9 Diagnostic Process D Whiting

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9 Diagnostic Process D Whiting

  1. 2. Colorado Master Gardener Training Colorado Gardener Certificate Training Cooperative Extension Colorado State University
  2. 3. <ul><li>Pest Management </li></ul><ul><li>The Diagnostic Process </li></ul><ul><li>Colorado Master Gardener Training </li></ul><ul><li>Colorado Gardener Certificate Training </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Colorado State University </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Pest Management </li></ul><ul><li>The Diagnostic Process </li></ul><ul><li>HCC100 </li></ul><ul><li>Horticultural Science </li></ul><ul><li>The Science of Gardening </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Realize there is a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnose the problem(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Explore management options </li></ul>Pest Management
  5. 6. <ul><li>Realize there is a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnose the problem(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Explore management options </li></ul>Pest Management
  6. 7. <ul><li>1. Identify plant </li></ul><ul><li>2. Define the problem, describing signs a nd symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>3. Distinguish between possible causes by comparing signs and symptoms with reference information </li></ul><ul><li>4. Determine probable cause(s) </li></ul>The Diagnostic Process
  7. 8. Distinguishing Between Possible Cause s <ul><li>Non-living (abiotic) </li></ul><ul><li>Living </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitic disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fungus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MLO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insect and relatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insect present </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insect absent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wildlife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drought </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardening/hardiness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winter dehydration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Storm damage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herbicides & salts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Construction damage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lawn mower blight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Girdling roots </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>1. Identify plant </li></ul><ul><li>2. Define the problem, describing signs a nd symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>3. Distinguish between possible causes by comparing signs and symptoms with reference information </li></ul><ul><li>4. Determine probable cause(s) </li></ul>The Diagnostic Process
  9. 10. Step 1 -- Identify the Plant <ul><li>Thousands of insects and diseases that occur in Colorado </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only a few attack any plant species </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Step 1 -- Identify the Plant <ul><li>Thousands of insects and diseases that occur in Colorado </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only a few attack any plant species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note: Often need to correctly ID plant </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evergreen trees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evergreen shrubs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deciduous shade trees </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Step 2 -- Define the problem, Describing signs and symptoms
  12. 13. Terms Describing Plant Disorders <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in the plant’s growth or appearance in response to damaging factors </li></ul><ul><li>Signs </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of an actual organism or direct evidence of the causal factor. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Step 2 -- Define the problem, Describing signs and symptoms <ul><li>Define what’s normal or abnormal </li></ul><ul><li>Systematically evaluate the plant, describing symptoms and signs </li></ul>
  14. 15. Define what’s normal vs. abnormal <ul><li>Needle Drop of Evergreens </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects current years growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Normal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drop confined to older needles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spruce: 5-7 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pine: 1-3 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stress accelerates needle drop </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Define what’s normal vs. abnormal <ul><li>Normals </li></ul><ul><li>Fuzz on under side of some leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Male pollen cone on pine trees </li></ul><ul><li>Juniper berries (fruits) </li></ul><ul><li>Bluegrass going to seed </li></ul><ul><li>Spores on ferns </li></ul><ul><li>Flowers and fruits on potatoes </li></ul>
  16. 17. Define what’s normal vs. abnormal <ul><li>Normals </li></ul><ul><li>Tomatoes dropping blossoms on cool nights </li></ul><ul><li>Male squash blossoms not setting fruit </li></ul><ul><li>June drop of apples and other fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Mushrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Aerial roots on tomatoes </li></ul><ul><li>Seed stock on rhubarb and onions </li></ul>
  17. 18. Step 2 -- Define the problem, Describing signs and symptoms <ul><li>Define what’s normal or abnormal </li></ul><ul><li>Systematically evaluate the plant, describing signs and symptoms </li></ul>
  18. 19. Systematically evaluate the plant and surroundings describing signs and symptoms
  19. 20. <ul><li>1. Macro-look at tree </li></ul>Systematically evaluate the plant and surroundings describing signs and symptoms
  20. 21. <ul><li>1. Macro-look at tree </li></ul><ul><li>2. Macro-look at surroundings </li></ul>Systematically evaluate the plant and surroundings describing signs and symptoms
  21. 22. <ul><li>1. Macro-look at tree </li></ul><ul><li>2. Macro-look at surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>3. Soil/rooting area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil compaction? </li></ul></ul>Systematically evaluate the plant and surroundings describing signs and symptoms
  22. 23. <ul><li>1. Macro-look at tree </li></ul><ul><li>2. Macro-look at surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>3. Soil/rooting area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil compaction? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Trunk </li></ul>Systematically evaluate the plant and surroundings describing signs and symptoms
