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Day 2
MAY 2015
Nick Remis

@dreamis
Design Research
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
WARM-UP
Find Your
Soulmates
2
→ You each have a secret card. Do
not share this.
→ Go around the room and talk to
people to find out who else a
matching secret card.
→ You cannot say what is on your
card, you can only describe or act
it out.
→ After you’ve found a match, stay
together until others are done.
TIME: 15 minutes
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 3
DAY 1
DESIGN
STRATEGY
DS
DAY 2
USER
RESEARCH
DR
DAY 3
SERVICE
DESIGN
SD
DAY 4
INTERACTION
DESIGN
IxD
The tools you
need to put your
designs into
business — and
vice versa
How to unearth
deep, practical
insights about the
people you want
to reach most
Tools of modeling
and analysis that
shape smart and
systemic solutions
How to design for
better interactions
and become a
better interaction
designer
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 4
ScopeFocus
Concepts &

Language
Research

Questions
Context & Form
Experience Principles
DAY 1
DESIGN
STRATEGY
DS
DAY 2
USER
RESEARCH
DR
DAY 3
SERVICE
DESIGN
SD
DAY 4
INTERACTION
DESIGN
IxD
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 5
DAY 3
SERVICE
DESIGN
SD
DAY 4
INTERACTION
DESIGN
IxD
Abstract
Tangible
Think Make
DAY 2
USER
RESEARCH
DR
DAY 1
DESIGN
STRATEGY
DS
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Agenda
→ Being Human-centric
→ Setting Research Objectives & 

Building the Hypothesis
→ Designing the Right Approach
→ Collecting the Good Stuff
→ Translating to Design
6
UX INTENSIVE
→ UX Intensive
• @uxintensive
• #UXICopenhagen
• apevents@adaptivepath.com
→ Nick Remis
• @dreamis
• nick@adaptivepath.com
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Being Human-centric
→ A research story
→ How organizations think of people
→ What is Design Research
→ Value of Design Research
→ The process of Design Research
7
DESIGN RESEARCH
A Research Story
"Medical device manufacturers are stuck in
a bygone era; they continue to design these
products in an engineering-driven,
physician-centered bubble. They have not yet
grasped the concept that medical devices are
also life devices, and therefore need to feel
good and look good for the patients using
them 24/7, in addition to keeping us alive."
— AMY TENDERICH, DIABETES MINE BLOG
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
SHE HAS A
POINT…
WE TALKED TO
DIABETICS
Easy to learn and teach/No numbers
Make better use of data
Less stuff
Keep users in control
Help keep users motivated
Wear it during sex
RESEARCH STORY
Experience Principles
Organizations tend to
oversimplify their view of
people
www.flickr.com/photos/20949260@N02/2647912578/ via compfight.com
3old ways
of thinking
DOCILE +
GULLIBLE
STORIES +
MESSAGING
#1 Sheep
PREFERENCES!
www.flickr.com/photos/81182072@N00/40042244/
HIGHLY
RATIONAL
MAXIMIZES
UTILITY
www.flickr.com/photos/83346641@N00/8933306274/
#2 Homo Economicus
QUANTITY!
GOAL DRIVEN
#3 Type A Personality
EFFICIENCY!!
TASK ORIENTED
Not all wrong, not really right.
What’s missing?
RESEARCH STORY
The messy complexity of human life
https://www.flickr.com/photos/76818399@N00/252562895/
What is design research?
BEING HUMAN-CENTRIC
21ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
de·sign re·search
The work that uncovers and articulates the
needs of individuals and/or groups in order to
inform the design of products and services in a
structured manner.
WHAT IS DESIGN RESEARCH
22ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
WHAT IS DESIGN RESEARCH
Design research informs us by…
Building empathy

Internalize the emotional
state of users

Challenging biases

Testing assumptions,
hypothesis, and existing
biases to mitigate 

group think
Understand context

Explore the context what
will surround you design
Discovering experiential 

& functional needs

Understanding customer
needs for a variety 

of elements
23ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
In A Nutshell…
WHAT IS DESIGN RESEARCH
DATA
(STORIES, FACTS)
INSIGHT
(PATTERNS, THEMES)
REASON
(DRIVERS, CAUSES)
SOLUTION
(CONSIDERATIONS)
Should research and design be
separate activities?
No.
25ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
When To Uncover Truths
WHAT IS DESIGN RESEARCH
DEFINE PLAN DESIGN RELEASE
BUILD EMPATHY
UNDERSTAND
INPUTS FOR
DESIGN
PRIORITIZE
DESIGN
REQUIREMENTS
IDENTIFY
OPPORTUNITIES
VALIDATE &
REFINE
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Design research is a
strategic tool that drives
the design process.
But it’s also a strategic
tool that drives business
and assures engagement
with what you put out in
the world.
WHAT IS DESIGN RESEARCH
Common types of research
MARKET RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
28ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Market vs. Design Research
— after Panthea Lee, Reboot
Market Research Design Research
Primary Focus Generate value (often financial) for the
organization.
Understand the meaning of value (often utility)
for the end user.
Process Systematic gathering of quantitative or mass
market data that is then analytically processed.
Cumulative gathering of human experiences and
artifacts that are then synthetically processed.
Primary
Processing Tool
Logic and analytics, usually quantitative Empathy and synthesis, almost always
qualitative
Common 

Communication 

Approaches
Reports and presentations that use words, charts,
and graphics to present linear market analyses
and projections. Data and statistical analysis
reign.
Multimedia presentations that use words, photos,
drawings, and stories to present complex human
archetypes, needs, and patterns. Data becomes
human narrative.
Enables
Practitioners to
Make sound decisions based on identified options. Develop a sound solution that meets identified
needs — and possibly delights.
WHAT IS DESIGN RESEARCH
29ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Quantitative Research
→ Quantitative research answers “how much” and “how
many” questions.
→ Often done independently, quantitative research is
especially effective when combined with qualitative
field research.
→ In the form of a survey, quantitative research helps to
more broadly explore and validate qualitative
observations by providing data from a larger population
of respondents.
→ Quantitative results can then be analyzed along with
field findings to arrive at deeper understanding of
select aspects.
WHAT IS DESIGN RESEARCH
Combining qualitative and quantitative research can yield
richer, more strongly validated results for certain findings.
30ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Qualitative Research
→ Qualitative research answers “why” and “how”
questions.
→ With roots in anthropology, qualitative methods
enable a researcher to interview and engage with
people in their actual environments. They give us
the ability to ask questions, explore, and observe.
→ The result and analysis of qualitative research
data is typically not statistical. Qualitative
research is about deeply studying and
understanding human behavior.
WHAT IS DESIGN RESEARCH
An approach to unearthing insights and understanding of real
people, and their behavioral and cultural characteristics.
Value of Design Research
BEING HUMAN-CENTRIC
32ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Levels of Understanding
VALUE OF DESIGN RESEARCH
THE DOMAIN
(INDUSTRY, DISCIPLINE)
MACRO CONTEXT
(SOCIETY + CULTURE)
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT
(PEOPLE, PLACES, TIME)
POV ON PRODUCT
(INTERACTIONS, CONTROLS)
POV ON EXPERIENCE
(JOURNEY)
NEEDS + BEHAVIORS
(EXPLICIT + TACIT)
33ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Intents of Research
→ Explore…

Understand larger systems of use or needs on a higher
level, identify opportunities or areas for innovation
→ Understand…

Go deep in an identified area, product/service, an activity
or usage mode
→ Evaluate…

Get user feedback at different stages of development
process to refine, select and verify concepts
BROAD &

GENERATIVE
VALUE OF DESIGN RESEARCH
NARROW &

EVALUATIVE
34ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Outcomes of Research
→ Explore… to set direction

Minimize risk for a new product or service by
understanding context and identifying opportunities
→ Understand… to reduce risk

Ensure the viability of the product/service by
exposing specifics, nuance, and subtlety
→ Evaluate… to improve quality

Focus efforts on areas of greatest need and
accelerate and/or fine tune solution development
VALUE OF DESIGN RESEARCH
BROAD &

GENERATIVE
NARROW &

EVALUATIVE
35ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Prime Directives
→ No identification of self or mission
→ No interference with the social
development of the group under
observation
→ No references to space or the fact
that there are other worlds or more
advanced civilizations
VALUE OF DESIGN RESEARCH
“PURE” RESEARCH
→ Uncover unmet needs
→ Observe behavior
→ Empathize with people
→ Understand context
→ Change thinking
→ Spark creativity
→ Identify new opportunities
→ Reduce risk
DESIGN RESEARCH
36ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
This Helps Designers…
→ Invent possible futures
→ Assess the desirability of these futures
→ Experiment with what can be changed
→ Work out plans to proceed toward desirable futures
→ Make proposals to those who can bring a design to fruition
– Klaus Krippendorff, 

Annenberg School for Communication
VALUE OF DESIGN RESEARCH
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 37
GOALS AND
OBJECTIVES
PARTICIPANTS 

& METHODS
DATA

COLLECTION
DATA

ANALYSIS
DEMONSTRATE

FINDINGS
EXERCISE 2:
Characterize
Research
Participants
EXERCISE 3:
Match the Methods
EXERCISE 4:
Conduct Research
Sessions
EXERCISE 5:
Model the Journey
EXERCISE 6:
Prioritize Insights for
Design
EXERCISE 1:
Build A Hypothesis
LUNCH DRINKS!
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Setting Research Objectives &
Building a Hypothesis
→ Uncovering project goals
→ Identifying research objectives
→ Exercise 1: Build Your Hypothesis
38
DESIGN RESEARCH
Setting Research Objectives
Identify the key goals of the
entire project.
Not just the research
component.
41ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Have clear goals.
→ Outline key components of the user experience that need to
be understood for the project to succeed
→ Provide a clear basis for asking questions, framing
outcomes, selecting research methods, and setting timelines
→ Allow research to uncover true insights and understanding,
not support preconceived notions
SETTING RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
42ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Defining Project Goals
→ Project briefs
→ Project plans
→ Organizational mission statements
→ Requirements documents
→ Stakeholder interviews
SETTING RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
43ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Defining Research Objectives
→ Frame probable results, outcomes, or deliverables in terms of
what you are trying to understand rather than the format of
a particular method
→ Represent the assumptions living within the project
objectives and drive the specifics of the research protocol
→ Provide a cognitive structure for research analysis
SETTING RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 44
Cognitive Structure
SETTING RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
Wisdom
Knowledge
Information
Data
based on the DIKW or Knowledge Hierarchy: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIKW_Pyramid
Insights
Findings
Patterns
Data
Research Objectives
Key Questions
Protocol Questions
Data
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 45
Plan from the top down
SETTING RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1
2
3
4
Research Objectives
Key Questions
Protocol Questions
Data
46ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
What Truths To Uncover
→ Identify high level key questions that need to be answered
to fulfill the project goals / objectives
→ Rank your goals / objectives 

(by importance, severity, priority to business, etc.)
→ Develop general questions for each objective, then iterate,
becoming more specific with each iteration
SETTING RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
47ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Prioritizing Research Questions
You will have a lot of research objectives, some of which will be
contradictory. This is normal.
SETTING RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
→ Expedience: Can we answer this question another, easier way?
→ Importance: What is most important to the business and to 

the customer?
→ Severity: The more it hurts, the more you should seek to understand it
through research.
→ Priority: A subjective term but worth considering. Sometimes
organizational “priorities” trump research objectives, for better or worse.
48ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Sample Research Goals
The goal of this research is to identify opportunities to provide new
financial products and services for students. The research plan aims to
answer the following questions:
SETTING RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
→ How do students think about and prioritize the financial aspects of their lives?
→ How do students manage their finances today?
→ What factors differentiate or impact a student’s financial priorities?
→ How do students select a financial organization?
→ How do students feel about their current financial organizations?
→ How does education on their finances play a role in students’ experiences?
49ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Sample Key Questions
What components do students consider as part of their
financial ecosystem?
How do students describe/talk about their finances? Who do
they talk to about their finances?
When and how do finances play a key moment in students’
daily lives?
What actions do students take in regards to their finances?
What prompts those actions?
SETTING RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
RESEARCH 

OBJECTIVE:
Understand
how students
think about
and prioritize
the financial
aspects of
their lives
Building Your Hypothesis
THE CHALLENGE 

