic reforms in addressing poverty. 160.Provide examples of countries that have successfully combined economic reforms with poverty reduction strategies. 161.What are some of the challenges and risks associated with implementing economic reforms in developing countries? 162.Discuss the potential inequality and distributional consequences of economic reforms. 163.How can political factors influence the success or failure of economic reform programs aimed at reducing poverty? 164.Describe the role of international organizations and donors in supporting economic reforms in developing nations. 165.What are some common criticisms of economic reforms in the context of poverty reduction? 166.Explain the concept of "inclusive growth" and how it relates to poverty reduction through economic reforms. 167.What does the term "inclusion" mean in a societal context? 168.Explain the difference between inclusion and exclusion. 169.How does the concept of inclusion relate to diversity and equal opportunity? 170.What are the key dimensions of inclusion, and why are they important? 171.Provide examples of policies or practices that promote social inclusion.
  • 8. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 8 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 172.Define inclusive growth. Why is it considered essential for sustainable development? 173.How does inclusive growth differ from traditional economic growth? 174.What are the potential consequences of growth that is not inclusive? 175.Explain the link between income inequality and the need for inclusive growth. 176.How can inclusive growth benefit both individuals and society as a whole? 177.Define financial inclusion. What does it mean to be financially excluded? 178.Why is financial inclusion a crucial component of inclusive growth? 179.Provide examples of financial services that are typically included in financial inclusion efforts. 180.What are the barriers that hinder financial inclusion in many societies? 181.How does digital technology contribute to improving financial inclusion? 182.Describe the role of microfinance in promoting financial inclusion. 183.Discuss the importance of access to credit and savings for financial inclusion. 184.How do financial literacy and education programs support financial inclusion? 185.What role do governments and regulatory bodies play in advancing financial inclusion? 186.Share examples of countries or regions that have made significant progress in achieving financial inclusion. 187.What are some common challenges faced in achieving financial inclusion? 188.Explain how income levels and geographic location can affect access to financial services. 189.How can public-private partnerships contribute to expanding financial inclusion? 190.Describe the concept of "last-mile" financial services and its importance in rural areas. 191.What strategies can be employed to reach marginalized and underserved populations with financial inclusion initiatives? 192.Discuss the potential economic and social benefits of increasing financial inclusion. 193.How does financial inclusion contribute to poverty reduction and economic development? 194.Provide examples of how access to financial services can empower individuals and communities. 195.Explain the relationship between financial inclusion and entrepreneurship. 196.Share case studies or success stories that illustrate the positive impact of financial inclusion on people's lives. 197.What is hard infrastructure, and how does it differ from soft infrastructure? 198.Provide examples of hard infrastructure in urban and rural settings. 199.How does hard infrastructure contribute to economic development and quality of life? 200.Explain the role of governments in planning, funding, and maintaining hard infrastructure. 201.Discuss the long-term planning considerations for hard infrastructure projects. 202.What are the environmental and sustainability challenges associated with hard infrastructure development? 203.How does hard infrastructure impact transportation, energy, and communication systems? 204.Define soft infrastructure and its importance in supporting a functioning society. 205.Give examples of soft infrastructure elements that facilitate economic activities. 206.How does soft infrastructure differ from social infrastructure? 207.Explain the role of education and healthcare in soft infrastructure. 208.Describe how regulatory frameworks and legal systems are part of soft infrastructure.
  • 9. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 9 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 209.What is the relationship between soft infrastructure and human capital development? 210.How can investments in soft infrastructure improve the overall well-being of a population? 211.Discuss the role of information technology and digital infrastructure in soft infrastructure. 212.How do hard and soft infrastructure interact and complement each other in economic development? 213.Provide examples of how a well-developed legal system (soft infrastructure) can support foreign investment in physical infrastructure (hard infrastructure). 214.Explain how advancements in technology (soft infrastructure) influence the design and efficiency of transportation systems (hard infrastructure). 215.What challenges can arise when there is a mismatch between hard and soft infrastructure development? 216.How can governments and policymakers strike a balance between investing in hard and soft infrastructure for optimal societal benefits? 217.Discuss the factors that influence decisions on allocating resources between hard and soft infrastructure projects. 218.What criteria should be considered when prioritizing infrastructure investments? 219.How can public-private partnerships (PPPs) be utilized to fund both hard and soft infrastructure projects? 220.Describe the role of risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis in infrastructure planning. 221.Explain how infrastructure investment can impact a country's competitiveness on a global scale. 222.What are the sustainability challenges associated with both hard and soft infrastructure? 223.How can green and sustainable practices be integrated into infrastructure development? 224.Discuss emerging trends in infrastructure development, including smart cities and digital governance. 225.How might climate change affect the planning and design of future infrastructure projects? 226.What is the role of innovation and research in shaping the future of hard and soft infrastructure? 227.What is transport infrastructure, and why is it essential for economic development? 228.Describe the components of a comprehensive transport infrastructure system. 229.How does investment in transport infrastructure impact job creation and economic growth? 230.Provide examples of different modes of transport infrastructure (e.g., roads, railways, airports, ports). 231.Discuss the challenges of maintaining and upgrading existing transport infrastructure. 232.Explain the concept of multimodal transportation and its advantages. 233.How does transport infrastructure contribute to urban planning and development? 234.Define energy infrastructure and its role in providing power to communities. 235.Give examples of various energy infrastructure components (e.g., power plants, grids, pipelines). 236.How does the reliability of energy infrastructure affect industrial and residential users?
  • 10. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 10 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 237.Discuss the challenges of transitioning to more sustainable and renewable energy infrastructure. 238.Explain the concept of a smart grid and its benefits for energy management. 239.How do energy infrastructure projects impact the environment, and what mitigation measures can be taken? 240.Describe the relationship between energy infrastructure and energy security. 241.What is water management infrastructure, and why is it critical for water supply and sanitation? 242.Provide examples of water management infrastructure (e.g., dams, reservoirs, water treatment plants). 243.How does water infrastructure play a role in flood control and irrigation? 244.Discuss the challenges of managing water infrastructure in the face of climate change. 245.Explain the importance of wastewater treatment in water management infrastructure. 246.How can sustainable practices be incorporated into water infrastructure projects? 247.Describe the role of international cooperation in trans boundary water management. 248.Define communication infrastructure and its significance in the digital age. 249.Give examples of communication infrastructure elements (e.g., fiber-optic networks, cell towers). 250.How does communication infrastructure contribute to connectivity and information access? 251.Discuss the challenges of bridging the digital divide through communication infrastructure. 252.Explain the concept of 5G technology and its potential impacts on communication infrastructure. 253.What are the security considerations related to critical communication infrastructure? 254.Describe the role of satellite networks in global communication infrastructure. 255.What is solid waste management infrastructure, and why is proper waste disposal important? 256.Provide examples of solid waste management infrastructure components (e.g., landfills, recycling centers). 257.How do sustainable waste management practices reduce environmental impacts? 258.Discuss the challenges of managing electronic waste (e-waste) in modern society. 259.Explain the concept of waste-to-energy facilities and their role in waste management. 260.Describe community-based waste management initiatives and their benefits. 261.How can public awareness and education contribute to effective solid waste management? 262.Define earth monitoring and measuring networks and their role in scientific research. 263.Give examples of instruments and technologies used in earth monitoring networks. 264.How do monitoring networks contribute to disaster early warning systems? 265.Discuss the challenges of maintaining and expanding global climate monitoring networks. 266.Explain the importance of space-based earth observation systems in monitoring environmental changes. 267.Describe how earth monitoring networks support natural resource management.