  23. 24. <ul><li>1. Macro-look at tree </li></ul><ul><li>2. Macro-look at surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>3. Soil/rooting area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil compaction? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Trunk </li></ul><ul><li>5. Major limbs </li></ul>Systematically evaluate the plant and surroundings describing signs and symptoms
  24. 25. <ul><li>1. Macro-look at tree </li></ul><ul><li>2. Macro-look at surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>3. Soil/rooting area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil compaction? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Trunk </li></ul><ul><li>5. Major limbs </li></ul><ul><li>6. Minor limbs </li></ul>Systematically evaluate the plant and surroundings describing signs and symptoms
  25. 26. <ul><li>1. Macro-look at tree </li></ul><ul><li>2. Macro-look at surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>3. Soil/rooting area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil compaction? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Trunk </li></ul><ul><li>5. Major limbs </li></ul><ul><li>6. Minor limbs </li></ul><ul><li>7. Foliage </li></ul>Systematically evaluate the plant and surroundings describing signs and symptoms
  26. 27. <ul><li>1. Macro-look at tree </li></ul><ul><li>2. Macro-look at surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>3. Soil/rooting area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil compaction? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Trunk </li></ul><ul><li>5. Major limbs </li></ul><ul><li>6. Minor limbs </li></ul><ul><li>7. Foliage </li></ul>Systematically evaluate the plant and surroundings describing signs and symptoms
  27. 28. <ul><li>1. Identify plant </li></ul><ul><li>2. Define the problem, describing signs a nd symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>3. Distinguish between possible causes by comparing signs and symptoms with reference information </li></ul><ul><li>4. Determine probable cause(s) </li></ul>The Diagnostic Process
  28. 29. 3. Distinguish between possible causes by comparing signs and symptoms with reference information <ul><li>READ and Compare </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>1. Identify plant </li></ul><ul><li>2. Define the problem, describing signs a nd symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>3. Distinguish between possible causes by comparing signs and symptoms with reference information </li></ul><ul><li>4. Determine probable cause(s) </li></ul>The Diagnostic Process
  30. 31. 4. Determine probable causes Examine Read
  31. 32. <ul><li>1. Identify plant </li></ul><ul><li>2. Define the problem, describing signs a nd symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>3. Distinguish between possible causes by comparing signs and symptoms with reference information </li></ul><ul><li>4. Determine probable cause(s) </li></ul>The Diagnostic Process
  32. 33. <ul><li>1. Identify plant </li></ul><ul><li>2. Define the problem, describing signs a nd symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>3. Distinguish between possible causes by comparing signs and symptoms with reference information </li></ul><ul><li>4. Determine probable cause(s) </li></ul>The Diagnostic Process
  33. 34. Ask questions, gathering information <ul><li>Visualize </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Help me visualize what’s happening to this tree...” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Ask questions, gathering information <ul><li>Repeat back </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Let me see if I understand what your telling me...” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Ask questions, gathering information <ul><li>Looking at only a few symptoms will likely give an incorrect diagnosis. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Discuss management options AFTER the problem is diagnosed! <ul><li>PIC Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Control of a contributing factor is largely dependent on correction of predisposing and inciting factors. </li></ul>Predisposing Inciting Contributing
  37. 38. The Diagnostic Process
  38. 39. <ul><li>1. Identify plant </li></ul><ul><li>2. Define the problem, describing signs a nd symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>3. Distinguish between possible causes by comparing signs and symptoms with reference information </li></ul><ul><li>4. Determine probable cause(s)) </li></ul>The Diagnostic Process
  39. 40. Systematically evaluate the plant and surroundings describing signs and symptoms
  40. 41. <ul><li>1. Macro-look at tree </li></ul><ul><li>2. Macro-look at surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>3. Soil/rooting area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil compaction? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Trunk </li></ul><ul><li>5. Major limbs </li></ul><ul><li>6. Minor limbs </li></ul><ul><li>7. Foliage </li></ul>Systematically evaluate the plant and surroundings describing symptoms and signs
  41. 42. Using a Key
  42. 43. Using a Key <ul><li>A --- </li></ul><ul><li>1 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>2 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>3 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>a ---- </li></ul><ul><li>b ---- </li></ul><ul><li>B ---- </li></ul><ul><li>1 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>2 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>a ---- </li></ul><ul><li>b ---- </li></ul><ul><li>c ---- </li></ul><ul><li>3 --- </li></ul>Outline Format
  43. 44. Using a Key <ul><li>A --- </li></ul><ul><li>1 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>2 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>3 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>a ---- </li></ul><ul><li>b ---- </li></ul><ul><li>B ---- </li></ul><ul><li>1 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>2 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>a ---- </li></ul><ul><li>b ---- </li></ul><ul><li>c ---- </li></ul><ul><li>3 --- </li></ul>Outline Format
  44. 45. <ul><li>A --- </li></ul><ul><li>1 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>2 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>3 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>a ---- </li></ul><ul><li>b ---- </li></ul><ul><li>B ---- </li></ul><ul><li>1 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>2 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>a ---- </li></ul><ul><li>b ---- </li></ul><ul><li>c ---- </li></ul><ul><li>3 --- </li></ul>Using a Key Outline Format
  45. 46. <ul><li>A --- </li></ul><ul><li>1 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>2 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>3 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>a ---- </li></ul><ul><li>b ---- </li></ul><ul><li>B ---- </li></ul><ul><li>1 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>2 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>a ---- </li></ul><ul><li>b ---- </li></ul><ul><li>c ---- </li></ul><ul><li>3 --- </li></ul>Using a Key Outline Format