Designing a
future hotel
experience
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
A growing, global hotel chain, Premiere Hotels, is interested in creating
more innovative experiences for their patrons that will differentiate them
from their competitors in this saturated market.
Our job is to help the strategy and design teams at Premiere Hotels as
they attempt to understand their audiences and identify potential
opportunities for new products and services.
Today they are focused on designing a new “pre-stay experience”
considering the patron’s end-to-end journey from booking to check-in.
52
Pre-stay Hotel Experience
THE CHALLENGE
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 53
Project Goals
→ Develop a differentiated experience
→ Increase the number of bookings/reservations
→ Grow the base of loyal patrons (membership)
→ Increase the number of repeat visits
→ Increase staff satisfaction and encourage the delivery of delightful service
→ Decrease the number of customer complaints
→ Increase customer satisfaction
→ Expand product and service offerings that provide new lines of business
THE CHALLENGE
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Your team and your client have worked together to reach these research
objectives for this challenge:
→ Gain a more detailed understanding of the interactions across a patron’s
journey from booking to arrival;
→ Highlight painpoints and opportunities of current patrons’ experiences with the
products/service;
→ Collect insights on the potential target customers’ perceptions, thoughts, and
feelings regarding their current hotel experiences;
→ Understand these customers’ needs and expectations in order to have a
successful and delightful pre-stay hotel experience.
54
Research Objectives
THE CHALLENGE
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Premiere Hotels wants to understand the different types of patrons they could
target as future customers. Each team will be exploring a different target
customer:
1. Families on vacation
2. Couples on romantic retreats
3. Business travelers
4. Backpackers
5. Friends on group trips
55
Target Customers
THE CHALLENGE
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
EXERCISE #1
Build Your
Hypothesis
56
As the design research team, your
task is to plan and execute research
that results in a new pre-stay
experience model Premiere Hotels
can communicate to partners.
Before you can plan your research,
your team must build a hypothesis
for this experience based on your
assumptions and individual
experiences.
TIME: 30 minutes
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 57
Build Your Hypothesis
EXERCISE #1
In your teams, capture any assumptions you have for each of the outlined
“stages” of the experience using your assigned “Target Customer”. Put each
assumption on an individual sticky note.
Consider
→ What roles are involved in the experience?
→ What do hotel patrons do in each of these stages?
→ What do they think or feel during these stages?
→ What opportunities or painpoints do you think occur during these stages?
→ What gaps do you have in your understanding of this stage? What questions do you want to
answer during research?
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 58
Hypothesis - Stages
EXERCISE #1
CONSIDERING +
PLANNING
MAKING
ARRANGEMENTS
TRAVELING 

TO HOTEL
ARRIVING +
CHECKING-IN
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
EXERCISE #1
Build Your
Hypothesis
59
As the design research team, your
task is to plan and execute research
that results in a new pre-stay
experience model Premiere Hotels
can communicate to partners.
Before you can plan your research,
your team must build a hypothesis
for this experience based on your
assumptions and individual
experiences.
TIME: 30 minutes
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Designing the Right Approach
for Research
→ Identifying research participants
→ Exercise 2: Characterize Research Participants
→ Choosing research methods
→ Exercise 3: Match the Methods
60
DESIGN RESEARCH
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 61
GOALS AND
OBJECTIVES
PARTICIPANTS 

& METHODS
COLLECT

DATA
ANALYZE

DATA
DEMONSTRATE

FINDINGS
Identifying Participants
UX Intensive Copenhagen | Day 2 | Design Research
64ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Who should I talk to?
For this research, it’s people who are best equipped to provide answers
to your key research objectives. This might include:
Existing customers Potential customers Former customers
Extreme customers Staff Who else?
65ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
How Do I Find the People?
A guide from User Interface Engineering (UIE) gives you step
by step guidance for finding the right participants for your
research, including:
IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS
→ Planning your recruiting campaign
→ Recruiting options (in-house or outsourced)
→ Choosing the recruiter
→ Creating a recruiting profile / screener
→ Building a contact list
→ Making contact
→ Effective recruitment interviewing
→ Interviewing checklist
→ Preparing forms
→ Dealing with cancellations
www.uie.com/reports/recruiting_without_fear/
66ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Describe Who You Are Looking For…
IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS
→ They have traveled at least 3 times in the past 6 months.
→ Their main purpose for travel is work-related.
→ Must have played a role in planning their travel.
BUSINESS TRAVELERS
→ They have planned a family vacation (for at least 4 people)
within the last year.
→ The vacation required planning beyond hotel reservations
(e.g., flight, transportation, dinner reservations, etc.).
FAMILY TRIP PLANNERS
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 67
What Criteria Should I Use?
IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS
→ Demographic: age, gender, race, income, family status
→ Geographic: country, region, urban, suburban, rural
→ Behavioral: frequency, duration, diversity, ownership, membership
→ Attitudinal: for, against, undecided, prior experience (good or bad)
TIP: Always check to see that the person is articulate! 

Important to do this through the screening process.
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 68
Include the extremes
IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS
Majority of users
Extreme usersExtreme users
69ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Be Specific!
IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS
70ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Story: Who are Financial Advisers?
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
OBJECTIVE Arrive at a comprehensive, big-picture view of financial advisers around
their information needs, attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions
The criteria we had to consider and and screen for included:
1. A complex mix of demographics and domain-specific factors
2. A range of experience levels and book-of-business sizes
3. A mix of working contexts, from one-man-shops to large team-based operations
4. Openness to describing their professional approach and differentiators
5. Technology use and openness to new ways of doing things
IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
EXERCISE #2
Characterize
Your Research
Participants
71
→ For your study, who are you going
to talk to?
→ Use the target user your team
worked with for Exercise #1
→ Create a participant profile for the
kinds of people you want to
conduct research with
TIME: 10 minutes
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
EXERCISE #2
Characterize
Your Research
Participants
72
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
EXERCISE #2
Characterize
Your Research
Participants
73
→ For your study, who are you going
to talk to?
→ Use the target user your team
worked with for Exercise #1
→ Create a participant profile for the
kinds of people you want to
conduct research with
TIME: 10 minutes
Choosing Research Methods
75ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Variety of Methods + Tactics
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
Safaris
Intercepts
Interviews
Observations 

+ Field Studies
Diary (Cultural Probe) 

Studies
Surveys
Analytics
A/B Testing
Pilot Testing
Prototype Testing
Participatory Design
Usability Testing
Card Sorting
Focus Groups
Eye Tracking
Directed Storytelling
76ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Design research core methods
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
CONVERSATIONS
The stories, conversations, and
interviews you have with
research participants.
OBSERVATIONS
The observed behaviors, tasks,
and processes, including their
resulting artifacts.
77ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Deciding on Methods
1. Why are you we doing research?
2. What do we need to understand?
3. What is the intended output of the research?
4. What kind of work do you need to inform?
5. What are the resources for research?
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
1
2
3
4
5
78ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
What to Understand
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
GENERATIVE
Problem
EVALUATIVE
Solution
Inspired by model by Jenn + Ken Visocky O’Grady
Safaris
Intercepts
Interviews
Observations
Diary Studies
Surveys
Analytics
A/B Testing
Pilot Testing
Prototype Testing
Co-Design Sessions
Usability Testing
79ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Intended Output
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
JOURNEY MAP PERSONAS
MVP +

DESIGN CRITERIA
Directed Storytelling
Observations
Diary Studies
Interviews
Intercepts
Diary Studies
Interviews
Surveys
Participatory Design
Card Sorting
Prototype Testing
Surveys
80ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
LEAN
RIGOROUS
Quick & Lean:
• Quickly putting something in front of people can be just as
(or more) valuable than a rigorous research plan
• Dependent on finding the right sample of people
• Design methods + research activities that get more insights
in less time (workshop style)
• Build tools to help you synthesize as you go
• Capture patterns as you see them occur to quickly get to
insights (daily debriefs)
Scale of Research
81ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
LEAN
RIGOROUS
Deep & Broad:
• Carefully identify target participants
• Employ a mix of methods and activities for deeper
understanding
• Create data capture and debrief tools/approaches
• Take sense-making breaks; analyze as you go
• Manage and safeguard collected data and artifacts
Scale of Research
Design research does not need
to take weeks. Depending on
time and constraints, your
research may consist of a single
participant for one hour.


Use the time you have to get the
most value.
83ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Planning Research Tactics
→ What’s important to discover?
→ What don’t you know?
→ What do you need to validate?
→ What kind of engagement do you need?
→ Where do you need to go?
→ Who are your research participants?
→ How sensitive is the research topic?
→ What is the appropriate timing of research?
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
84ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Prioritizing Methods
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
USAGE DATA SURVEY FIELD RESEARCH
Shows aggregate activity
and trends, often without
differentiation
Tells a bit more about us
who is visiting and about
patterns of purpose and
frequency
Tells us what people are
trying to do, how they go
about it, and something
about why they are doing it
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
“Focus groups can’t
identify unmet needs for
the simple reason that
most people don’t know
what they are missing until
they experience it.”
- Gianfranco Zaccai
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
We don’t do Focus Groups.
86ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Directed
Storytelling
Participant relates a past
experience in detail, while an
interviewer probes for underlying
motivations and breakdowns.
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
88ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Directed Storytelling
→ Get people to tell stories of a past experience
→ Focus on uncovering motivations, needs, goals, breakdowns,
and delights
→ Listen and probe for details; move beyond generalization
→ Use visual tools (sketching) to document and diagram their
stories so participants can validate while they are sharing
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
UX Intensive Copenhagen | Day 2 | Design Research
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Observations
Observing people in a given
context to understand their
behaviors, interactions, and
environment.
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
source: http://i1.ytimg.com/vi/21x9QBNHx-0/maxresdefault.jpg
91ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Types of Observations
→ Naturalistic: No interaction with the observed or interference
with their actions or environment.
→ Controlled: Providing specific prompts or tasks. Contextual
inquiry is a form of controlled observation.
→ Participatory: Actively taking part with those being observed
and their environment.
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
www.crateandbarrel.com/glass-4-cup-measuring-cup/s530247
houseoffraser.scene7.com/is/image/HOF/I_107848688_00_20081211
source:http-//www.abetterbagofgroceries.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/OXO-measure-cup-from-top.jpg
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Intercepts
An in-context method for
quickly asking questions that
provide insights into what
customers are doing.
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
source: http://i1.ytimg.com/vi/21x9QBNHx-0/maxresdefault.jpg
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Video
Ethnography
A method combining
observation and first-person
annotation to capture an
experience in real time.
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
source: http://stbyblogs.eu/cyclehiring/category/results/
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Picture Cards
Using visual, participatory
prompts to help participants
share stories, feedback, and to
probe on tacit needs.
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
source: http://i1.ytimg.com/vi/21x9QBNHx-0/maxresdefault.jpg
98ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Picture Cards
→ Help people think systematically about their life
experiences while maintaining a grounding in the
contexts and details of their lives
→ Create cards with images that help people tell
research-relevant stories
→ Bring blank cards to fill in the particulars that you were
unable to account for ahead of time
→ Include cards that support thinking about future
products and services
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
UX Intensive Copenhagen | Day 2 | Design Research
UX Intensive Copenhagen | Day 2 | Design Research
UX Intensive Copenhagen | Day 2 | Design Research
UX Intensive Copenhagen | Day 2 | Design Research
UX Intensive Copenhagen | Day 2 | Design Research
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Participatory
Design
Directly involving service
actors (customers, agents,
stakeholders, etc.) in the
research and design process.
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
105ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Participatory Design
→ Using co-creation activities can elicit new ideas, unspoken
needs, and insights on relationships during an experience
→ Create activities with templates and supplies that are
approachable and easy to use
→ Structure the activities so users can easily create while
communicating their decisions
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
source: Maria Cordell
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Diary Studies
Journaling methods in which
research participants capture
their experiences visually and
annotate those artifacts with
a personal narrative.
Sometimes called Cultural
Probes or Annotated
Experiences.
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
source: http://i1.ytimg.com/vi/21x9QBNHx-0/maxresdefault.jpg
108ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Diary Studies
→ Allows people to capture their thoughts and feelings while
they are having an experience
→ Exposes a deeper view of users’ context, culture, and values
→ Give people tools and a flexible system for capturing and
communicating their experience to you
→ Recruit people who have a digital camera or camera phone (or
provide them one)
→ Design tools that can be easily integrated into the users’
daily routines or experience without being a distraction
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
UX Intensive Copenhagen | Day 2 | Design Research
ASK FOR DETAILS…
Would I look in the minibar for any of this?
CDS?
A FIRST AID KIT?
AN “INTIMACY KIT”?
WHAT IS AN “INTIMACY KIT”?
HAVE THEM TELL YOU A STORY…
“This is what
I saw when I
walked into
my room.”
“I had no idea what
to do with this when
I felt it on the wall
the first time…”
“After three days in
the hotel, I still
wasn’t sure whether
I was supposed to
use the button, the
slider, or both.”
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Love/Breakup
letters
Having participants or
stakeholders write fictional
love or breakup letters to a
product or service.
Highlighting their pinpoints
and delights in an emotional
manner.
TIP: Great method to use as homework
prior to a session
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
source: http://i1.ytimg.com/vi/21x9QBNHx-0/maxresdefault.jpg
114ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Smart Design – https://vimeo.com/11854531
115ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
TYPE OF INQUIRY METHOD APPLICATION/RESULT
Demographic
Who are they?
Age, sex, geography
Surveys
Database analysis
Lay of the land
Audience segmentation
Inform/validate other research
Behavioral
How do things get done?
Behavior patterns,
conceptual models
Field research
Contextual interviews
Card sorting
Prototype testing & iteration
Product strategy
Features and functions
Interaction design
Information architecture
Motivational
Why are they doing it?
Goals, emotions,
preferences, desires
Field research
Contextual interviews
Surveys
Product Strategy
Framing the experience
Visual interpretation
Branding
Evaluative
How does it work for
them?
Usability testing
Log analysis
Customer feedback
Card sorting
Interaction design
Interaction flow
Page layout
Nomenclature
116ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Frequently Used Methods
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
Learn about
an end-to-end
journey that
occurs over a
period of time.
Identify the
contextual
factors that
impact a
person’s
experience.
PARTICIPATORY
PROMPTS:
PICTURE CARDS
Understand
daily activities
and how a
person
prioritizes +
organizes them.
Collect people’s
impressions of
their world,
especially for
sensitive topics.
DIARY STUDIES:
ANNOTATED
EXPERIENCES
FIELD STUDIES:
OBSERVATIONS +
INTERCEPTS
INTERVIEWS: 