  • 11. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 11 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 268.What are the ethical and privacy considerations related to earth monitoring and data collection? 269.What is governance infrastructure, and how does it contribute to effective governance? 270.Explain the role of legal and regulatory frameworks in governance infrastructure. 271.How does digital governance infrastructure enhance transparency and accountability in government operations? 272.Discuss the importance of political stability and rule of law in governance infrastructure. 273.Provide examples of government agencies and institutions that are part of governance infrastructure. 274.What challenges can arise when there is a lack of strong governance infrastructure? 275.Define economic infrastructure and its significance in supporting economic activities. 276.Give examples of economic infrastructure elements (e.g., financial institutions, transportation networks). 277.How does economic infrastructure influence a country's competitiveness in the global economy? 278.Discuss the role of investment in economic infrastructure in promoting job creation. 279.Explain the concept of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in financing economic infrastructure projects. 280.Describe the role of special economic zones (SEZs) in economic infrastructure development. 281.What is social infrastructure, and how does it contribute to the well-being of a society? 282.Provide examples of social infrastructure components (e.g., healthcare facilities, schools, community centers). 283.How does access to social infrastructure services impact the quality of life for individuals and communities? 284.Discuss the challenges of providing equitable access to social infrastructure in urban and rural areas. 285.Explain the relationship between social infrastructure and human capital development. 286.Describe the role of NGOs and civil society organizations in supporting social infrastructure. 287.Define critical infrastructure and its role in maintaining national security and public safety. 288.Give examples of critical infrastructure sectors (e.g., energy, transportation, water supply). 289.How do cyber threats and physical vulnerabilities impact critical infrastructure? 290.Discuss the importance of resilience and disaster preparedness in critical infrastructure protection. 291.Explain the role of government agencies and regulations in safeguarding critical infrastructure. 292.What are the potential consequences of a failure or disruption in critical infrastructure? 293.What is urban infrastructure, and why is it crucial in managing urbanization? 294.Provide examples of urban infrastructure components (e.g., roads, public transportation, sanitation systems).
  • 12. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 12 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 295.How does urban infrastructure planning contribute to sustainable urban development? 296.Discuss the challenges of addressing infrastructure needs in rapidly growing urban areas. 297.Explain the concept of smart cities and the integration of technology in urban infrastructure. 298.Describe the role of green and sustainable practices in urban infrastructure development. 299.Define green infrastructure and its role in environmental conservation and urban planning. 300.Give examples of green infrastructure elements (e.g., parks, green roofs, permeable pavements). 301.How does green infrastructure contribute to climate resilience and biodiversity conservation? 302.Discuss the economic benefits of investing in green infrastructure. 303.Explain the concept of ecosystem services and their relationship with green infrastructure. 304.What are the challenges of retrofitting existing urban areas with green infrastructure? 305.What is education infrastructure, and why is it essential for quality education? 306.Provide examples of education infrastructure components (e.g., schools, libraries, digital resources). 307.How does access to education infrastructure impact student learning outcomes? 308.Discuss the challenges of ensuring equitable access to education infrastructure in underserved regions. 309.Explain the role of teachers and educators in maintaining and utilizing education infrastructure. 310.Describe the relationship between education infrastructure and lifelong learning. 311.Define health infrastructure and its role in providing healthcare services. 312.Give examples of health infrastructure elements (e.g., hospitals, clinics, medical equipment). 313.How does access to healthcare infrastructure influence public health outcomes? 314.Discuss the challenges of providing healthcare infrastructure in rural and remote areas. 315.Explain the importance of healthcare workforce and training in utilizing health infrastructure. 316.Describe the role of telemedicine and digital health in modern healthcare infrastructure. Unit-II Human Resources and Economic Development : The Theory of Demographic Transition, Size and Growth RateofPopulationinIndia, QuantitativePopulation Growth Differentials in Different Countries, The Sex Composition of Population, Age Composition of Population, Density of Population, Urbanization and Economic Growth in India, The Quality of Population, Population Projections (2001-2026), Demographic Dividend. Human Development in India - The Concept and Measures of Human Development, Human development Index for Various States in India, National Human Development Report, Changing profile of GDP and employment in India, GDP, Employment and Productivity per Worker in India, Relative Shift in the Shares of NSDP and Employment in Agriculture, Industry and Services in Different States.
  • 13. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 13 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 317.What is the Theory of Demographic Transition? 318.Outline the four stages of the Demographic Transition Model. 319.Explain the key characteristics of each stage in the Demographic Transition Model. 320.Identify and discuss the factors that contribute to the transition from one stage to another in the Demographic Transition Model. 321.How do economic factors influence demographic transitions? 322.Describe how population pyramids can be used to illustrate the stages of demographic transition. 323.Analyze a population pyramid and determine the stage of demographic transition it represents. 324.Compare and contrast the demographic transition experiences of developed and developing countries. 325.Discuss regional variations in the progress of demographic transition. 326.What are some criticisms of the Demographic Transition Model? 327.Discuss any limitations in applying the Demographic Transition Model to all countries. 328.Choose a specific country and analyze its demographic transition over the past century. 329.How has the demographic transition impacted the social and economic development of a particular region or country? 330.Predict the future demographic trends for a specific country based on its current position in the Demographic Transition Model. 331.Discuss the potential challenges and opportunities associated with the ongoing demographic transition in various regions. 332.Explore how government policies can influence the pace and nature of demographic transition. 333.Provide examples of successful or unsuccessful policies aimed at managing demographic transitions. 334.Explain the relationship between demographic transition and health outcomes. 335.Discuss the role of education in shaping demographic transition. 336.Analyze the environmental implications of different stages in the Demographic Transition Model. 337.Discuss how population growth patterns impact natural resources and the environment. 338.What is the current estimated population of India? 339.How does India's population size compare to other countries? 340.Discuss the factors contributing to the large population size in India. 341.What is the current population growth rate in India? 342.Compare the population growth rate of India to global trends. 343.Explain the significance of understanding population growth rates for policymaking. 344.In which stage of the demographic transition model is India currently positioned? 345.How has India's demographic transition changed over the past few decades? 346.Discuss the implications of India's demographic transition for its economic development. 347.Explore the relationship between urbanization and population growth in India. 348.Analyze the challenges and opportunities posed by rapid urbanization in the context of population growth.
  • 14. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 14 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 349.Examine the population policies implemented by the Indian government to control population growth. 350.Evaluate the effectiveness of past and current population control measures in India. 351.Discuss regional variations in population size and growth rates within India. 352.How do factors such as education, healthcare, and economic development contribute to regional variations in population dynamics? 353.Analyze the age structure of the Indian population. 354.What are the implications of India's age structure for social and economic policies? 355.Discuss the issue of gender imbalance in India and its impact on population dynamics. 356.How do cultural and social factors contribute to gender-based demographic challenges? 357.Project the potential population size and growth rate of India in the next few decades. 358.What are the key factors that could influence future population trends in India? 359.Compare the population dynamics of India with those of other countries in the region or with similar economic characteristics. 360.How do global population trends impact India, and how does India contribute to global demographic patterns? 361.Compare and contrast the population growth rates of two or more countries. 362.What factors contribute to the variations in population growth rates among different countries? 363.Analyze how the demographic transition model explains population growth differentials in various countries. 364.Explore how countries at different stages of the demographic transition model experience distinct population growth patterns. 365.Investigate the role of economic factors in influencing population growth differentials. 366.How do disparities in income, employment opportunities, and economic development contribute to population growth variations? 367.Discuss how social and cultural factors impact population growth in different countries. 368.Provide examples of cultural practices that either contribute to or inhibit population growth. 369.Examine the role of government policies in shaping population growth differentials. 370.How do family planning programs, healthcare policies, and other government interventions affect population growth in specific countries? 371.Explore the relationship between urbanization, migration, and population growth. 372.How do patterns of rural-to-urban migration influence population dynamics in different countries? 373.Analyze the correlation between healthcare quality, life expectancy, and population growth. 374.How do differences in healthcare infrastructure contribute to population growth differentials? 375.Discuss the connection between education levels, especially women's education, and fertility rates. 376.How does education contribute to variations in population growth among countries? 377.Explore population growth differentials within regions of a country.