  46. 47. Using a Key <ul><li>A --- </li></ul><ul><li>1 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>2 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>3 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>a ---- </li></ul><ul><li>b ---- </li></ul><ul><li>B ---- </li></ul><ul><li>1 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>2 ---- </li></ul><ul><li>a ---- </li></ul><ul><li>b ---- </li></ul><ul><li>c ---- </li></ul><ul><li>3 --- </li></ul>Outline Format
  47. 48. <ul><li>1a. ---- go to 2 </li></ul><ul><li>1b. ---- go to 4 </li></ul><ul><li>2a. --- [identification] </li></ul><ul><li>2b. --- go to 3 </li></ul><ul><li>3a. [identification] </li></ul><ul><li>3b. [identification] </li></ul><ul><li>4a. --- go to 5 </li></ul><ul><li>4b. --- go to 7 </li></ul>Using a Key Numbered Line Format
  48. 49. <ul><li>1a. ---- go to 2 </li></ul><ul><li>1b. ---- go to 4 </li></ul><ul><li>2a. --- [identification] </li></ul><ul><li>2b. --- go to 3 </li></ul><ul><li>3a. [identification] </li></ul><ul><li>3b. [identification] </li></ul><ul><li>4a. --- go to 5 </li></ul><ul><li>4b. --- go to 7 </li></ul>Using a Key Numbered Line Format
  49. 50. <ul><li>1a. ---- go to 2 </li></ul><ul><li>1b. ---- go to 4 </li></ul><ul><li>2a. --- [identification] </li></ul><ul><li>2b. --- go to 3 </li></ul><ul><li>3a. [identification] </li></ul><ul><li>3b. [identification] </li></ul><ul><li>4a. --- go to 5 </li></ul><ul><li>4b. --- go to 7 </li></ul>Using a Key Numbered Line Format
  50. 51. <ul><li>1a. ---- go to 2 </li></ul><ul><li>1b. ---- go to 4 </li></ul><ul><li>2a. --- [identification] </li></ul><ul><li>2b. --- go to 3 </li></ul><ul><li>3a. [identification] </li></ul><ul><li>3b. [identification] </li></ul><ul><li>4a. --- go to 5 </li></ul><ul><li>4b. --- go to 7 </li></ul>Using a Key Numbered Line Format
  51. 53. Diagnosing the Insect on Aspen <ul><li>1. Identify plant: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspen </li></ul></ul>
  52. 54. Diagnosing the Insect on Aspen <ul><li>1. Identify plant: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Define the problems: </li></ul>
  53. 55. Aspen
  54. 56. Diagnosing the Insect on Aspen <ul><li>1. Identify plant: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASPEN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Define the problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caterpillars feeding on foliage, making tents </li></ul></ul>
  55. 57. Diagnosing the Insect on Aspen <ul><li>1. Identify plant: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASPEN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Define the problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caterpillars feeding on foliage, making tent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Distinguish between possible causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use key in Insects and Diseases of Wood Plants </li></ul></ul>
  56. 58. Insect and Diseases of Woody Plants Key <ul><li>Aspen </li></ul>
  57. 59. Insect and Diseases of Woody Plants Key <ul><li>Aspen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting smaller branches and twigs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting branches and trunk </li></ul></ul>
  58. 60. Insect and Diseases of Woody Plants Key <ul><li>Aspen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting smaller branches and twigs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting branches and trunk </li></ul></ul>
  59. 61. Insect and Diseases of Woody Plants Key <ul><li>Aspen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves chewed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves spotted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves generally distorted, thickened </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves with serpentine, silvery tunneling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sucking insects on leaves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>White powdery material on leaf surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yellowed leaves </li></ul></ul></ul>
  60. 62. Insect and Diseases of Woody Plants Key <ul><li>Aspen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves chewed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves spotted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves generally distorted, thickened </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves with serpentine, silvery tunneling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sucking insects on leaves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>White powdery material on leaf surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yellowed leaves </li></ul></ul></ul>
  61. 63. Insect and Diseases of Woody Plants Key <ul><li>Aspen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves chewed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves curled </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tent of silk produced </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No curling or silk associated with injury </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Masses of dark, spiny caterpillars on leaves </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  62. 64. Insect and Diseases of Woody Plants Key <ul><li>Aspen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves chewed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves curled </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tent of silk produced </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No curling or silk associated with injury </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Masses of dark, spiny caterpillars on leaves </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  63. 65. Insect and Diseases of Woody Plants Key <ul><li>Aspen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting Leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves chewed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves curled </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tent of silk produced </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No curling or silk associated with injury </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Masses of dark, spiny caterpillars on leaves </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  64. 66. Insect and Diseases of Woody Plants Key <ul><li>Aspen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves chewed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves curled </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tent of silk produced </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Western tent caterpillar -- see page 10 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  65. 67. Western Tent Caterpillar Management <ul><li>Natural controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitic wasps and flies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viral diseases of caterpillars are common, particularly on wet springs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical removal of tents (effective on small trees) </li></ul><ul><li>Insecticides -- controlled by most insecticides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warranted only when population is high, tree is under attack for 2nd year in row, or when tree is under stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tent may prevent insecticide from reaching caterpillars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bt , natural insecticide, preferred choice </li></ul></ul>Generally provide adequate control