DIRECTED 

STORYTELLING
117ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Triangulation
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
SURVEY

RESULTS
USAGE

DATA
FIELD

RESEARCH

DATA
118ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Choose Methods Wisely
→ Effective research for design
requires flexibility and
resourcefulness
→ Choose the right method for the job
→ Be mindful of assumptions and
biases built into methods
→ Don’t be this guy
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
119ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Methods Toolkit
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
QUALITATIVE (INSIGHTS)
QUANTITATIVE (VALIDATION)
GOALS & ATTITUDES
(SAY)
BEHAVIORS
(DO)
Focus groups Card sorting
Usability testing
Eye tracking
Customer support
data analysis
Surveys
Automated
usability testing
Site traffic/log file
analysis
A/B testing
– Steve Mulder

The User is Always Right
Diary/journal studies
User interviews Field studies
Participatory design
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
Story: Mixing Methods
121ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Tips for Remote Research
→ Leverage remote meeting tools (GoToMeeting)
→ Incorporate tools to support remote participatory activities like card
sorting and documenting user journeys
→ Email participants with clear directions on how to engage with tools
used during research with easy access to links
→ Get comfortable with the tools using a dry run
→ Document everything with screen recordings
→ Have backup plans ready for technology malfunctions**
CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS
Story: Remote Research
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
EXERCISE #3
Match Your
Methods
123
→ For each challenge, choose which
methods would be appropriate
→ Be ready to explain why
→ Add new methods you’ve 

tried that could be valuable
TIME: 15 minutes
What methods did you choose
for each challenge?
Lunch Time!
Lunch is located…
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
WARM-UP
Extract

Human Needs
126
→ Three people at each table should
find a card with a “customer need”
under their seat.
→ One at a time, each person with a
card acts out the need they have
(without saying/describing it).
→ As a table, interview the person to
extract this tacit need.
→ Once you’ve guessed the need,
move on to the next person to
extract their need.
TIME: 10 minutes
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Collecting the Good Stuff
→ The art of effective interviewing
→ What to look for when conducting design research
→ Effective fields tools and tactics
→ Exercise 4: Conduct Research Sessions
127
DESIGN RESEARCH
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 128
GOALS AND
OBJECTIVES
PARTICIPANTS 

& METHODS
COLLECT

DATA
ANALYZE

DATA
DEMONSTRATE

FINDINGS
Facilitating Conversations
Design research relies on a
designer’s soft skills…
Facilitation & Listening
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Interviews
Structured conversations
guided by open-ended
questions designed that set
the stage for learning and deep
understanding.
FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
132ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Interview Contexts
→ In a Facility: Interviewing out of the participant’s typical context,
such as an office or lab.
→ In the Field: Interviewing within a context familiar to the
participant or applicable to the experience you are investigating.
→ In the Moment: Combining interviewing with observation to
probe on what is being observed and to explore the unexpected.
FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
133ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Setting Up for Success
Interviewing can be simple and effective if you:
1. Try to answer what you don’t know and validate what you think 

you know about a topic
2. Be objective, not subjective— leave opinions at home
3. Don’t ask leading questions, “you like this right?” vs. “What do you think
about this?” Always start with What, why, where, when, how
4. Try to get at what people think, feel, do
5. Try to understand ‘why’
6. Build rapport before diving in to the interview
FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Empathic
Listening
Empathic listening gets inside
another person’s frame of
reference. You look out through
it, you see the world the way
they see the world, you
understand their paradigm, you
understand how they feel.
- Stephen R. Covey
FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
<a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/96603394@N00/418349082/">NapInterrupted</a> via <a
href="http://compfight.com">Compfight</a> <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/
2.0/">cc</a>
135ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Try It: Listening
→ Pick a partner — someone you don’t know
→ Pull your chairs together so you are facing one another
→ Select one of you to be the first interviewer
→ Interviewers: You will ask the interviewee to speak for 2
minutes on a topic I will give you. As they answer, you must
remain silent
→ Interviewees: Once the interviewer asks a question, you must
speak on that subject for two minutes. Just keep talking, no
matter what.
FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
136ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
The Topic
Tell me about a tourist attraction that you love —
one that you have visited, explored, or that you
would like to see in the future
FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
137ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Try It: Listen & Appreciate
→ Keep your partner
→ Switch roles: Interviewers become interviewees and
vice versa
→ Same as before: Interviewers ask a question I will
give you. Interviewees speak for up to 2 minutes on
the subject.
→ Modification: Interviewer will use one or more
“appreciation” statements
FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
138ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
The Topic
Tell me about a neighborhood that you love —
one that you have visited or lived in.
FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
139ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
An Appreciation is Something Like…
→ Tell me more about about <subject>...
→ When you were speaking, I noticed <observation>...
→ You made me think about ...
→ It was interesting that ...
→ Tell me about a time ...
Remember your topic...
Tell me about a neighborhood that you love — one
that you have visited or lived in.
FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
140ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Facilitation Tips
→ Follow a thread
→ Ask, “Why?” or prompt with, “Tell me more about...”
→ Pretend you don’t understand — and don’t assume you do
→ Use your instincts to direct or shape the conversation
→ Don’t ask yes/no questions
→ When you get an answer don’t just say, “OK, great!” 

and leave it at that
→ Find the story; prompt for it; explore for it
FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
141ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Keep in Mind…
→ Native Categories

Terms people use to describe their
world, for example, “that’s our ‘junk
drawer’” and “it’s our ‘Friday treat’,”
“I’m not a BMW type of person,”
etc. 



→ Over-generalizations

“We always do it that way” and
“she never uses that” are examples
of over-generalizations. 







FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
142ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Keep in Mind…
→ Claims of Idiosyncrasy 

Interviewees will often make claims
that they do things in an unusual
manner or that there is something
unique about them or their stuff.
→ Brush-offs

Brush-offs are things people don’t
think are important or worthy of
explanation, or things they assume
we wouldn’t be interested in, e.g.,
“that’s not important,” “I don’t use
that radio, let me show you the one
I do”, “oh that’s nothing”, “that’s
just an extra room.”
FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
143ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Remember…
→ Pay attention
→ Make the normal noticeable
→ Get people to show and tell
→ Set people up for success
→ Account for the unspoken rules
→ Make discussions tangible
→ Know your role
FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
144ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Pay Attention
FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
145ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Make the Normal Noticeable
FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
146ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Get People to Show and Tell
FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
147ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Set People Up For Success…?
→ What percentage of time do you spend each day checking email?
→ Tell me about about your favorite television programs.
→ What TV channels do you regularly watch?
→ What is your morning routine from awakening until you leave the
house?
→ If you had a new Apple tablet PC, what would you do with it?
FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
148ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Account For Unspoken Rules
FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
All photos © Maria Cordell
149ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Make Discussions Tangible
FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
150ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Know Your Role
FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
151ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
People Principles
→ People play nice for strangers.
→ People adapt products and
services to meet their needs.
→ People are creatures of habit.
→ Memory is context sensitive.
→ No person is an island.
→ Cognition is distributed.
FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
152ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
When Studying Humans…
→ People are very bad at predicting how and why
they WILL or MIGHT act.
→ People are pretty good at recalling how they DID
act though still not so good at telling you why.
→ People are very bad at staying focused on
activities that they don’t really care about. They
will generally do poorly in fictitious or imaginary
situations.
FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
153ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Personalities & Styles
FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
Confident
Suspicious
Relationship-focused
Free associating
Reticent
Content modified from eLab
Preparing for the field
155ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
What to Take
PREPARING FOR THE FIELD
156ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Set roles for the team
PREPARING FOR THE FIELD
CLASSIC RESEARCH TEAM
MODERATOR NOTES + DOCUMENTATION
157ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Set roles for the team
PREPARING FOR THE FIELD
EXTENDED RESEARCH TEAM
MODERATOR NOTES DOCUMENTATION

(GREAT CLIENT ROLE)
158ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Setting up the room
PREPARING FOR THE FIELD
MODERATOR
NOTES + DOCUMENTATION
NOTES
PARTICIPANT
159ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Tips on timing
PREPARING FOR THE FIELD
→ Try to keep it under 2 hours
→ If you need to go longer, design in
breaks and a diversity of activities
→ Know what activities and
conversations you can cut out 

if you’re running out of time
→ Don’t forget to design in breaks for
the research team!
160ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Research session flow
PREPARING FOR THE FIELD
Project intro
Rapport building
Warmup activity
Core activities
Wrap up
161ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Research Protocol
PREPARING FOR THE FIELD
162ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Tips on research protocols
PREPARING FOR THE FIELD
→ Set 3-5 focus statements 

(closely tied to you research objective)
→ Identify your key questions
→ Build in follow-up questions to
deepen information gathered
→ Include timing details
→ Treat them as a check list so you
can go with the conversational flow
→ Test it out before heading into 

the field!!!
UX Intensive Copenhagen | Day 2 | Design Research
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
COLLECTING THE GOOD STUFF
Story: The Camera Consumer
COULD REPLACE THIS WITH A STORY
FROM CMD+F?
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
COLLECTING THE GOOD STUFF
Story: The Unexpected of Research
http://www.flickr.com/photos/70872463@N00/3151164675/"
http://www.flickr.com/photos/59666714@N00/1316420142/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/39640647@N02/4518128944/
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Prepare for Everything
166ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
→ Participant doesn’t genuinely meet criteria. Know when to end the session.
→ Participant doesn’t show up. Always plan for backups.
→ People are complex, you cannot always predict their behaviors during a session.
Prepare for the unexpected.
→ People have difficult, emotional experiences. You have to empathize while trying
to identify the right insights.
→ People do not instinctively and immediately trust. Dress the part, make them feel
comfortable, and don’t hold it against them for hiding their feelings.
COLLECTING THE GOOD STUFF
Be prepared for your carefully crafted research plan to go haywire, off
script, and wrong in the most inventive ways
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
EXERCISE #4
Conduct
Research
Sessions
167
→ Each team split into 2 groups
→ One group will go in the field to do
observations + intercepts
→ The other group will conduct two 10-
minute interviews with someone from
another team
• One person is the researcher, one
person is the notetaker & sketcher,
and one person is the participant
for another team (you can rotate)
→ After 20 minutes, the teams should
swap observation / interviewing roles


TIME: 40 minutes
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 168
What to Uncover
EXERCISE #4
What triggered his or her journey?
What were his or her expectations?
What actions did he or she take?
What did he or she feel at different
points in time?
What was he or she thinking at
specific moments?
What touchpoints did he or she
interact with?
What people were involved?
What tech (screens, devices, etc.) were
involved?
What events took place?
What locations did actions take place
in?
What was his or her lasting
impression?
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 169
Building Blocks
EXERCISE #4
Thinking
Framing and
expectations
Doing
Activities and
behaviors
Feeling
Feelings and
perceptions
People
Who is involved
Context
Place and
environment
Touchpoints
Products, services,
points of interaction
UX Intensive Copenhagen | Day 2 | Design Research
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
EXERCISE #4
Conduct
Research
Sessions
171
→ Each team split into 2 groups
→ One group will go in the field to do
observations + intercepts
→ The other group will conduct two 10-
minute interviews with someone from
another team
• One person is the researcher, one
person is the notetaker & sketcher,
and one person is the participant
for another team (you can rotate)
→ After 20 minutes, the teams should
swap observation / interviewing roles