  • 15. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 15 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 378.Discuss how regional disparities in development and resources impact population growth. 379.Investigate how environmental factors, such as climate and resource availability, influence population growth. 380.Discuss how countries with different environmental conditions experience varied population growth patterns. 381.Compare the population growth differentials of developed and developing countries. 382.How do the population dynamics of emerging economies differ from those of established industrialized nations? 383.Project future population growth differentials for selected countries based on current trends and factors. 384.What are the potential consequences of these projections for global demographics? 385. 386.Define the sex ratio of a population. 387.Explain how the sex ratio is calculated. 388.Why is the sex ratio an important demographic indicator? 389.Compare the sex ratios of different countries. 390.Discuss any regional variations in sex ratios and their potential causes. 391.Explore the factors that influence the sex ratio of a population. 392.How do cultural, social, and economic factors contribute to variations in sex ratios? 393.Analyze age-specific sex ratios within a population. 394.Discuss the significance of age-specific sex ratios in understanding population dynamics. 395.Explain the concept of sex-selective practices and its impact on sex ratios at birth. 396.How do cultural norms and technological advances contribute to sex-selective practices? 397.Discuss the relationship between gender equality and the sex composition of a population. 398.How do policies promoting gender equality influence sex ratios? 399.Investigate the correlation between urbanization and sex ratios. 400.Discuss how migration patterns and urban development impact the sex composition of urban populations. 401.Explore the connection between healthcare access, disease prevalence, and the sex ratio. 402.How do health disparities between genders influence sex ratios? 403.Discuss the social, economic, and psychological consequences of imbalanced sex ratios. 404.How does an imbalanced sex ratio affect marriage patterns and family structures? 405.Examine government policies aimed at addressing imbalanced sex ratios. 406.How effective are these policies in promoting a balanced sex composition in the population? 407.Analyze historical trends in the sex composition of populations. 408.How have social and cultural changes over time influenced sex ratios? 409.Explore how the sex ratio changes in aging populations. 410.Discuss the implications of an imbalanced sex ratio in older age groups. 411.Discuss how the sex composition of a population is related to different stages of the demographic transition model. 412.How does the sex ratio change as a society transitions through demographic stages?
  • 16. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 16 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 413.Define age structure in the context of population demographics. 414.Why is understanding the age composition of a population important for policymakers? 415.Analyze the age distribution patterns in developed and developing countries. 416.How does the age composition vary across different regions of the world? 417.Explain how population pyramids visually represent the age composition of a population. 418.Interpret a population pyramid and identify key features related to age distribution. 419.Define dependency ratios and explain how they are calculated. 420.Discuss the significance of dependency ratios in assessing the economic burden on a population. 421.Define the concept of a youth bulge in the age composition of a population. 422.Discuss the potential social and economic implications of a youth bulge. 423.Discuss the characteristics of an aging population. 424.How do factors such as increased life expectancy contribute to population aging? 425.Analyze the impacts of an aging population on healthcare, social services, and the labor market. 426.Discuss potential challenges and opportunities associated with population aging. 427.Explore government policies implemented to address the challenges of an aging population. 428.How effective are policies aimed at promoting active aging and addressing the needs of older populations? 429.Examine the relationship between youth demographics and employment opportunities. 430.How do age demographics influence youth unemployment rates? 431.Discuss how age composition influences migration patterns, especially among the youth. 432.Explore the impact of youth migration on both origin and destination countries. 433.Analyze how the age composition of a population contributes to social cohesion. 434.Discuss the role of intergenerational relationships in maintaining social harmony. 435.Investigate the connection between urbanization and the age composition of urban populations. 436.How does the age structure differ between rural and urban areas? 437.Discuss how the age composition of a population relates to environmental sustainability. 438.Explore the potential environmental consequences of specific age demographics. 439.Project the potential changes in the age composition of a specific population based on current demographic trends. 440.What are the implications of these projections for social and economic planning? 441.Define population density. 442.Explain how population density is calculated. 443.Why is population density an important measure in demography? 444.Compare the population densities of different countries. 445.Discuss regional variations in population density and their causes. 446.Explore the factors that influence population density. 447.How do physical geography, climate, and topography affect population density? 448.Compare the population density of urban and rural areas. 449.Discuss the factors that contribute to higher population density in urban settings. 450.Identify and analyze examples of high-density cities around the world.
  • 17. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 17 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 451.Discuss the challenges and advantages associated with high population density in urban areas. 452.Explore regions with low population density. 453.Discuss the factors that contribute to low population density in certain areas. 454.Analyze the environmental impact of high population density. 455.Discuss how densely populated areas may face unique environmental challenges. 456.Discuss the relationship between population density and infrastructure development. 457.How does population density influence the demand for services like transportation, housing, and utilities? 458.Examine government policies that address population density concerns. 459.Discuss the effectiveness of policies aimed at managing population density. 460.Analyze historical changes in population density in specific regions. 461.How have technological advancements and societal changes influenced population density over time? 462.Discuss the relationship between population density and the quality of life. 463.Explore how high or low population density may impact the well-being of residents. 464.Analyze how migration patterns contribute to changes in population density. 465.Discuss the impact of both international and internal migration on population density. 466.Explore the relationship between population density and economic development. 467.Discuss how population density may be a factor in the economic growth or decline of a region. 468.Project potential changes in population density for specific regions based on current demographic trends. 469.Discuss the implications of these projections for urban planning and resource management. 470.Define urbanization and economic growth. 471.Explain how urbanization and economic growth are measured in the context of India. 472.Discuss the historical trends of urbanization in India. 473.Analyze the current state of urbanization and the pace of urban growth in India. 474.Identify key economic indicators used to measure economic growth in India. 475.How do factors such as GDP, employment rates, and industrial output reflect economic growth? 476.Discuss the role of cities in driving economic development in India. 477.How do urban areas contribute to national economic growth? 478.Explore the relationship between urbanization and infrastructure development in India. 479.Discuss the impact of infrastructure projects on economic growth. 480.Analyze the link between urbanization and employment opportunities in India. 481.How does urbanization contribute to changes in the labor market? 482.Identify and discuss the challenges associated with rapid urbanization in India. 483.How do issues like inadequate housing, transportation, and sanitation affect economic growth? 484.Explain the Smart Cities initiative in India. 485.Evaluate the effectiveness of this initiative in promoting sustainable urbanization and economic growth. 486.Discuss the impact of rural-urban migration on both urbanization and economic growth. 487.Analyze the factors driving migration from rural to urban areas.