  66. 69. Diagnosing the Insect on Ash <ul><li>1. Identify plant: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ash </li></ul></ul>
  67. 70. Diagnosing the Insect on Ash <ul><li>1. Identify plant: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ash </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Define the problems: </li></ul>
  68. 71. Ash
  69. 72. Ash
  70. 73. Diagnosing the Insect on Ash <ul><li>1. Identify plant: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ash </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Define the problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Hemiptera (true bugs) on leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves speckled with yellow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dark spots of insect frass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaflets somewhat distorted </li></ul></ul>
  71. 74. Diagnosing the Insect on Ash <ul><li>1. Identify plant: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ash </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Define the problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Hemiptera (true bugs) on leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves speckled with yellow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dark spots of insect frass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaflets somewhat distorted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Distinguish between possible causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use key in Insects and Diseases of Wood Plants </li></ul></ul>
  72. 75. Insect and Diseases of Woody Plants Key <ul><li>Ash </li></ul>
  73. 76. Insect and Diseases of Woody Plants Key <ul><li>Ash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting Leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting twigs and smaller branches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting trunks and larger branches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distorting flowers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chewing seeds </li></ul></ul>
  74. 77. Insect and Diseases of Woody Plants Key <ul><li>Ash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting Leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting twigs and smaller branches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting trunks and larger branches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distorting flowers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chewing seeds </li></ul></ul>
  75. 78. Insect and Diseases of Woody Plants Key <ul><li>Ash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting Leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves chewed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves spotting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves bronzing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves curled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>White powdery material on leaf surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wilting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  76. 79. Insect and Diseases of Woody Plants Key <ul><li>Ash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting Leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves chewed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves spotting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves bronzing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves curled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>White powdery material on leaf surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wilting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  77. 80. Insect and Diseases of Woody Plants Key <ul><li>Ash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting Leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves spotting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blackened spotting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rust or orange spots </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaflets being distorted and/or killed back </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flecking wound on leaves </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  78. 81. Insect and Diseases of Woody Plants Key <ul><li>Ash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting Leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves spotting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blackened spotting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rust or orange spots </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaflets being distorted and/or killed back </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flecking wound on leaves </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  79. 82. Insect and Diseases of Woody Plants Key <ul><li>Ash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting Leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves spotting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaflets being distorted and/or killed back </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ash plant bug -- see page 57 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flecking wound on leaves </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ash plant bug -- see page 57 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lace bug -- see page 59 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  80. 83. Ash Plant Bug <ul><li>Cosmetic damage -- does not warrant control on healthy trees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control needed on trees under stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drought stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Insecticide sprays are only effective at the onset of feeding, just as leaves start to expand. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insecticide treatments are not warranted latter in the season. </li></ul></ul>
  81. 84. <ul><li>1. Identify plant </li></ul><ul><li>2. Define the problem, describing signs a nd symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>3. Distinguish between possible causes by comparing signs and symptoms with reference information </li></ul><ul><li>4. Determine probable cause(s) </li></ul>The Diagnostic Process
  82. 85. <ul><li>1. Macro-look at tree </li></ul><ul><li>2. Macro-look at surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>3. Soil/rooting area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil compaction? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Trunk </li></ul><ul><li>5. Major limbs </li></ul><ul><li>6. Minor limbs </li></ul><ul><li>7. Foliage </li></ul>Systematically evaluate the plant and surroundings describing signs and symptoms

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