TIME: 40 minutes
BREAK TIME!
2:45 – 3:00
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Translating to Design
→ Making Sense of It All
→ Exercise 5: Data Clustering
→ Representing Research Findings
→ Exercise 6: Journey Mapping
→ Leaping from Research to Design
173
DESIGN RESEARCH
Making Sense of It All
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 175
GOALS AND
OBJECTIVES
PARTICIPANTS 

& METHODS
COLLECT

DATA
ANALYZE

DATA
DEMONSTRATE

FINDINGS
176ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Sensemaking
→ A set of processes that is initiated when an individual or
organization recognizes the inadequacy of their current
understanding of events.
→ Sensemaking is an active two-way process of fitting data into a
frame (mental model) and fitting a frame around the data.
→ Neither data nor frame comes first; data evoke frames and frames
select and connect data.
→ When there is no adequate fit, the data may be reconsidered or an
existing frame may be revised.
MAKING SENSE OF IT ALL
Adapted from Jon Kolko’s writing on Design Synthesis
177ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
A Synthesis Framework
→ Prioritize: Stakeholder interviews, user interviews, market research,
cultural trends, and forecasting all produce quantities of data. Decide
which pieces of data are more important than another.
→ Judge: Not all of the data identified in a discovery process is relevant.
Determine what is most significant in the current problem solving
context. Constantly reassess.
→ Forge connections: Discrete elements of data are less interesting
than the relationship between them. An abductively logical story
posits a hypothesis based on inference. The activity of defining and
forging connections actively produces knowledge.
MAKING SENSE OF IT ALL
Adapted from Jon Kolko’s writing on Design Synthesis
178ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
How to Start
MAKING SENSE OF IT ALL
Adapted from Jeremy Alexis
WHAT DID WE
SEE (HEAR)?
(STORIES, FACTS)
WHAT DID WE
LEARN?
(PATTERNS, THEMES)
WHY IT
HAPPENED?
(DRIVERS, CAUSES)
WHAT CAN WE DO
ABOUT IT?
(OPPORTUNITIES)
TRANSCRIBE YOUR
FINDINGS
MAKE OBSERVATIONS VISUAL
PONDER AND DISCUSS
CLUSTER INTO
MEANINGFUL CHUNKS
USE FRAMEWORKS
184ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
AEIOU Synthesis Framework
→ Activities

Goal directed actions
→ Environments

Location
→ Interactions

Person-Person, Person-Thing, Person-Environment
→ Objects

Touchpoints/Artifacts
→ Users

Another word for People
EFFICIENT DATA ANALYSIS
185ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
AEIOU Expansion Pack
→ Space

Environment — Flow within space
→ Actors

Participant + others
→ Activities

Generalized behaviors
→ Acts

Specific interactions
→ Goals

What the actors are attempting to
accomplish
→ Events

If a specific event or location
→ Time

Sequence of events
→ Emotions

Observed, or explicitly stated
EFFICIENT DATA ANALYSIS
186ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
POEMS Research Framework
→ People

Players, roles, relationships
→ Objects

Things, touchpoints, artifacts
→ Environments

Spaces, locations
→ Messaging

Communication, language, signage
→ Services

Systems, processes
EFFICIENT DATA ANALYSIS
187ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
NOABS Analytic Framework
→ Needs

Behaviors, tacit + explit needs, motivations
→ Objectives

Goals, plans, wants
→ Activities

Actions, steps
→ Breakdowns

Painpoints, issues, problem areas
→ Solutions

Interventions, opportunities, recommendations
EFFICIENT DATA ANALYSIS
IIT Institute of Design, Jeremy Alexis
UX Intensive Copenhagen | Day 2 | Design Research
Representing Research
Findings
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 190
GOALS AND
OBJECTIVES
PARTICIPANTS 

& METHODS
COLLECT

DATA
ANALYZE

DATA
DEMONSTRATE

FINDINGS
191ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Creating the Right Representations
Research Objectives
What are the key questions that your
research must answer to be
considered successful? What are the
strategic objectives?
REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS
Design Activities to Support
What kinds of design activities need to be
supported? What kind of future products or
services need to be informed or shaped by the
insights?
Findings Based on Analysis
What are the key themes in your data?
What are the salient dimensions of
your core findings: time, location,
person, role, etc.?
Stakeholder Characteristics
How is information communicated in the
organization? What representations have
worked previously? What formats will best
resonate with stakeholders?
FINDINGS