  • 18. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 18 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 488.Explore the significance of the informal sector in urban economies. 489.Discuss how informal economic activities contribute to or hinder overall economic growth. 490.Discuss the role of urban planning in fostering economic growth. 491.How do well-planned cities contribute to the economic development of a region? 492.Analyze the environmental consequences of rapid urbanization in India. 493.Discuss how sustainable urban development practices can mitigate environmental challenges. 494.Examine government policies aimed at managing urbanization and promoting economic growth. 495.Evaluate the effectiveness of these policies in achieving their objectives. 496.Discuss the concept of inclusive urbanization. 497.How can urbanization in India be made more inclusive to ensure equitable economic growth? 498.Compare the urbanization and economic growth patterns of India with other countries. 499.What lessons can be learned from successful urbanization experiences in other nations? 500.Define the concept of the quality of population. 501.What factors contribute to determining the quality of a population? 502.Discuss how health indicators, such as life expectancy and disease prevalence, contribute to the overall quality of a population. 503.How do healthcare infrastructure and access affect the quality of population health? 504.Explore the relationship between education levels, literacy rates, and the quality of population. 505.How does education contribute to the intellectual and economic quality of a population? 506.Discuss how the economic productivity and skills of a population impact its quality. 507.Explore the role of vocational training and higher education in enhancing economic quality. 508.Analyze the impact of nutrition and food security on the quality of a population. 509.How do issues like malnutrition and food disparities affect overall population quality? 510.Discuss the role of social cohesion and inclusivity in determining the quality of a population. 511.How do social disparities impact the overall well-being of a population? 512.Analyze the importance of gender equality in assessing the quality of a population. 513.Discuss the implications of gender disparities on the overall quality of life. 514.Explore how demographic structure and dependency ratios influence the quality of population. 515.Discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with changing demographic patterns. 516.Discuss the role of environmental awareness and sustainability practices in determining the quality of a population. 517.How does the population's impact on the environment affect its overall quality? 518.Analyze the role of mental health in determining the quality of a population. 519.Discuss the factors that contribute to mental well-being and resilience in a population. 520.Examine government policies that aim to improve the quality of a population. 521.Discuss the effectiveness of these policies in achieving their goals.
  • 19. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 19 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 522.Discuss how the quality of population contributes to global health and development. 523.How can international cooperation enhance the quality of populations worldwide? 524.Explore the significance of technological literacy in determining the quality of a population. 525.How does access to technology impact educational and economic opportunities? 526.Compare the quality of populations in different countries or regions. 527.How do cultural, economic, and social factors contribute to variations in population quality? 528.Project potential future trends in the quality of population based on current demographic and social indicators. 529.Discuss the implications of these projections for global well-being. 530.What are population projections, and why are they important for demographers and policymakers? 531.Explain the methods commonly used for making population projections. 532.Discuss the data sources used for population projections from 2001 to 2026. 533.How accurate are population projections, and what factors can influence their accuracy? 534.Analyze global and regional population trends from 2001 to 2026. 535.Discuss any significant shifts in population distribution during this period. 536.Identify and discuss the key factors influencing population growth during the specified period. 537.How do factors such as fertility rates, mortality rates, and migration contribute to population changes? 538.Break down the population projections into age-specific categories. 539.Analyze how different age groups are expected to change over the projection period. 540.Explore how urbanization is projected to change from 2001 to 2026. 541.Discuss the implications of urbanization on population distribution and social dynamics. 542.Analyze projected migration patterns during the specified period. 543.How might international and internal migration impact population changes in various regions? 544.Discuss the economic implications of population projections. 545.How might changes in population size and structure affect labor markets and economic development? 546.Analyze how improvements in healthcare and increased longevity are reflected in population projections. 547.Discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with an aging population. 548.Explore potential policy responses to the population projections. 549.How can governments and organizations prepare for the demographic changes anticipated from 2001 to 2026? 550.Break down population projections by gender. 551.Discuss any gender-specific trends or disparities projected during this period. 552.Analyze the projected changes in the education levels of the population. 553.Discuss how workforce composition is expected to change and its implications for the economy. 554.Discuss the potential environmental impact of population projections. 555.How might changes in population size and behavior affect resource consumption and environmental sustainability?
  • 20. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 20 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 556.Explore regional disparities in population projections. 557.Discuss the factors contributing to variations in population growth across different regions. 558.Compare the population projections of different countries or regions. 559.What are the factors that contribute to variations in population trends among different areas? 560.What is the demographic dividend? 561.Explain the concept of a demographic transition and its relationship to the demographic dividend. 562.What factors contribute to the emergence of a demographic dividend? 563.How does the demographic dividend impact a country's economic growth? 564.Provide examples of countries that have successfully harnessed the demographic dividend for economic development. 565.What are the potential challenges or risks associated with the demographic dividend? 566.Outline specific policies that governments can implement to maximize the benefits of the demographic dividend. 567.How can investments in education and skill development contribute to capitalizing on the demographic dividend? 568.Discuss the role of gender equality in optimizing the demographic dividend. 569.How does the demographic dividend vary across different regions of the world? 570.Can the demographic dividend be a double-edged sword? Discuss both positive and negative aspects. 571.What are the implications of the demographic dividend for global migration patterns? 572.How do social and cultural factors influence the realization of the demographic dividend? 573.Discuss the relationship between family planning and the demographic dividend. 574.What role does urbanization play in the demographic dividend? 575.How might advancements in technology impact the demographic dividend in the future? 576.Consider the aging population in some developed countries. How does this affect the demographic dividend? 577.Discuss potential changes in global demographics and their implications for the demographic dividend. 578. Analyze a specific country's experience with the demographic dividend, highlighting key policies and outcomes. 579.Compare and contrast the demographic dividend experiences of two or more countries. 580.Examine the role of the private sector in leveraging the demographic dividend. 581.What is human capital, and how does it contribute to economic development? 582.Explain the difference between physical capital and human capital in economic growth. 583.How does education impact a country's economic development? 584.Describe the concept of the demographic dividend and its significance for economic growth. 585.Discuss the role of skills development and vocational training in enhancing human capital.
  • 21. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 21 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 586.What is the size and composition of the labor force, and why is it important for economic development? 587.Explain the impact of labor force participation rates on economic growth. 588.Discuss the challenges of underemployment and informal labor markets in developing countries. 589.How does unemployment affect both individuals and the overall economy? 590.Describe the role of labor mobility and migration in economic development. 591.What policies and investments can governments make to improve human capital development? 592.Explain the significance of access to quality healthcare in human capital development. 593.How do social safety nets and poverty reduction programs impact human capital? 594.Discuss the role of early childhood education in shaping future human capital. 595.Describe the challenges and opportunities of investing in gender equality and women's empowerment for economic development. 596.How does a skilled and educated workforce contribute to innovation and technological advancement? 597.Explain the concept of a knowledge-based economy and its relationship with human resources. 598.Discuss the role of research and development in harnessing human capital for economic growth. 599.Provide examples of countries that have leveraged their human capital to become leaders in technology and innovation. 600.What are the economic consequences of inadequate investments in human capital development? 601.Describe the impact of health crises, such as pandemics, on human capital and economic development. 602.How does conflict and political instability affect human capital and economic growth? 603.Discuss the relationship between income inequality and human capital development. 604.Explain how globalization affects the demand for skilled labor and human capital in developing countries. 605.Discuss the role of international migration and remittances in human resources and economic development. 606.What challenges do countries face in retaining and repatriating skilled workers who have emigrated for better opportunities? 607.How can human capital development be aligned with the principles of sustainable development? 608.Describe the relationship between environmental education and sustainable economic development. 609.Discuss the challenges of balancing economic growth and environmental sustainability in human resources development. 610.What are some emerging trends and challenges in human resources and economic development in the 21st century? 611.How can artificial intelligence and automation impact the future of the labor force and human capital development? 612.Explain the concept of "gig economy" and its implications for labor and economic development.