REPRESENTATIONS
192ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Flow Model
REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS
193ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Physical Model
REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS
194ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Content Model
REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS
195ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Mental Model
REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS
Decide to Watch a Film
Watch a Film for
Pleasure
Watch a Film
for
Entertainment
Watch a Film
for Aesthetics
Watch a Film to Avoid
Something
Watch a Film
because of the
Weather
Play Hooky
from Work to
Watch Film
Watch a Film to
Achieve a Mood
Watch a Film to
Cure Mood
Watch a Film to
Release
Tension
Watch a Film to
Relax
Have a Date Night
Have a Date
Night
Take Family
Dependents to a Film
Take Family
Dependents to
a Film
Share a Film with
Friends
Take Someone
to a Film I Like
Screen a Film
for Friends
Watch a Film to Learn
Watch a Film to
Challenge My
Mind
Watch a Film to
See Different
Cultures
Watch in Theater for
the Experience
Watch a Film
for Theater
Ambiance
Watch a Film
for a Tie to
History
Watch a Film
for Energy of
the Audience
Watch Films Regularly
Watch Films
Regularly
Watch a Film
Spontaneously
Watch a Film
Spontaneously
Attend Films with a
Group
Attend Films
with Family
Attend Films
with Friends Watch My Film
Expenses
Watch My Film
Expenses
Encounter
a Film I
Haven’t
Heard Of
Encounter a Film I
Havent Heard Of
See a Trailer
Hear about a
Film
Search for
Films Online
Read a Book
Choose Film
Look for Certain
Qualities
Choose Film
for the Story
Choose
Blockbusters
Choose Quality
Films
Choose
Serious Films
Choose Self-
Deprecating
Films
Choose Films
by Director
Choose
Eclectic Films
Choose Familiar Films
Choose Film of
Country I’ve
Been To
Choose Film
Because I’ve
Read Book Watch a Certain
Genre in Winter
Watch a
Certain Genre
in Winter
Include Random Film
Choices
Choose a
Variety of Films
See Whats
Playing to
Choose Film Inherit Interest in a
Genre from Family
Inherit Interest
in a Genre from
Family
Choose Films Togeth.
with Companions
Avoid Certain
Films for
Companion
Compromise
on Film Choice
Avoid Certain Films
Avoid Films
with Bad
Stories
Avoid Certain
Genres
Avoid
Mainstream
Films
Avoid Film to
Preserve Book
Experience
Avoid Violent
Films
Avoid Non-PC
Films
Decide on Film Based
on Reviewers Opinion
Read Reviews
When mye Not
Sure
Decide if I
Agree with
Reviewers
Points
Choose Film
Based on
Reviewers
Opinion
Postpone a Film
Wait for Film to
Come Out on
DVD
Learn More about a Film
Read Review to Get
an Idea of the Film
Read Review
to Get an Idea
of the Film
Talk About Films I
Want to See
Talk About
Films I Want to
See
Look for Trailers
Online
Look for
Trailers Online
Anticipate a Film
Set
Expectations
Read Reviews
Regularly
Read the
Reviewers I
Respect
Read Compiled
Reviews
Read Many
Reviews to Get
a Consensus
Read
Newspaper
Reviews
Read Film
Festival
Reviews
Read Reviews
Out of Curiosity
Choose a Theater
Choose a Good
Theater
Choose Clean
Theater
Choose
Theater with
Good Sound
Choose
Theater with
Good
Projection
Choose
Theater w/
Comfortable
Seating
Choose
Theater with
Good Eats
Choose
Theater w/
Good Parking
Choose Easy Theater
Choose
Multiplex for
Familiarity
Choose Central
Location to
Meet Friends
Choose Smaller
Theater
Choose
Smaller
Theater for
Aesthetics
Choose
Smaller
Theater for the
Neighborhood
Choose
Smaller
Theater for
Eclectic Film
Choose Theater with
Big Crowd Energy
Choose
Theater with
Big Crowd
Energy
Choose Theater Close
to Good Restaurants
Choose
Theater Close
to Good
Restaurants
Get Annoyed by
Commercials
Get Annoyed
by
Commercials
Choose a Time
Look Up Running
Times (Length)
Look Up
Running Times
Choose Screening
Time
Choose Early
Screening
Avoid Early
Screening
Choose Later
Screening
Avoid Films at Home
Avoid Films at
Home
Go to the Theater
Avoid Being Late to
Theater
Avoid Being
Late to Theater
Resolve Group
Logistics
Schedule a
Time with a
Group
Get Tickets for
a Group
Meet Group at
Theater
Buy Tickets
Buy Tickets in
Advance
Avoid Standing
in Line to Buy
Tickets
Avoid Buying
Tickets Online
because of
Surcharges
Buy Concessions
Buy Popcorn
Buy Chocolate
Eat
Concessions
Instead of
Dinner
Avoid
Concessions
Choose Seats
Choose Seats
Where I Can
See
Choose Seats
with Good
Sound
Choose Seats
Anywhere
Choose Front
Row Seats
Bring Coat to Cold
Theater
Bring Coat to
Cold Theater
Watch a Film at Home
Rent a Film
Rent if Don’t
Feel Like Going
Out
Try Renting
through NetFlix
Rent a Film to
Save Money
Watch a Film on
Projector
Watch a Film
on Projector
Watch a Film on
DirecTV
Watch a Film
on DirecTV
Watch DVD Extras
Watch DVD w/
Commentary
On
Watch Extras
on DVD
Avoid Extras on
DVD
Make Popcorn
Make Popcorn
Eat Dinner
Eat Dinner
Eat Dinner
Before Film
Eat Dinner
After Film
Eat Lunch
Before a Film
Eat Dinner with
a Companion/
Date
Decide When to Eat
Dinner
Decide When
to Eat Dinner
Make Reservations
Make
Reservations
Skip Dinner
Skip Dinner
Attend a Film Event
Attend a Film
Retrospective
Attend a Film
Retrospective
Attend Academy
Screening
Attend
Academy
Screening
Attend Opening Night
Attend Opening
Night
Dress in Costume
Dress in
Costume
Watch the Film
React to the Film
During Screening
Avoid Audible
Reactions
Share
Reactions w/
Companion
Feel Strong
Emotions
Hide My Eyes
Fall Asleep
During a Film
Observe Other’s
Reactions
Observe
Other’s
Reactions
Ignore Other People/
Immerse Myself
Avoid People
So I Can
Concentrate
Immerse
Myself in a Film
Watch Certain
DVDs Alone
Attend Films
Alone
Compare Film to Book
Get Nitpicky
About
Interpretation
Anticipate
Scenes from
Book Comment on Film
During Screening
Comment on
Film During
Screening
Look for Jokes/
References
Look for Jokes/
References
Admire Craft of the
Film
Admire Craft of
Film
Admire Craft of
Screenplay
Look for
Choreography,
Stunts
Respect the Artist
Watch a Film
Respectful of
the Artist
Feel Reac-
tions Director
Wants
Avoid Leaving
in the Middle
Identify with a FilmAllow a Film to
Permeate My Life
Let the Movie
Linger
Wish that a
Film Can
Change How I
Act
Investigate
Story of Film
Afterwards
Read the Book
Afterwards
Use Quote
from Film in
Conversation
Listen to
Soundtrack
Collect Film-Related
Stuff
Collect Toys
Collect Film
Artwork
Save Tickets in
Scrapbook Get the DVD
Get DVDs as
Gifts
Buy Special
DVDs
Watch a Film Multiple
Times
Watch Film
Multiple Times
Watch DVDs I
Own More than
Once
Interact with People
about the Film
Discuss the Film
Afterward
Go Somewhere
to Sit and
Discuss Film
Discuss Film
Afterwards
Learn Craft
from
Discussion of
Unusual Points
Discuss
Interpretation of
Book
Ask Strangers
Their Opinion
After a Film
Avoid
Discussions
Recommend a Film
Write a Review
Recommend a
Film when
Asked
Follow the Industry
Track Box Office
Competition
Track Box
Office
Competition
Track Production
Studio News
Track
Production
Studio News
Become Serious
about the Craft
Study Film
Craft
Write
Entertainment Get Job at Theater/
Video Store
Get Job at
Theater/Video
Store
Watch
Minimalist
Films to
Meditate
Theaters Near
Me
Theaters Near
Me
Theaters Near
Me
Theaters Near
Me
My Favorite
Theaters List
My Favorite
Theaters List
My Favorite
Theaters List
My Favorite
Theaters List
My Favorite
Theaters List
My Favorite
Theaters List
My Favorite
Theaters List
My Favorite
Theaters List
My Favorite
Theaters List
Pick Favorite
Theater (by
peer rating)
Pick Favorite
Theater (by
peer rating)
Pick Favorite
Theater (by
peer rating)
Pick Favorite
Theater (by
peer rating)
Pick Favorite
Theater (by
peer rating)
Pick Favorite
Theater
(independents)
Pick Favorite
Theater
(independents)
Pick Favorite
Theater
(independents)
Rate a Theater Rate a Theater Rate a Theater Rate a Theater
Rate a Theater
Pick Favorite
Theater (by
location)
Pick Favorite
Theater (by
location)
Pick Favorite
Theater (by
location)
Pick Favorite
Theater (by
concessions)
Pick Favorite
Theater (by
screen size)
Pick Favorite
Theater (by
location)
Pick Favorite
Theater (by
sound system)
Pick Favorite
Theater (by
seating)
Pick Favorite
Theater (by
seating)
Pick Favorite
Theater (by
architecture)
Pick Favorite
Theater (by
parking)
Pick Favorite
Theater (by
nearby
restaurants)
Pick Favorite
Theater (by
nearby
restaurants)
Get to Theater
Map to Theater
Map to Theater
Map to Theater
Driving
Directions to
Theater
Driving
Directions to
Theater
Driving
Directions to
Theater
Parking
Directions for
Theater
Parking
Directions for
Theater
Parking
Directions for
Theater
Prices at
Nearby Parking
Prices at
Nearby Parking
Map to Theater
Map to Theater Map to Theater
Time Limits at
Nearby Parking
Prices at
Nearby Parking
Time Limits at
Nearby Parking
History of the
Theater
Link to Theater
Website
Link to Theater
Website
Link to Theater
Website
Link to Theater
Website
Link to Theater
Website
Link to Theater
Website
Link to Theater
Website
Link to Theater
Website
Link to Theater
Website
What’s Playing
Today (by
location)
What’s Playing
Today (by
location)
What’s Playing
Today (by
location)
What’s Playing
Today (by
location)
What’s Playing
Today (by
location)
What’s Playing
Today (by
location)
What’s Playing
(by location)
What’s Playing
(by location)
What’s Playing
(by location)
What’s Playing
(by location)
What’s Playing
(by location)
What’s Playing
(by location)
What’s Playing
(by location)
Choose Theater
Playing Film to See
What’s Playing
Today (by
location)
What’s Playing
(by location)
What’s Playing
Today (by title)
What’s Playing
Today (by title)
What’s Playing
Today (by title)
What’s Playing
Today (by title)
What’s Playing
(by title)
What’s Playing
(by title)
What’s Playing
(by title)
What’s Playing
(by title)
What’s Playing
Today (by title)
What’s Playing
(by title)
What’s Playing
Today (by
director/actor)
What’s Playing
(by director/
actor)
What’s Playing
Today (by
director/actor)
What’s Playing
(by director/
actor)
What’s Playing
Today (by
director/actor)
What’s Playing
(by director/
actor)
What’s Playing
Today (at
favorite
theaters)
What’s Playing
(at favorite
theaters)
What’s Playing
Today (at
favorite
theaters)
What’s Playing
(at favorite
theaters)
What’s Playing
Today (at
favorite
theaters)
What’s Playing
(at favorite
theaters)
What’s Playing
Today (at
favorite
theaters)
What’s Playing
(at favorite
theaters)
What’s Playing
Today (at
favorite
theaters)
What’s Playing
(at favorite
theaters)
What’s Playing
Today (at
favorite
theaters)
What’s Playing
(at favorite
theaters)
What’s Playing
Today (at
favorite
theaters)
What’s Playing
(at favorite
theaters)
Showtimes
Running Time
How Much
Longer Will It
Be Playing?
Showtimes Running Time
How Much
Longer Will It
Be Playing?
Showtimes
Running Time
How Much
Longer Will It
Be Playing?
Showtimes Running Time
How Much
Longer Will It
Be Playing?
Showtimes Running Time
How Much
Longer Will It
Be Playing?
Buy Tickets
Is It Sold Out?
Is There a
Line?
Is It Sold Out?
Is There a
Line?
Is It Sold Out?
Is There a
Line?
Is It Sold Out?
Is There a
Line?
What’s Playing
in the Next Two
Hrs (by
location)
What’s Playing
in the Next Two
Hrs (at favorite
theaters)
What’s Playing
in the Next Two
Hrs (by actor/
director)
What’s Playing
in the Next Two
Hrs (by title)
Film List (by
genre)
Film List (by
director/actor)
Film List (by
genre)
Film List (by
genre)
What’s Playing
Today (by title)
What’s Playing
(by title)
What’s Playing
Today (by
director/actor)
What’s Playing
(by director/
actor)
What’s Playing
Today (at
favorite
theaters)
What’s Playing
(at favorite
theaters)
Film List
(compiled
reviews)
Film List (by
peer rating)
Film List (by
favorite
reviewer)
Rent a DVD
from Sponsor
Reserve a DVD
from Sponsor
Rent a DVD
from Sponsor
Reserve a DVD
from Sponsor
Rent a DVD
from Sponsor
Reserve a DVD
from Sponsor
Rent a DVD
from Sponsor
Reserve a DVD
from Sponsor
Film List
(compiled
reviews)
Film List (by
peer rating)
Film List (by
favorite
reviewer)
Film List
(compiled
reviews)
Film List (by
peer rating)
Film List (by
favorite
reviewer)
Pick a Film (by
favorite theater)
Film List (by
related films)
Film List
(based on
books)
Film List (by
country of
story)
Film List (by
country of
origin/director)
Film List (by
related films)
Film List (by
related films)
Film List (by
related films)
Film List (by
related films)
Film List (by
related films)
Film List (by
related films)
My Favorite
Reviewers List
Pick Favorite
Reviewer
Links to Other
Review
Websites
My Favorite
Reviewers List
Pick Favorite
Reviewer
Links to Other
Review
Websites
My Favorite
Reviewers List
Pick Favorite
Reviewer
Links to Other
Review
Websites
Rate a Film
My Favorite
Films, and Why
Rate the Mood
of a Film
Rate a Film
My Favorite
Films, and Why
Rate the Mood
of a Film
Look for Film
Information
Online
Link to IMDB
Link to Official
Film Website
Links to
Unofficial or
Fan Sites
Links to Fan
Films
(Remakes by
Fans)
Film Chat
Room (by title)
Film Chat
Room (by
genre)
Film Chat
Room (by
director)
Film Chat
Room (by
actor)
Link to IMDB
Links to
Unofficial or
Fan Sites
This Film is
Like Another...
If You Like This
Director, You
Will Like...
If You Like This
Actor, You Will
Like...
This Film is
Like Another...
If You Like This
Director, You
Will Like...
If You Like This
Actor, You Will
Like...
This Film is
Like Another...
If You Like This
Director, You
Will Like...
If You Like This
Actor, You Will
Like...
Mental Space
MovieGoer'sMentalModelTools&Content
External Site
Another Place
for Content or
Function
Primary
Location for
Content or
Function
Conceptual Group
Popular
(5+ Voices)
Added During
Workshop
Rare
(1 Voice)
Normal
(2-4 Voices)
Added Content
Legend
Content
Behind Login
Send Story
Idea to Studio
Write Fan Mail
to a Director
Write Fan Mail
Write Fan Mail
to an Actor
Local Film
Festivals
National Film
Festival List
Links to Film
Festival
Websites
Links to Film
Festival
Schedules
Attend Film Festival Attend Outdoor
Screening
Links to Local
Outdoor
Screenings
Top Box Office
Performers
Links to Gross
Income
Tracking on
Films
Links to Box
Office Websites
Track DVD Sales
Top DVD Sales
Performers
Links to Film
Institute
Schedules
Local Theater
Job Listings
DVD Release
Dates
DVD Release
Dates
Trailer
Top Requested
Trailers
Trailer
Top Requested
Trailers
Trailer Release
Dates
List of Movies
Playing Now
List of Movies
Playing Now
List of Movies
Playing Now
List of Movies
Playing Now
List of Movies
Playing Now
DVD Release
Dates
Get Excited
about a Film
Read About Films I
Want to See
Link to IMDB
List of Extras
on Film
Links to
Entertainment
Websites
Links to
Entertainment
Websites
Links to
Entertainment
Websites
Links to
Entertainment
Websites
Links to
Entertainment
Websites
List of Movies
Coming Soon
Theater
Release Dates
Trailer Release
Dates
List of Movies
Coming This
Weekend
List of Movies
Coming Soon
Theater
Release Dates
List of Movies
Coming This
Weekend
Links to Film
Archive
Websites
Links to Film
Archive
Websites
Links to Film
Archive
Websites
Links to Film
Institute
Websites
Links to Film
Archive
Schedules
Local
Restaurant
Links
Local
Restaurant
Links
Movie Goer Alignment Diagram
Research Conducted by Indi Young
June 2004
Alter my
Behavior/
Opinion
DVD Release
Dates
Local
Restaurant
Links
Local Film
Festivals
National Film
Festival List
Links to Film
Festival
Websites
Links to Film
Festival
Schedules
Links to Local
Outdoor
Screenings
Film List (by
mood)
Get to Restaurant
Buy
Soundtrack
Indi Young, Mental Models, Rosenfeld Media
196ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Dimensions or Spectra
REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS
THE COUNSELORTHE PRACTICE
BUILDER
THE RELATIONSHIP
BUILDER
THE EXPERT THE CONDUIT
OPENNESS TO NEW
EXPERIENCES
TECH
PROGRESSIVENESS
ATTITUDE TOWARD 

MF COMPANIES
CLIENT
APPROACH
explores new
things
resists
change
open, but not
actively seeking
open, needs to
be convinced of
benefits
pioneerlaggard late
majority
early
majority
early
adopter
dependent
on for info
skeptical open, but on
adviser’s terms
open, if on
approved list
open, not
soliciting help
emotional intellectualfunctional
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Personas
From large wall posters to
3x5” cards, and even easels,
personas can be used in a
variety of formats depending
on the objective.
They help us retain empathy
with the people we’re
designing for.
Properly developed, they also
strongly anchor organizations
and designers in the things
that matter to people.
REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS
CORE IDENTITY
Background, goals, motivations, 

and attitudes or behaviors that 
distinctly represent the persona

NEEDS & CHALLENGES
What this persona needs to 

accomplish goals, as well as unmet 

needs, obstacles, and pain points



CURRENT EXPERIENCE
How this persona lives or works, 

who they interact with, and relevant
activities, tools, or info sources


THEMES & INSIGHTS
Representative scenarios or themes
that illustrate how this persona feels,
interacts, or behaves
198ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Personas
REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS
199
Mapping to Institutional Understanding
REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS
Member Persona/Segmentation Map
Younger Singles & DINKS
Older Singles & DINKS
Young Families
Teen Families
Empty Nesters
Young Retirees
Older Retirees
Service Seeker
No Face-toFace
Skeptics
Minimizers
Low Involvement
Active Enthusiasts
Security Conscious
Value Driven
Middle-of-the-Road
No Hassle
Convince Me
Alexandra JamesSofiaNaveedSarah
CSAA095LS Life Stages Screener
Auto Insurance Segmentation Placemat
ERS Customer Segmentation Card
PERSONAS
SEGMENTS
Persona-Segment Matrix
→ Cross-maps Perspectives

Maps personas directly and
visibly to the segments used
and trusted by the company.
→ Makes Clear Connections

The mapping is very explicit
and helps everyone make
connections between personas
and what they know.
→ Drives Conversation

It helps people talk about
similarities and differences
that help them see the role of
personas.
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Experience Map
A visualization of experiences
over space and time, and
across touchpoints
REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 201
Why Map The Experience?
→ Create a shared frame of reference of the customer experience
→ Build organizational knowledge of customer behaviors and needs
across channels
→ Identify specific areas of opportunity to drive ideation and
innovation
→ Distribute key customer insights in a easy-to-understand form that
will be used, not shelved
→ Further organizational evolution towards customer-centric thinking
REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS
UX Intensive Copenhagen | Day 2 | Design Research
UX Intensive Copenhagen | Day 2 | Design Research
STAGES
DOING
FEELING
Research & Planning Shopping Booking Post-Booking, Pre-Travel Travel Post Travel
People choose rail travel because it is
convenient, easy, and flexible.
Rail booking is only one part of people’s larger
travel process.
People build their travel plans over time. People value service that is respectful, effective
and personable.
EXPERIENCE
Rail Europe Experience Map
Kayak,
compare
airfare
Google
searches
Research
hotels
Talk with
friends
Relevance of Rail Europe
Enjoyability
Helpfulness of Rail Europe
Paper tickets
arrive in mail
• I’m excited to go to Europe!
• Will I be able to see everything I can?
• What if I can’t afford this?
• I don’t want to make the wrong choice.
• It’s hard to trust Trip Advisor. Everyone is
so negative.
• Keeping track of all the different products
is confusing.
• Am I sure this is the trip I want to take?
• Website experience is easy and friendly!
• Frustrated to not know sooner about which
tickets are eTickets and which are paper tickets.
Not sure my tickets will arrive in time.
• Stressed that I’m about to leave the country
and Rail Europe won’t answer the phone.
• Frustrated that Rail Europe won’t ship tickets
to Europe.
• Happy to receive my tickets in the mail!
• I am feeling vulnerable to be in an unknown place in
the middle of the night.
• Stressed that the train won’t arrive on time for my
connection.
• Meeting people who want to show us around is fun,
serendipitous, and special.
• Excited to share my vacation story with
my friends.
• A bit annoyed to be dealing with ticket refund
issues when I just got home.
View
maps
Arrange
travel
Blogs &
Travel sites
Plan with
interactive map
Review fares
Select pass(es)
Enter trips Confirm
itinerary
Delivery
options
Payment
options
Review &
confirm
Map itinerary
(finding pass)
Destination
pages
May call if
difficulties
occur
E-ticket Print
at Station
Web
raileurope.com
Wait for paper tickets to arriveResearch destinations, routes and products
Live chat for
questions
Activities, unexpected changes
Change
plans
Check ticket
status
Print e-tickets
at home
web/
apps
Look up
timetables
Plan/
confirm
activities
Web
Share
photos
Share
experience
(reviews)
Request
refunds
Follow-up on refunds for booking changes
Share experience
Buy additional
tickets
Look up
time tables
Stakeholder interviews
Cognitive walkthroughs
Customer Experience Survey
Existing Rail Europe Documentation
Opportunities
Guiding Principles
Customer Journey
Information
sources
RAIL EUROPE
THINKING
• What is the easiest way to get around Europe?
• Where do I want to go?
• How much time should I/we spend in each
place for site seeing and activities?
• I want to get the best price, but I’m willing to pay a
little more for first class.
• How much will my whole trip cost me? What are my
trade-offs?
• Are there other activities I can add to my plan?
• Do I have all the tickets, passes and reservations
I need in this booking so I don’t pay more
shipping?
• Rail Europe is not answering the phone. How
else can I get my question answered?
• Do I have everything I need?
• Rail Europe website was easy and friendly, but
when an issue came up, I couldn’t get help.
• What will I do if my tickets don’t arrive in time?
• I just figured we could grab a train but there are
not more trains. What can we do now?
• Am I on the right train? If not, what next?
• I want to make more travel plans. How do I
do that?
• Trying to return ticket I was not able to use. Not
sure if I’ll get a refund or not.
• People are going to love these photos!
• Next time, we will explore routes and availability
more carefully.
Ongoing,
non-linear
Linear
process
Non-linear, but
time based
Communicate a clear value
proposition.
STAGE: Initial visit
Connect planning, shopping and
booking on the web.
STAGES: Planning, Shopping, Booking
Arm customers with information
for making decisions.
STAGES: Shopping, Booking
Improve the paper ticket
experience.
STAGES: Post-Booking, Travel, Post-Travel
Make your customers into better,
more savvy travelers.
STAGES: Global
Proactively help people deal
with change.
STAGES: Post-Booking, Traveling
Support people in creating their
own solutions.
STAGES: Global
Visualize the trip for planning
and booking.
STAGES: Planning, Shopping
Enable people to plan over time.
STAGES: Planning, Shopping
Engage in social media with
explicit purposes.
STAGES: Global
Communicate status clearly at
all times.
STAGES: Post-Booking, Post Travel
Accommodate planning and
booking in Europe too.
STAGE: Traveling
Aggregate shipping with a
reasonable timeline.
STAGE: Booking
Help people get the help they
need.
STAGES: Global
GLOBAL PLANNING, SHOPPING, BOOKING POST-BOOK, TRAVEL, POST-TRAVEL
Relevance of Rail Europe
Enjoyability
Helpfulness of Rail Europe
Relevance of Rail Europe
Enjoyability
Helpfulness of Rail Europe
Relevance of Rail Europe
Enjoyability
Helpfulness of Rail Europe
Relevance of Rail Europe
Enjoyability
Helpfulness of Rail Europe
Relevance of Rail Europe
Enjoyability
Helpfulness of Rail Europe
Mail tickets
for refund
Get stamp
for refund
PATIENT
ACTIVITIES
INFORMATION
NEEDS
activities
i think i need helpstages give me immediate relief discover what's wrong with me fix the problem send me on my way to recovery tie up loose ends
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
Critical Moment
Patient needs JMH
Critical Moment
Severity of condition
can determine the
tone of the journey
Redirect
Get patient on correct
path: ER/UC/PCP
Critical Moment
Patient sees Care
Provider
Critical Moment
Get patient on the
road to normal
Critical Moment
Determines severity
and length of problem
Redirect
Get patient on correct
path: ER/UC/PCP
Redirect
Get patient to a
specialist or on new
care path: CH/CO
EXPERIENCE DRIVERS
UNDERSTANDING:
Building knowledge and clarity
REPETITION:
Multiplying the unknown
UNKNOWN:
Creating uncertainty and obscurity
STABILITY:
Progressing and sense of security
COMFORT:
Growing ease and alleviation
DOUBT:
Growing skepticism and mistrust
HIGH IMPACT
+ ANXIETY
+ RELIEF
STORY ARC
The relative change in
anxiety and relief and the
range in patient stories
key moment
i think i
need help
Don’t know where to
go. Don’t know who
to ask. Don’t expect
my primary doctor to
help me.
my needs
Validate how to
seek help
key moment
wait to be seen
No expectation of
how long. No one is
showing empathy.
my needs
Distract me
or don't make
me wait
key moment
wait for results
No expectation of
how long. No one
is showing empathy.
Prolonging the
unknown.
my needs
Distract me or
calm me down
key moment
get results
Not sure where to go.
May not have a great
relationship with their
health care.
my needs
Reassure me that
you can help me;
Remember this
information for me
key moment
at-home care
instructions
Not sure where to go.
May not have a great
relationship with their
health care.
my needs
Confirm I am doing
the right thing
key moment
something feels
wrong
Unsure what is
wrong. Scared of
the unknown.
my needs
Validate how I
seek health
key moment
triage at
check-in
Given comfort. Front
desk was empathetic
and set expectations
of wait.
my needs
Comfort me and
take me seriously
key moment
given next steps
Staff took the time to
help me understand.
Built confidence and
set my expectations.
my needs
Reassure me I am
going to be okay;
Empower me for
at-home care
key moment
deal with
the bill
Expectations not set.
Contents of bill were a
surprise. No clear
resolution between
insurance and JMH.
my needs
Confirm I am doing
the right thing
key moment
decide to
get help
Confident that I’ll get
help. Expectation that
I’ll get help today.
my needs
Be ready for me
Pain causes a more dramatic emotional experience and higher
expectations for empathy and comfort from Care Providers.
Since Urgent Care can be a discrete experience, the potential for
highs and lows is amplified.
Urgent and Emergency Care
Patient Experience Map
something feels wrong
• Have pain or onset of symptoms
• Notice a sudden change in at-home
monitoring
i think i need help
• Call Primary Doctor or a General Line
• Ask family/friends with similar symptoms
• Self diagnose
• Google triage
decide to get help
• Schedule same day appointment by phone
for Urgent Care Center
• Get basic triage over phone before visit
• Walk into ER or Urgent Care Center
check in
• Give Insurance Card
• Fill out paperwork
• Ask about wait
triage at check-in
• Given temporary relief
• Nurse does quick diagnosis to determine
priority
wait to be seen
• Sit
• Pace
• Distract myself with phone or magazines
get an exam
• Explain my symptoms
• Explain my medical history or allergies
get tests
• Nurse administers tests
• Visit techs to get tests
wait for results
• Stay in the patient room
• Return to the waiting room
get results and diagnosis
• Ask additional questions
• Hear results of the tests and what they
mean
• Learn about diagnosis and what that means
• If unsure about diagnosis, get referral for
Specialist
• Hear treatment option(s)
get treatment or
procedure
• Get treatment or procedure by
Nurse or Doctor
• Get re-examined after treatment
at-home care instructions
• Do any at-home care during recovery
• Take prescriptions
get follow-up call
• Update Nurse or Doctor on how I'm doing
• Answer any follow-up questions
schedule follow-up
• Call to schedule appointment
• Prepare any records or results given to me
by the ER or UC
deal with the bill
• Receive bill
• Handle any billing issues
• Pay bills
given next steps
• Nurse care and treatment discharge instruc-
tions
• Get prescription
• Get referral
pick up at-home care supplies
• Fill and pick up prescriptions
• Pick up at-home care supplies
something feels wrong
• Symptom checker
• Google triage
• Primary care phone number for triage
i think i need help
• Where do I go for what
• Triage phone number
• Insurance benefits - cost/benefit of
where to go
• Primary care phone number for triage
decide to get help
• Facility address
• Time of appointment
• Phone numbers
check in
• My place in line
• Wait time estimate
triage at check-in
• Expectations of the visit
• Early diagnosis
• How to stay comfortable during wait
wait to be seen
• How much longer
get an exam
• What to do
get tests
• How long this will take
• Reason for the tests
wait for results
• How long this will take
get results and diagnosis
• Why this is happening to me
• What the diagnosis is and how do I have it
• How things will change or what I need to do
get treatment or
procedure
• Why this treatment
• Side effects from this
• What treatment will entail
at-home care instructions
• Instructions
• Number just in case
get follow-up call
• What does progress look/feel like
• How to track progress
schedule follow-up
• My records for my Primary
• My progress report
deal with the bill
• Why I owe what I owe
• Important phone numbers
• Payment method options
given next steps
• Who to call for what
• Discharge papers
• Prescription
• Doctor's note
• After-care info
pick up at-home care supplies
• Side effects
• Prescription information
• What to look out for
1
2
1
2
3
4
3
4
5 7 10 11 12 14 16
1715
13
8
9
6
5 7 10 11 12 14 16
1715
13
8
9
6
TRIAGE AT CHECK-IN
"I was being
ignored; I felt like
I was going to die."
GET AN EXAM
"The doctor listened to me
and I felt like he saw the
big picture."
GET FOLLOW-UP CALL
"The ER doctor followed
up with me to see that
I was doing OK."
GIVEN NEXT STEPS
"I was in pain; I couldn’t
process anything
that was going on."
UX Intensive Copenhagen | Day 2 | Design Research
THERE AND
BACK AGAIN
A SF MUNI USER JOURNEY
KEY
GOOD
ACTIVITIES
BAD
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ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 208
Four Steps to Mapping
→ Study customer behavior and interactions across channels
and touchpoints
→ Collaboratively synthesize key insights into a customer
journey model
→ Visualize a compelling story that creates empathy and
understanding
→ Follow the map to new ideas and better customer
experiences
REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
EXERCISE #5 PART I
Modeling the
Journey
209
→ In teams, use your journey
mapping template to map the
common end-to-end journey you
uncovered in research.
→ Use a different sticky note color
per building block.
TIME: 45 minutes
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 210
EXERCISE #5 PART I
ACTIONS (DOING)
TOUCHPOINTS
PEOPLE
FEELING
THINKING
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 211
Building Blocks
EXERCISE #5 PART I
DOING
STAGE STAGE STAGE STAGE
THINKING
FEELING
TOUCHPOINTS
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 212
Putting it together
EXERCISE #5 PART I
DOING
STAGE STAGE STAGE STAGE
THINKING
FEELING
TOUCHPOINTS
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 213
Building Blocks
EXERCISE #5 PART I
Thinking
Framing and
expectations
Doing
Activities and
behaviors
Feeling
Feelings and
perceptions
People
Who is involved
Context
Place and
environment
Touchpoints
Products, services,
points of interaction
Stages Meaningful chunks of activities
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
EXERCISE #5 PART I
Modeling the
Journey
214
→ In teams, use your journey
mapping template to map the
common end-to-end journey you
uncovered in research.
→ Use a different sticky note color
per building block.
TIME: 45 minutes
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
EXERCISE #5 PART II
What’s the
story
215
→ Individually, fill out the worksheet
of the “Story POV template” to
identify what you have learned
from mapping the journey.
TIME: 5 minutes
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 216
The visual tells the story for you
EXERCISE #5 PART II
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 217
What’s the story?
EXERCISE #5 PART II
Individually, fill out the worksheet of the “Story POV template” to
identify what you have learned from mapping the journey.
→ When mapping, what stood out for you?
→ What did the mapping help you better understand about the patron
and his/her experience?
→ From the perspective of a person involved in the journey you
mapped, what are the key moments, good and bad?
TIME: 5 minutes
What’d you learn?
5 Lessons in 