  • 22. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 22 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 613.What is the Human Development Index (HDI)? 614.Explain the three dimensions of human development that the HDI measures. 615.How does HDI differ from traditional measures of economic development? 616.Discuss the components used to calculate the HDI for a region or country. 617.How is the HDI score interpreted in terms of human development levels? 618.Can you explain any recent changes or updates in the methodology used to calculate HDI? 619.Analyze the regional disparities in HDI across various states in India. 620.Identify states with high HDI scores and discuss the factors contributing to their higher human development levels. 621.What are some of the challenges faced by states with lower HDI scores? 622.Discuss the role of education in determining the HDI of a state. 623.How does healthcare infrastructure impact the health component of HDI? 624.Explore the relationship between income levels and the standard of living component of HDI. 625.Describe specific government policies that have positively influenced the HDI of a particular state. 626.Discuss the role of social welfare programs in improving human development outcomes. 627.Evaluate the effectiveness of state-level initiatives in addressing regional disparities in HDI. 628.Compare the HDI of two or more states and analyze the factors contributing to the differences. 629.Examine how urban and rural disparities within a state affect its overall HDI. 630.Compare the HDI of Indian states with those of other countries in the region. 631.Identify common challenges faced by states in improving their HDI. 632.Discuss the potential opportunities for states to enhance their human development outcomes. 633.How can addressing gender disparities contribute to improvements in HDI? 634.Predict how ongoing demographic changes may impact the HDI of specific states. 635.Discuss potential future challenges and opportunities for improving human development in India. 636.Explore the role of technology and innovation in influencing HDI trends. 637.What is the National Human Development Report (NHDR)? 638.Explain the purpose and significance of NHDR in the context of a country's development. 639.How often is the NHDR typically published, and what factors influence its thematic focus? 640.Discuss a specific NHDR and its thematic focus. What are the key issues addressed? 641.How does the choice of themes in NHDRs reflect the current development priorities of a country? 642.Explore how NHDRs contribute to policy formulation and decision-making. 643.Describe the data sources and methodology used in the preparation of NHDRs. 644.How is the Human Development Index (HDI) or other relevant indices calculated and interpreted in NHDRs? 645.Discuss any recent changes or improvements in the data collection and analysis process. 646.Analyze how NHDRs address regional disparities in human development within a country.
  • 23. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 23 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 647.Provide examples of specific regions highlighted in NHDRs for their development challenges or successes. 648.How can NHDRs contribute to the reduction of regional inequalities? 649.Summarize the policy recommendations provided in a recent NHDR. 650.Discuss the feasibility and implementation challenges of the recommendations. 651.How have governments responded to NHDR recommendations in the past? 652.Explore how NHDRs address issues of inclusivity and equity, particularly with regard to vulnerable or marginalized groups. 653.Discuss the role of NHDRs in promoting social justice and reducing discrimination. 654.Provide examples of policies or initiatives recommended in NHDRs to address inclusivity. 655.Compare the NHDR of a specific country with those of other countries in the region or globally. 656.Discuss how global trends and challenges are reflected in NHDRs. 657.Explore the role of international collaboration in shaping the content of NHDRs. 658.Discuss the role of community engagement and stakeholder participation in the preparation of NHDRs. 659.How can NHDRs effectively communicate complex development issues to a broader audience? 660.Provide examples of successful community-driven initiatives mentioned in NHDRs. 661.How do NHDRs align with and contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)? 662.Discuss any specific SDGs that are prominently featured in recent NHDRs. 663.Explore the challenges and opportunities in integrating NHDRs with SDG monitoring and reporting. 664.Predict future trends and challenges that NHDRs might address in the coming years. 665.Discuss how emerging issues, such as climate change or technological advancements, could be incorporated into future NHDRs. 666.Explore potential improvements in the NHDR process to make it more dynamic and responsive to evolving development needs. 667.What is the current state of India's GDP and employment landscape? 668.How has the profile of GDP and employment changed over the past decade? 669.What are the key sectors contributing to GDP and employment in India? 670.Discuss the structural changes in the Indian economy in terms of the share of agriculture, industry, and services in GDP. 671.How have technological advancements influenced the structural transformation of the economy? 672.Analyze the role of government policies in shaping the structural changes in GDP and employment. 673.Provide a sector-wise breakdown of GDP and employment trends in India. 674.How has the service sector evolved over time, and what impact has it had on overall economic growth and employment? 675.Discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with the agriculture sector in terms of GDP and employment. 676.Analyze the dichotomy between informal and formal employment in India. 677.What are the reasons behind the prevalence of informal employment, and how does it impact economic growth? 678.Discuss policy measures to formalize the informal sector for better economic outcomes.
  • 24. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 24 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 679.How does the changing nature of industries impact the skill requirements for employment? 680.Discuss government initiatives to enhance skill development and their effectiveness. 681.Explore the role of education in preparing the workforce for emerging industries. 682.Analyze the relationship between urbanization and changes in employment patterns. 683.Discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with rural-to-urban migration in the context of employment. 684.How does urbanization contribute to the GDP profile of the country? 685.Explore the impact of globalization on India's GDP and employment. 686.Discuss how trade policies have influenced the country's economic growth and job creation. 687.Analyze the challenges and benefits of integrating into the global economy. 688.Discuss gender disparities in the Indian workforce and their implications for GDP. 689.Explore initiatives aimed at promoting gender equality in employment. 690.How can closing the gender gap contribute to overall economic growth? 691.Analyze the influence of technology on the nature of employment in India. 692.Discuss the challenges posed by automation and digitization to traditional job sectors. 693.Explore policies to address the impact of technological advancements on employment. 694.Summarize recent policy interventions aimed at influencing the GDP and employment profile. 695.Discuss the effectiveness of government programs in promoting inclusive growth. 696.What further policy measures can be implemented to address existing challenges? 697.Define GDP, employment, and productivity per worker. 698.Explain the interconnection between GDP, employment, and productivity in the context of economic development. 699.How do changes in productivity impact GDP and employment levels? 700.Provide an overview of the recent trends in India's GDP growth. 701.Discuss the factors influencing GDP growth in the country. 702.How does the GDP growth rate in India compare to global trends? 703.Analyze the current state of employment in India, considering both formal and informal sectors. 704.Explore the distribution of employment across various sectors and regions. 705.Discuss the impact of demographic factors on employment trends. 706.Define and explain productivity per worker. 707.Analyze the productivity levels in different sectors of the Indian economy. 708.Discuss the factors influencing variations in productivity per worker. 709.Provide a sector-wise breakdown of GDP contributions in India. 710.Discuss the employment patterns and productivity variations across sectors. 711.How can sectors with low productivity levels be improved? 712.Discuss the role of government policies in influencing GDP growth. 713.Analyze specific policy measures aimed at promoting economic growth. 714.How do fiscal and monetary policies impact GDP and employment? 715.Explore the dynamics of the labor market in India, considering factors such as wage levels, job security, and skill requirements. 716.Discuss the impact of labor market conditions on productivity. 717.How can the labor market be more effectively aligned with economic growth goals?