Modeling a Journey
5 LESSONS
1. Use Before/After Research
journey
ideation
blueprint
touchpoints
storyboard
research
5 LESSONS
2. Frame and Reframe
start
end
5 LESSONS
3. Decide Your Level of Zoom
organization
service
product
feature
control
What journey are you mapping?
5 LESSONS
4. Know Your Audience
design team
organization
5 LESSONS
5. Make It Stand Alone
Makes sense
to me.
Moving from Research 

to Design
226ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Now what?
MOVING FROM RESEARCH TO DESIGN
COMMUNICATE
USE YOUR MODEL TO TELL
THE STORY
SOLVE
IDENTIFY KEY MOMENTS FOR
DESIGN INTERVENTIONS
ANALYZE + EXPLORE
BUILD FRAMEWORKS FOR
CONCEPTING
DOINGTHINKINGFEELING
RESEARCH PURCHASE USE
• How will this process
work?
• What sort of payment
plans are available?
• How do I even get
started?
• Excited, but a little
anxious
• Unsure
• Ready to get started
• Worrying about money
• Wants to consult friends
and family for advice
• Browsing the internet
• Comparing experiences
with friends and family
• Doing background
research
• Reading horror story
reviews online
• Watching commercials
• Reading advertisements
• Is there a trial period for
this product?
• Would a friend like this
product?
• Can I save money by
buying multiple products?
• Can I buy it online? Do I
need to go to a store?
• In the mood to spend
• Convinced
• Excited to own
something brand new
• Interacting with sales
staff
• Sharing information about
the purchase via social
networks
• Driving to brick-and-
mortar store to buy
product
• Does this store have a
return policy?
• Why is nothing about
returns or warranties
written on their website?
• I’m happy about my
purchase and would be
willing to tell others
about this service!
• Happy
• Relieved
• Impressed
• Satisfied
• Ready to refer friends
and family to service
• Relaxing
• Writing rave reviews
online
• Using the new product on
a regular basis
• Refering friends and
family
“YAY!”
“OH, NO!”
“CAN SOMEONE
HELP ME?”
1
2
4
I’m not crazy.
If I keep doing
this, people will
think I'm crazy.
I didn’t get the right
help, so I’m out.
Better someone
else than me.
I don’t have mental
health problems.
My family’s got
issues, but
that’s normal.
I don’t want
to hear it.
There are people
I can talk to.
I feel like I'm
not alone.
Talking to
others like me
really helps.
5
I don’t trust
you.
I want to
help others.
It’s a little
better.
3
ACTIONS
Keeping silent
Using drugs and alcohol
Denying problems
FEELING
Confused, Scared, Alone
NEEDS
Education
Hope
Unawareness
PHASE 1
ROADBLOCKS CAN BE OPPORTUNITIES THROUGHOUT THE JOURNEY
Youth is not considering change.
ACTIONS
Changing behavior
Helping others
Relapsing
FEELING
Supported, Validated, Hopeful
NEEDS
Culturally
competent care
Family and peer
support
Engagement
PHASE 5
Youth’s commitment to change and new
emerging behaviors are reinforced by
positive experiences.
ACTIONS
Self-diagnosing
Seeking help
Talking to someone
NEEDS
Trust
Validation
Awareness
PHASE 3
Youth is gathering information and
self-reflecting while getting closer to
seeking help.
FEELING
Confused, Skeptical, Uncertain
ACTIONS
Linkage to help
Talking to caregivers for
treatment consent
Starting / Quitting
therapy
NEEDS
Trust
Safety
Privacy
FEELING
Relieved, Ambivalent,
Anxious, Hopeful
Connection
PHASE 4
Youth believes change can happen and
is actively taking steps to get help.
Youth need the right
support, education, privacy,
and safety to ensure they
don’t fall off the grid.
Creating Positive Change for
Youth in the Western Addition
A Journey to Empowerment
ACTIONS
Seeking distractions
Self-medicating
Hurting others
FEELING
Complacent, Angry, Numb
NEEDS
Role Modeling
Education
New Possibilities
Sensing
PHASE 2
Youth may think they have no control
over the problem, yet are on the fence
about getting help.
I’m not crazy, but
I need help.
I'm not
talking about
my problems.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
OUTREACH &
EDUCATION
Provide empathy, acceptance, and
opportunities to expand self-awareness
NEW JOURNEY
(Empowered)
I’ve changed,
but nothing
else has.
I feel bad, but I
don’t know why.
GUIDANCE &
SUPPORT
Provide encouragement to take
small steps, build relationships,
and strengthen coping strategies
!
STIGMA
Reframe
mental health
!
TRUST
Strengthen valuable
relationships with
family, friends, and
community
!
ACCESS
Deliver services
when and where
youth need them
!
SAFETY
Ensure protected
passage to services,
given the risk of
invisible boundaries
“There are things I need to deal with.” “I’m not alone.”
“I can change.”“Why am I like this?”“Nothing is wrong with me.”
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
UNAWARENESS +
SENSING
AWARENESS +
CONNECTION
ENGAGEMENT
STIGMA
ACCESS
KNOWLEDGE
MOVING FROM RESEARCH TO DESIGN
Ideating from the Research
STAGES FROM JOURNEY
NEEDS OR
OPPORTUNITIES
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
EXERCISE #6
Prioritize
Insights for
Design
230
→ Individually fill out the Part B of the
“Story POV Template.”
→ Think back to your research
participants and what you mapped in
the journey.
→ TIME: 10 minutes
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 231
ScopeFocus
Concepts &

Language
Research

Questions
Context & Form
Design Principles
DAY 1
DESIGN
STRATEGY
DS
DAY 2
USER
RESEARCH
DR
DAY 3
SERVICE
DESIGN
SD
DAY 4
INTERACTION
DESIGN
IxD
232ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
It’s an Iterative Process…
The lines between strategy, research, and
design are blurry. And that’s good.
MOVING FROM RESEARCH TO DESIGN
RESEARCH
DESIGN
DEVELOPMENT
WK1 WK2 WK3 WK4 WK5 WK6 WK7 WK8 WK9 WK10 WK11 WK12 WK13
STRATEGY
233ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
The Outcomes of Design Research
→ Explore… to set direction

Support the success of a new product or service by
understanding context and identifying opportunities
→ Understand... to reduce risk

Ensure the viability of the product/service by exposing
specifics, nuance, and subtlety
→ Evaluate... to improve quality

Focus efforts on areas of greatest need and accelerate
and/or fine tune the design
MOVING FROM RESEARCH TO DESIGN
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Design research is a
strategic tool that drives
the design process.
But it’s also a strategic
tool that drives business
and assures
engagement with what
you put out in the world.
Advice
1. Research doesn’t have to be its own project.
2. Never rely on one source.
3. Treat research like something you would design.
4. Make insights tangible.
5. Iterate.
ADVICE
5 Things to Remember
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Select References
237
Design Research: 

Methods and Perspectives

Brenda Laurel, Ed.

MIT Press
The Elements of User Experience, 2nd Edition

Jesse James Garrett

New Riders Publishing
Exposing the Magic of Design: 

A Practitioner's Guide to the Methods and
Theory of Synthesis

Jon Kolko

Oxford University Press
Interviewing Users: 

How to Uncover Compelling Insights

Steve Portigal

Rosenfeld Media
Observing the User Experience, 2nd Edition

Mike Kuniavsky et al

Morgan Kaufman
Storytelling for User Experience

Whitney Quesenbery and Kevin Brooks 

Rosenfeld Media
Universal Methods of Design: 

100 Ways to Research Complex Problems,
Develop Innovative Ideas, and Design Effective
Solutions

Bruce Hanington and Bella Martin

Rockport Publishers
Mental Models:

Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior

Indi Young

Rosenfeld Media
The following are a few (of many) great books that may support you in your work,
many of which are referenced in this workbook.
ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
Design Research Q&A
238
Check out the UXI Alumni
LinkedIn Group
Check your email for an invite to join the group
Thank You.
Pier One
San Francisco CA
94107-110
415-495-8270
Nick Remis

@dreamis

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UX Intensive Copenhagen | Day 2 | Design Research