  • 25. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 25 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 718.Analyze the influence of technology on productivity in the Indian workforce. 719.Discuss the role of innovation in driving productivity improvements. 720.Explore potential challenges associated with technological advancements and productivity. 721.Discuss the impact of globalization on employment patterns in India. 722.Analyze how international trade influences both GDP and employment. 723.Explore the role of global value chains in shaping productivity in different sectors. 724.Discuss the concept of inclusive growth in the context of GDP, employment, and productivity. 725.Explore policies that can promote inclusive growth in India. 726.How can addressing income inequality contribute to both higher GDP and improved productivity? 727.Analyze how economic shocks, such as the global financial crisis or the COVID-19 pandemic, have affected India's GDP, employment, and productivity. 728.Discuss the resilience of the Indian economy in the face of external shocks. 729.Explore policy responses to mitigate the impact of economic shocks on GDP and employment. 730.Predict future trends in GDP growth, employment patterns, and productivity in India. 731.Discuss potential challenges that could hinder economic development. 732.Explore strategies to overcome challenges and foster sustainable growth. 733.Define Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) and explain its significance in economic analysis. 734.Discuss the importance of the agricultural sector in terms of employment in the context of NSDP. 735.How does the relative shift in NSDP and employment in agriculture reflect economic development? 736.Provide an overview of recent trends in NSDP growth in your selected region. 737.Analyze the changes in employment patterns in the agricultural sector over the past decade. 738.How are NSDP and agricultural employment correlated in your region? 739.Discuss the factors that contribute to a relative shift in the shares of NSDP and agricultural employment. 740.Explore the impact of technological advancements, policy changes, and globalization on this shift. 741.How do demographic changes influence the dynamics of NSDP and agricultural employment? 742.Explain the concept of structural transformation in the context of economic development. 743.Discuss how the relative shift in NSDP and agricultural employment is indicative of structural changes. 744.Provide examples of countries or regions that have undergone successful structural transformation. 745.Analyze the role of government policies in influencing the relative shares of NSDP and agricultural employment. 746.Discuss specific interventions aimed at promoting agricultural growth or diversification. 747.How can government policies balance the need for economic growth with ensuring employment opportunities in agriculture? 748.Explore the impact of the relative shift on the livelihoods of rural populations.
  • 26. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 26 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 749.Discuss challenges faced by individuals dependent on agriculture as the sector undergoes changes. 750.Analyze the role of non-farm activities in supplementing rural incomes. 751.Discuss the environmental implications of the relative shift, especially in terms of land use and resource utilization in agriculture. 752.Explore sustainable practices and policies that can be integrated into the shift. 753.How can the relative shift contribute to or mitigate environmental challenges? 754.Compare the relative shift in NSDP and agricultural employment in your selected region with other regions or countries. 755.Discuss lessons that can be learned from successful cases of balancing economic growth and agricultural employment. 756.Explore the influence of global trends on the relative shares. 757.Analyze the role of technological advancements in agriculture and their impact on productivity. 758.Discuss how increased productivity in agriculture influences the relative shares of NSDP and employment. 759.Explore potential challenges associated with technological changes in agriculture. 760.Discuss the implications of the relative shift on income inequality in rural areas. 761.Analyze social consequences, such as migration patterns and changes in social structures, resulting from the shift. 762.How can policies address social challenges associated with the changing shares? 763.Discuss the resilience of the economy to external shocks, such as global economic downturns or climate-related events. 764.Explore the role of agricultural diversification in building resilience. 765.How can policies enhance the adaptive capacity of the agricultural sector? 766.Predict future scenarios for the relative shares of NSDP and agricultural employment in your selected region. 767.Discuss potential challenges and opportunities that may arise in the coming years. 768.Explore policy measures to ensure a balanced and sustainable shift. 769.Define the industry and services sectors in the context of economic activities. 770.Why is the distribution of industry and services across states important for understanding regional economic development? 771.Discuss the role of industry and services in contributing to a state's Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP). 772.Analyze the disparities in the distribution of industry and services among different states in a country. 773.Discuss the factors that contribute to regional variations in industrial and service sector development. 774.How do regional disparities impact overall economic growth and development? 775.Provide an overview of the key industries dominating the economy in a selected state. 776.Discuss the growth and contribution of the services sector, including IT, finance, healthcare, etc. 777.Explore how the composition of key industries varies across states. 778.Analyze the role of government policies in promoting industrial growth in a specific state. 779.Discuss the impact of state-level policies on attracting investments and fostering industrial development. 780.How do government initiatives differ among states in supporting industries?
  • 27. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 27 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 781.Evaluate the investment climate in different states for industries and services. 782.Discuss factors that attract or deter investors in specific regions. 783.How can states improve their investment climate to boost industrial and service sector growth? 784.Analyze the employment generation potential of the industry and services sectors in a selected state. 785.Discuss the types of jobs created and their impact on the local workforce. 786.Explore initiatives that states have implemented to enhance employment opportunities. 787.Discuss the relationship between urbanization, infrastructure development, and the growth of industry and services. 788.Analyze how well-developed infrastructure attracts businesses and contributes to economic development. 789.Explore challenges and opportunities associated with urbanization in different states. 790.Select two or more states and conduct a comparative case study on their industrial and services sector development. 791.Analyze the factors that have contributed to the success or challenges faced by each state. 792.What lessons can be learned from the case studies to inform policies in other states? 793.Discuss how globalization has influenced the industrial and services sectors in different states. 794.Analyze the role of international trade in shaping the economic landscape of specific regions. 795.Explore how states navigate challenges and leverage opportunities in the global market. 796.Explore how states encourage innovation and technology adoption in their industrial and services sectors. 797.Discuss the impact of technological advancements on the competitiveness of industries. 798.How do states foster an environment conducive to research and development? 799.Discuss the environmental implications of industrial and services sector activities in different states. 800.Explore state-level policies aimed at promoting sustainable practices. 801.How can states balance economic growth with environmental conservation? 802.Predict future prospects for the industry and services sectors in specific states. 803.Discuss potential challenges that states might face in sustaining growth. 804.Explore strategies for states to remain competitive and resilient in the evolving economic landscape. Unit-III Sectoral composition of Indian Economy: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Sectors, Issues in Agriculture sector in India ,land reforms, Green Revolution and agriculture policies of India , Industrial development , small scale and cottage industries, Industrial Policy, Public sector in India, Services sector in India. Areas of Market Failure and Need for State Intervention, Redefining the Role of the State, Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization (LPG) Model of Development, Planning commission v/s NITI Aayog, Public Versus Private Sector Debate, Unorganised Sector and India's Informal Economy
  • 28. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 28 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 805.What is the contribution of agriculture to India's GDP? 806.Name the major crops grown in different regions of India. 807.Discuss the challenges faced by Indian farmers in the agricultural sector. 808.Explain the significance of the manufacturing sector in India. 809.How has industrialization impacted the economic development of India? 810.Discuss the role of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Indian industrial sector. 811.What is the contribution of the services sector to India's GDP? 812.Explain the growth of the IT and software services industry in India. 813.Discuss the challenges and opportunities in the service sector. 814.What is the role of the quaternary sector in the Indian economy? 815.Discuss the importance of research and development in India's economic growth. 816.How has the digital revolution impacted the quaternary sector in India? 817.Explain the role of the government in the Indian economy. 818.Discuss the importance of public sector enterprises in India. 819.What measures can the government take to promote economic growth? 820.How has globalization impacted the sectoral composition of the Indian economy? 821.Discuss the role of foreign direct investment (FDI) in shaping India's economic sectors. 822.What are the challenges and benefits of India's integration into the global economy? 823.Discuss the impact of economic reforms on the different sectors of the Indian economy. 824.How have policies like Make in India and Digital India influenced industrial and service sectors? 825.Evaluate the effectiveness of recent government policies in promoting inclusive growth. 826.What are the primary reasons behind the distress faced by Indian farmers? 827.Discuss the role of indebtedness in the agrarian crisis in India. 828.How do factors like crop failures and market fluctuations contribute to farmers' distress? 829.Explain the concept of land fragmentation in the context of Indian agriculture. 830.What challenges does land fragmentation pose for Indian farmers, and how does it impact agricultural productivity? 831.Discuss the issue of water scarcity in Indian agriculture. 832.How can improved irrigation practices address water-related challenges in agriculture? 833.Explain the challenges faced by farmers in accessing markets for their produce. 834.How do price fluctuations affect the income of farmers in India? 835.What is the role of technology in modernizing Indian agriculture? 836.Discuss the challenges and benefits of technology adoption by Indian farmers. 837.Evaluate the effectiveness of government policies in supporting the agriculture sector. 838.Discuss the impact of subsidies and loan waiver programs on the agriculture economy. 839.Why is crop diversification important for sustainable agriculture? 840.What challenges do farmers face in adopting crop diversification practices in India? 841.How does climate change pose a threat to agriculture in India? 842.Discuss adaptive strategies that farmers can employ to mitigate the impact of climate change. 843.Explore the link between rural distress and rural-urban migration. 844.What measures can be taken to address the issue of migration from rural areas?
  • 29. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 29 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 845.Discuss the potential benefits and challenges of promoting organic farming in India. 846.How can sustainable agriculture practices contribute to the long-term viability of the sector? 847.What is the concept of land reform, and why is it essential for agricultural development? 848.Discuss the historical context that led to the initiation of land reforms in India. 849.Explain the zamindari system and its impact on rural landownership. 850.Discuss the measures taken to abolish the zamindari system in India. 851.What are tenancy reforms, and why are they crucial for agrarian transformation? 852.Discuss the provisions of tenancy reforms aimed at protecting the rights of tenants. 853.Explain the concept of land ceiling and its objectives in the context of agrarian reforms. 854.Discuss the impact of land ceiling laws on land distribution and agricultural productivity. 855.How was land redistributed during the implementation of land reforms in India? 856.Evaluate the success and challenges of land redistribution programs. 857.Discuss the concept of community land and its significance in land reforms. 858.How can the protection of common property resources contribute to sustainable agriculture? 859.Identify and discuss the challenges faced in the effective implementation of land reforms. 860.How have political and administrative factors influenced the success of land reform programs? 861.Evaluate the impact of land reforms on the rural economy in India. 862.Discuss how changes in landownership patterns have influenced agricultural productivity and rural livelihoods. 863.Explain the importance of maintaining accurate land records in the context of land reforms. 864.Discuss the role of technology in improving land titling and registration processes. 865.Assess the contemporary relevance of land reforms in the context of evolving agricultural practices and rural development. 866.What new challenges and opportunities exist in the present-day scenario that warrant attention in land reform policies? 867.Define the Green Revolution and its objectives in the context of Indian agriculture. 868.What were the main driving forces behind the initiation of the Green Revolution in India? 869.Discuss the key components of the Green Revolution, including technological advancements and high-yielding crop varieties. 870.How did the introduction of modern agricultural practices contribute to increased productivity during the Green Revolution? 871.Evaluate the impact of the Green Revolution on major crops such as wheat and rice. 872.Discuss the role of irrigation and fertilizers in enhancing crop yields during the Green Revolution. 873.Analyze the regional disparities in the adoption and impact of the Green Revolution in India. 874.What factors contributed to the uneven spread of the Green Revolution across different states? 875.Discuss the social and economic impacts of the Green Revolution on farmers and rural communities.
  • 30. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 30 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 876.How did changes in agricultural practices influence the livelihoods of farmers? 877.Explore the relationship between land reforms and the development of agriculture in India. 878.How have land reform policies influenced landownership patterns and productivity? 879.Discuss the impact of liberalization and globalization on Indian agriculture. 880.How have trade policies and market reforms affected farmers and agricultural production? 881.Outline the key features of recent national agriculture policies in India. 882.Evaluate the effectiveness of these policies in addressing contemporary challenges in agriculture. 883.Discuss the importance of crop diversification and sustainable agriculture in current agricultural policies. 884.How can policies promote environmentally sustainable farming practices? 885.Explore the role of technology adoption and innovation in recent agriculture policies. 886.How can policies encourage the use of modern technologies while addressing concerns about their equitable distribution? 887.Discuss the various welfare programs and initiatives aimed at improving the livelihoods of farmers. 888.Evaluate the effectiveness of these programs in addressing the challenges faced by farmers. 889.Discuss the role of industrialization in promoting economic growth. 890.How does industrial development contribute to job creation and poverty reduction? 891.Identify and explain the key factors that influence industrialization in a country. 892.Discuss the relationship between infrastructure development and industrial growth. 893.Trace the historical evolution of industries in India from the pre-independence era to the present day. 894.Discuss the impact of economic policies on industrial development in different decades. 895.Highlight the importance of SMEs in industrial development. 896.Discuss the challenges faced by SMEs in India and potential solutions. 897.Explain the role of FDI in promoting industrial growth. 898.Discuss the impact of liberalization on FDI in the industrial sector. 899.Discuss the significance of technological advancements in industrial development. 900.How has Industry 4.0 influenced manufacturing and production processes? 901.Explore the concept of sustainable industrial development. 902.Discuss the measures industries can take to minimize their environmental impact. 903.Analyze the role of government policies in shaping industrial development. 904.Discuss specific policies that have had a significant impact on industrial growth in India. 905.Discuss how globalization has influenced industrialization on a global scale. 906.Explore the challenges and opportunities for industries in the era of globalization. 907.Explain the concept of industrial clusters and their role in regional development. 908.Discuss the advantages and challenges associated with the concentration of industries in specific regions. 909.Explore the impact of digitalization and e-commerce on traditional industries. 910.How can industries leverage digital technologies for enhanced competitiveness? 911.Discuss the importance of skill development for the industrial workforce. 912.How can industries address the skill gap and ensure a skilled workforce? 913.Define small-scale and cottage industries and outline their key characteristics.
  • 31. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 31 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 914.Discuss the distinguishing features that differentiate them from large-scale industries. 915.Explain the role of small-scale and cottage industries in the economic development of a country. 916.How do these industries contribute to employment generation and income distribution? 917.Identify and discuss the challenges faced by small-scale industries in terms of finance, technology, and marketing. 918.How can government policies address these challenges? 919.Outline the various initiatives and support mechanisms provided by the government to promote small-scale and cottage industries. 920.Evaluate the effectiveness of these policies in fostering the growth of such industries. 921.Discuss the importance of technological upgradation for small-scale and cottage industries. 922.How can these industries adapt to emerging technologies to enhance productivity? 923.Explore the role of entrepreneurship in the success of small-scale and cottage industries. 924.Discuss the challenges and opportunities for individuals starting small-scale ventures. 925.Explain the concept of cluster development in the context of small-scale industries. 926.How can networking among small-scale industries enhance their competitiveness? 927.Discuss the challenges small-scale industries face in accessing markets and competing globally. 928.What strategies can be employed to promote the export of products from small- scale industries? 929.Evaluate the availability of credit facilities for small-scale and cottage industries. 930.Discuss the importance of financial inclusion in supporting these industries. 931.Explore how small-scale and cottage industries can adopt environmentally sustainable practices. 932.Discuss the role of eco-friendly initiatives in enhancing the competitiveness of these industries. 933.Highlight success stories of small-scale and cottage industries in different sectors. 934.Analyze the factors that contributed to their success. 935.Discuss emerging trends and innovations in small-scale and cottage industries. 936.How can these industries stay competitive in the face of technological advancements? 937.Define industrial policy and its significance in the economic development of a country. 938.Discuss the objectives of formulating industrial policies. 939.Trace the historical evolution of industrial policies in India from the pre-independence era to the present day. 940.Highlight key policy changes and their impact on industrial development. 941.Discuss the shift from a controlled economy to a liberalized economy in the context of industrial policy. 942.Evaluate the impact of economic reforms on industrial growth in India. 943.Explain the role of public sector enterprises in industrial policy. 944.Discuss the rationale behind privatization and its impact on the industrial sector. 945.Outline the FDI policies and regulations governing the industrial sector in India. 946.Discuss the impact of FDI on industrialization and economic growth. 947.Discuss the role of industrial policy in promoting exports and international trade.
  • 32. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 32 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 948.Evaluate the effectiveness of trade policies in enhancing the competitiveness of Indian industries. 949.Explore the measures taken by industrial policies to promote technology and innovation. 950.Discuss the importance of research and development in industrial growth. 951.Analyze the provisions in industrial policies aimed at supporting the growth of SMEs. 952.Discuss challenges faced by SMEs and how policies address them. 953.Discuss the incorporation of environmental and social responsibility in industrial policies. 954.How can policies balance economic development with sustainability? 955.Explain how industrial policies contribute to creating an ease of doing business environment. 956.Discuss the role of regulatory frameworks in shaping industrial practices. 957.Discuss how industrial policies address regional imbalances through the promotion of industrial clusters. 958.Evaluate the impact of such policies on regional development. 959.Explore how industrial policies adapt to the challenges and opportunities presented by globalization. 960.Discuss the role of industrial policies in integrating domestic industries into the global economy. 961.What is the structure of governance in the Indian public sector? 962.Explain the role of the President, Prime Minister, and Council of Ministers in public administration. 963.How is the administrative machinery organized at the central and state levels in India? 964.Discuss the constitutional provisions related to the public sector in India. 965.Explain the concept of federalism and its impact on the functioning of the public sector. 966.Provide an overview of the major PSUs in India and their role in the economy. 967.Discuss the challenges faced by PSUs in terms of efficiency, competition, and financial performance. 968.Analyze the role of public policy in shaping the development of the public sector. 969.How does public policy influence the growth and functioning of government institutions? 970.Explain the budgetary process in the Indian public sector. 971.Discuss the challenges and reforms needed in public financial management. 972.Assess the impact of corruption on the efficiency of public sector organizations. 973.Discuss measures to enhance transparency and accountability in the public sector. 974.Evaluate the role of PPP in infrastructure development in India. 975.Discuss the challenges and benefits associated with PPP projects in the country. 976.Describe the structure and functioning of Panchayati Raj institutions in India. 977.Analyze the importance of local governance in promoting inclusive development. 978.Discuss the role of the public sector in implementing social welfare programs. 979.Evaluate the effectiveness of major social welfare schemes in India. 980.Explain the concept of e-governance and its significance in the Indian context. 981.Discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with the implementation of e- governance initiatives. 982.What is the significance of the services sector in the Indian economy? 983.Identify and explain the major components of the services sector.
  • 33. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 33 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 984.Discuss the growth and impact of the IT and IT-enabled services industry in India. 985.What factors have contributed to India's success in the global IT outsourcing market? 986.Analyze the role of tourism in the services sector. 987.Discuss the challenges and opportunities for the tourism industry in India. 988.Examine the role of banking and financial services in the Indian economy. 989.Discuss recent reforms and trends in the financial services sector. 990.Assess the state of healthcare services in India. 991.Discuss the challenges and initiatives in the healthcare sector. 992.Describe the landscape of education services in India. 993.Discuss the role of education in the overall development of the services sector. 994.Analyze the growth and impact of the telecommunications sector in India. 995.Discuss the role of technology in shaping the telecommunications industry. 996.Explain the significance of transportation and logistics in the services sector. 997.Discuss challenges and improvements needed in the transportation and logistics infrastructure. 998.Highlight key government initiatives to promote the services sector. 999.Assess the effectiveness of policies in encouraging the growth of specific service industries. 1000. Discuss the evolution and impact of e-commerce in the services sector. 1001. Analyze the challenges and opportunities for digital services in India. 1002. Explain the importance of skill development for the services sector. 1003. Discuss initiatives and programs aimed at enhancing skills in service-related industries. 1004. Analyze the impact of globalization on the Indian services sector. 1005. Discuss strategies for Indian service industries to compete globally. 1006. Define market failure and provide examples of situations where markets fail to allocate resources efficiently. 1007. How do externalities contribute to market failure? Provide examples. 1008. Explain the characteristics of public goods. 1009. Why do public goods tend to be underprovided in a purely market-driven economy? 1010. Define positive and negative externalities. 1011. Provide examples of policies or interventions that address externalities. 1012. Discuss the concept of information asymmetry. 1013. How does information asymmetry lead to market failure, and what role can the government play in addressing it? 1014. What are incomplete markets, and how can they lead to inefficiencies? 1015. Provide examples of situations where incomplete markets may fail to allocate resources optimally. 1016. Explain how monopoly power can lead to market failure. 1017. Discuss the role of antitrust laws and regulatory bodies in addressing monopolistic practices. 1018. How does income inequality relate to market failure? 1019. Discuss potential government interventions to address issues of income inequality. 1020. Define merit and demerit goods and explain how their consumption may lead to market failure. 1021. Discuss the role of taxes and subsidies in addressing the consumption of merit and demerit goods. 1022. How can markets fail to adequately provide for public health and safety?
  • 34. Unit-wise Question Bank: Indian Economy 34 | P a g e ` By Dr. Rakesh Bhati 1023. Provide examples of government regulations aimed at ensuring public health and safety. 1024. Discuss the environmental challenges arising from market failures. 1025. How can environmental externalities be addressed through government policies? 1026. Explain how market mechanisms may fail to address cyclical unemployment. 1027. Discuss fiscal and monetary policies that governments can implement to address cyclical unemployment. 1028. How can global markets experience failure, and what role can international cooperation play in addressing these failures? 1029. Provide examples of global market failures and potential solutions. 1030. Discuss the need for consumer protection in markets. 1031. Explain the role of government agencies in ensuring consumer rights and safety. 1032. Define the traditional roles of the state in governance and economics. 1033. What does it mean to redefine the role of the state, and why is it necessary in contemporary times? 1034. Discuss the arguments in favor of a reduced role for the state in economic affairs. 1035. How do market-oriented approaches propose to address societal issues traditionally handled by the state? 1036. Explain the concept of PPPs in redefining the role of the state. 1037. Provide examples of successful PPP initiatives and their impact on governance. 1038. Discuss the benefits and challenges of privatization as a means to redefine the role of the state. 1039. How can privatization be implemented without compromising public interests? 1040. How can the state redefine its role in ensuring social welfare and inclusivity? 1041. Discuss policy measures that promote both economic growth and social equity. 1042. Explain the role of the state in establishing and enforcing regulatory frameworks. 1043. Discuss the challenges of balancing regulatory oversight with promoting business and economic growth. 1044. How can the state foster innovation and technological development in the economy? 1045. Discuss the balance between regulatory control and fostering innovation. 1046. Discuss the role of the state in addressing environmental challenges. 1047. How can environmental sustainability be integrated into the state's policy framework? 1048. How does globalization impact the role of the state in economic governance? 1049. Discuss the importance of international cooperation in redefining the state's role in a globalized world. 1050. How can the state adopt a more responsive and citizen-centric approach in governance? 1051. Discuss the use of technology in enhancing government responsiveness. 1052. Discuss the role of fiscal policies in shaping the state's economic role. 1053. How can fiscal policies be designed to achieve both economic stability and social objectives? 1054. In times of economic crises, how should the state redefine its role for effective crisis management? 1055. Discuss examples of successful state interventions during economic downturns. 1056. How can the state support and promote entrepreneurship in the economy? 1057. Discuss policy measures that encourage innovation and small business growth.