  • 1. Day 2 MAY 2015 Nick Remis
 @dreamis Design Research
  • 2. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI WARM-UP Find Your Soulmates 2 → You each have a secret card. Do not share this. → Go around the room and talk to people to find out who else a matching secret card. → You cannot say what is on your card, you can only describe or act it out. → After you’ve found a match, stay together until others are done. TIME: 15 minutes
  • 3. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 3 DAY 1 DESIGN STRATEGY DS DAY 2 USER RESEARCH DR DAY 3 SERVICE DESIGN SD DAY 4 INTERACTION DESIGN IxD The tools you need to put your designs into business — and vice versa How to unearth deep, practical insights about the people you want to reach most Tools of modeling and analysis that shape smart and systemic solutions How to design for better interactions and become a better interaction designer
  • 4. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 4 ScopeFocus Concepts &
 Language Research
 Questions Context & Form Experience Principles DAY 1 DESIGN STRATEGY DS DAY 2 USER RESEARCH DR DAY 3 SERVICE DESIGN SD DAY 4 INTERACTION DESIGN IxD
  • 5. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 5 DAY 3 SERVICE DESIGN SD DAY 4 INTERACTION DESIGN IxD Abstract Tangible Think Make DAY 2 USER RESEARCH DR DAY 1 DESIGN STRATEGY DS
  • 6. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Agenda → Being Human-centric → Setting Research Objectives & 
 Building the Hypothesis → Designing the Right Approach → Collecting the Good Stuff → Translating to Design 6 UX INTENSIVE → UX Intensive • @uxintensive • #UXICopenhagen • apevents@adaptivepath.com → Nick Remis • @dreamis • nick@adaptivepath.com
  • 7. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Being Human-centric → A research story → How organizations think of people → What is Design Research → Value of Design Research → The process of Design Research 7 DESIGN RESEARCH
  • 9. "Medical device manufacturers are stuck in a bygone era; they continue to design these products in an engineering-driven, physician-centered bubble. They have not yet grasped the concept that medical devices are also life devices, and therefore need to feel good and look good for the patients using them 24/7, in addition to keeping us alive." — AMY TENDERICH, DIABETES MINE BLOG ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
  • 12. Easy to learn and teach/No numbers Make better use of data Less stuff Keep users in control Help keep users motivated Wear it during sex RESEARCH STORY Experience Principles
  • 13. Organizations tend to oversimplify their view of people
  • 15. DOCILE + GULLIBLE STORIES + MESSAGING #1 Sheep PREFERENCES! www.flickr.com/photos/81182072@N00/40042244/
  • 17. GOAL DRIVEN #3 Type A Personality EFFICIENCY!! TASK ORIENTED
  • 18. Not all wrong, not really right. What’s missing?
  • 19. RESEARCH STORY The messy complexity of human life https://www.flickr.com/photos/76818399@N00/252562895/
  • 20. What is design research? BEING HUMAN-CENTRIC
  • 21. 21ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI de·sign re·search The work that uncovers and articulates the needs of individuals and/or groups in order to inform the design of products and services in a structured manner. WHAT IS DESIGN RESEARCH
  • 22. 22ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI WHAT IS DESIGN RESEARCH Design research informs us by… Building empathy
 Internalize the emotional state of users
 Challenging biases
 Testing assumptions, hypothesis, and existing biases to mitigate 
 group think Understand context
 Explore the context what will surround you design Discovering experiential 
 & functional needs
 Understanding customer needs for a variety 
 of elements
  • 23. 23ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI In A Nutshell… WHAT IS DESIGN RESEARCH DATA (STORIES, FACTS) INSIGHT (PATTERNS, THEMES) REASON (DRIVERS, CAUSES) SOLUTION (CONSIDERATIONS)
  • 24. Should research and design be separate activities? No.
  • 25. 25ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI When To Uncover Truths WHAT IS DESIGN RESEARCH DEFINE PLAN DESIGN RELEASE BUILD EMPATHY UNDERSTAND INPUTS FOR DESIGN PRIORITIZE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS IDENTIFY OPPORTUNITIES VALIDATE & REFINE
  • 26. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Design research is a strategic tool that drives the design process. But it’s also a strategic tool that drives business and assures engagement with what you put out in the world.
  • 27. WHAT IS DESIGN RESEARCH Common types of research MARKET RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
  • 28. 28ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Market vs. Design Research — after Panthea Lee, Reboot Market Research Design Research Primary Focus Generate value (often financial) for the organization. Understand the meaning of value (often utility) for the end user. Process Systematic gathering of quantitative or mass market data that is then analytically processed. Cumulative gathering of human experiences and artifacts that are then synthetically processed. Primary Processing Tool Logic and analytics, usually quantitative Empathy and synthesis, almost always qualitative Common 
 Communication 
 Approaches Reports and presentations that use words, charts, and graphics to present linear market analyses and projections. Data and statistical analysis reign. Multimedia presentations that use words, photos, drawings, and stories to present complex human archetypes, needs, and patterns. Data becomes human narrative. Enables Practitioners to Make sound decisions based on identified options. Develop a sound solution that meets identified needs — and possibly delights. WHAT IS DESIGN RESEARCH
  • 29. 29ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Quantitative Research → Quantitative research answers “how much” and “how many” questions. → Often done independently, quantitative research is especially effective when combined with qualitative field research. → In the form of a survey, quantitative research helps to more broadly explore and validate qualitative observations by providing data from a larger population of respondents. → Quantitative results can then be analyzed along with field findings to arrive at deeper understanding of select aspects. WHAT IS DESIGN RESEARCH Combining qualitative and quantitative research can yield richer, more strongly validated results for certain findings.
  • 30. 30ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Qualitative Research → Qualitative research answers “why” and “how” questions. → With roots in anthropology, qualitative methods enable a researcher to interview and engage with people in their actual environments. They give us the ability to ask questions, explore, and observe. → The result and analysis of qualitative research data is typically not statistical. Qualitative research is about deeply studying and understanding human behavior. WHAT IS DESIGN RESEARCH An approach to unearthing insights and understanding of real people, and their behavioral and cultural characteristics.
  • 31. Value of Design Research BEING HUMAN-CENTRIC
  • 32. 32ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Levels of Understanding VALUE OF DESIGN RESEARCH THE DOMAIN (INDUSTRY, DISCIPLINE) MACRO CONTEXT (SOCIETY + CULTURE) ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT (PEOPLE, PLACES, TIME) POV ON PRODUCT (INTERACTIONS, CONTROLS) POV ON EXPERIENCE (JOURNEY) NEEDS + BEHAVIORS (EXPLICIT + TACIT)
  • 33. 33ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Intents of Research → Explore…
 Understand larger systems of use or needs on a higher level, identify opportunities or areas for innovation → Understand…
 Go deep in an identified area, product/service, an activity or usage mode → Evaluate…
 Get user feedback at different stages of development process to refine, select and verify concepts BROAD &
 GENERATIVE VALUE OF DESIGN RESEARCH NARROW &
 EVALUATIVE
  • 34. 34ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Outcomes of Research → Explore… to set direction
 Minimize risk for a new product or service by understanding context and identifying opportunities → Understand… to reduce risk
 Ensure the viability of the product/service by exposing specifics, nuance, and subtlety → Evaluate… to improve quality
 Focus efforts on areas of greatest need and accelerate and/or fine tune solution development VALUE OF DESIGN RESEARCH BROAD &
 GENERATIVE NARROW &
 EVALUATIVE
  • 35. 35ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Prime Directives → No identification of self or mission → No interference with the social development of the group under observation → No references to space or the fact that there are other worlds or more advanced civilizations VALUE OF DESIGN RESEARCH “PURE” RESEARCH → Uncover unmet needs → Observe behavior → Empathize with people → Understand context → Change thinking → Spark creativity → Identify new opportunities → Reduce risk DESIGN RESEARCH
  • 36. 36ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI This Helps Designers… → Invent possible futures → Assess the desirability of these futures → Experiment with what can be changed → Work out plans to proceed toward desirable futures → Make proposals to those who can bring a design to fruition – Klaus Krippendorff, 
 Annenberg School for Communication VALUE OF DESIGN RESEARCH
  • 37. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 37 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES PARTICIPANTS 
 & METHODS DATA
 COLLECTION DATA
 ANALYSIS DEMONSTRATE
 FINDINGS EXERCISE 2: Characterize Research Participants EXERCISE 3: Match the Methods EXERCISE 4: Conduct Research Sessions EXERCISE 5: Model the Journey EXERCISE 6: Prioritize Insights for Design EXERCISE 1: Build A Hypothesis LUNCH DRINKS!
  • 38. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Setting Research Objectives & Building a Hypothesis → Uncovering project goals → Identifying research objectives → Exercise 1: Build Your Hypothesis 38 DESIGN RESEARCH
  • 40. Identify the key goals of the entire project. Not just the research component.
  • 41. 41ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Have clear goals. → Outline key components of the user experience that need to be understood for the project to succeed → Provide a clear basis for asking questions, framing outcomes, selecting research methods, and setting timelines → Allow research to uncover true insights and understanding, not support preconceived notions SETTING RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
  • 42. 42ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Defining Project Goals → Project briefs → Project plans → Organizational mission statements → Requirements documents → Stakeholder interviews SETTING RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
  • 43. 43ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Defining Research Objectives → Frame probable results, outcomes, or deliverables in terms of what you are trying to understand rather than the format of a particular method → Represent the assumptions living within the project objectives and drive the specifics of the research protocol → Provide a cognitive structure for research analysis SETTING RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
  • 44. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 44 Cognitive Structure SETTING RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Wisdom Knowledge Information Data based on the DIKW or Knowledge Hierarchy: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIKW_Pyramid Insights Findings Patterns Data Research Objectives Key Questions Protocol Questions Data
  • 45. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 45 Plan from the top down SETTING RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 1 2 3 4 Research Objectives Key Questions Protocol Questions Data
  • 46. 46ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI What Truths To Uncover → Identify high level key questions that need to be answered to fulfill the project goals / objectives → Rank your goals / objectives 
 (by importance, severity, priority to business, etc.) → Develop general questions for each objective, then iterate, becoming more specific with each iteration SETTING RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
  • 47. 47ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Prioritizing Research Questions You will have a lot of research objectives, some of which will be contradictory. This is normal. SETTING RESEARCH OBJECTIVES → Expedience: Can we answer this question another, easier way? → Importance: What is most important to the business and to 
 the customer? → Severity: The more it hurts, the more you should seek to understand it through research. → Priority: A subjective term but worth considering. Sometimes organizational “priorities” trump research objectives, for better or worse.
  • 48. 48ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Sample Research Goals The goal of this research is to identify opportunities to provide new financial products and services for students. The research plan aims to answer the following questions: SETTING RESEARCH OBJECTIVES → How do students think about and prioritize the financial aspects of their lives? → How do students manage their finances today? → What factors differentiate or impact a student’s financial priorities? → How do students select a financial organization? → How do students feel about their current financial organizations? → How does education on their finances play a role in students’ experiences?
  • 49. 49ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Sample Key Questions What components do students consider as part of their financial ecosystem? How do students describe/talk about their finances? Who do they talk to about their finances? When and how do finances play a key moment in students’ daily lives? What actions do students take in regards to their finances? What prompts those actions? SETTING RESEARCH OBJECTIVES RESEARCH 
 OBJECTIVE: Understand how students think about and prioritize the financial aspects of their lives
  • 51. THE CHALLENGE 
 Designing a future hotel experience
  • 52. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI A growing, global hotel chain, Premiere Hotels, is interested in creating more innovative experiences for their patrons that will differentiate them from their competitors in this saturated market. Our job is to help the strategy and design teams at Premiere Hotels as they attempt to understand their audiences and identify potential opportunities for new products and services. Today they are focused on designing a new “pre-stay experience” considering the patron’s end-to-end journey from booking to check-in. 52 Pre-stay Hotel Experience THE CHALLENGE
  • 53. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 53 Project Goals → Develop a differentiated experience → Increase the number of bookings/reservations → Grow the base of loyal patrons (membership) → Increase the number of repeat visits → Increase staff satisfaction and encourage the delivery of delightful service → Decrease the number of customer complaints → Increase customer satisfaction → Expand product and service offerings that provide new lines of business THE CHALLENGE
  • 54. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Your team and your client have worked together to reach these research objectives for this challenge: → Gain a more detailed understanding of the interactions across a patron’s journey from booking to arrival; → Highlight painpoints and opportunities of current patrons’ experiences with the products/service; → Collect insights on the potential target customers’ perceptions, thoughts, and feelings regarding their current hotel experiences; → Understand these customers’ needs and expectations in order to have a successful and delightful pre-stay hotel experience. 54 Research Objectives THE CHALLENGE
  • 55. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Premiere Hotels wants to understand the different types of patrons they could target as future customers. Each team will be exploring a different target customer: 1. Families on vacation 2. Couples on romantic retreats 3. Business travelers 4. Backpackers 5. Friends on group trips 55 Target Customers THE CHALLENGE
  • 56. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI EXERCISE #1 Build Your Hypothesis 56 As the design research team, your task is to plan and execute research that results in a new pre-stay experience model Premiere Hotels can communicate to partners. Before you can plan your research, your team must build a hypothesis for this experience based on your assumptions and individual experiences. TIME: 30 minutes
  • 57. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 57 Build Your Hypothesis EXERCISE #1 In your teams, capture any assumptions you have for each of the outlined “stages” of the experience using your assigned “Target Customer”. Put each assumption on an individual sticky note. Consider → What roles are involved in the experience? → What do hotel patrons do in each of these stages? → What do they think or feel during these stages? → What opportunities or painpoints do you think occur during these stages? → What gaps do you have in your understanding of this stage? What questions do you want to answer during research?
  • 58. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 58 Hypothesis - Stages EXERCISE #1 CONSIDERING + PLANNING MAKING ARRANGEMENTS TRAVELING 
 TO HOTEL ARRIVING + CHECKING-IN
  • 59. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI EXERCISE #1 Build Your Hypothesis 59 As the design research team, your task is to plan and execute research that results in a new pre-stay experience model Premiere Hotels can communicate to partners. Before you can plan your research, your team must build a hypothesis for this experience based on your assumptions and individual experiences. TIME: 30 minutes
  • 60. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Designing the Right Approach for Research → Identifying research participants → Exercise 2: Characterize Research Participants → Choosing research methods → Exercise 3: Match the Methods 60 DESIGN RESEARCH
  • 61. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 61 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES PARTICIPANTS 
 & METHODS COLLECT
 DATA ANALYZE
 DATA DEMONSTRATE
 FINDINGS
  • 64. 64ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Who should I talk to? For this research, it’s people who are best equipped to provide answers to your key research objectives. This might include: Existing customers Potential customers Former customers Extreme customers Staff Who else?
  • 65. 65ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI How Do I Find the People? A guide from User Interface Engineering (UIE) gives you step by step guidance for finding the right participants for your research, including: IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS → Planning your recruiting campaign → Recruiting options (in-house or outsourced) → Choosing the recruiter → Creating a recruiting profile / screener → Building a contact list → Making contact → Effective recruitment interviewing → Interviewing checklist → Preparing forms → Dealing with cancellations www.uie.com/reports/recruiting_without_fear/
  • 66. 66ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Describe Who You Are Looking For… IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS → They have traveled at least 3 times in the past 6 months. → Their main purpose for travel is work-related. → Must have played a role in planning their travel. BUSINESS TRAVELERS → They have planned a family vacation (for at least 4 people) within the last year. → The vacation required planning beyond hotel reservations (e.g., flight, transportation, dinner reservations, etc.). FAMILY TRIP PLANNERS
  • 67. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 67 What Criteria Should I Use? IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS → Demographic: age, gender, race, income, family status → Geographic: country, region, urban, suburban, rural → Behavioral: frequency, duration, diversity, ownership, membership → Attitudinal: for, against, undecided, prior experience (good or bad) TIP: Always check to see that the person is articulate! 
 Important to do this through the screening process.
  • 68. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 68 Include the extremes IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS Majority of users Extreme usersExtreme users
  • 69. 69ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Be Specific! IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS
  • 70. 70ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Story: Who are Financial Advisers? ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI OBJECTIVE Arrive at a comprehensive, big-picture view of financial advisers around their information needs, attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions The criteria we had to consider and and screen for included: 1. A complex mix of demographics and domain-specific factors 2. A range of experience levels and book-of-business sizes 3. A mix of working contexts, from one-man-shops to large team-based operations 4. Openness to describing their professional approach and differentiators 5. Technology use and openness to new ways of doing things IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS
  • 71. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI EXERCISE #2 Characterize Your Research Participants 71 → For your study, who are you going to talk to? → Use the target user your team worked with for Exercise #1 → Create a participant profile for the kinds of people you want to conduct research with TIME: 10 minutes
  • 72. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI EXERCISE #2 Characterize Your Research Participants 72
  • 73. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI EXERCISE #2 Characterize Your Research Participants 73 → For your study, who are you going to talk to? → Use the target user your team worked with for Exercise #1 → Create a participant profile for the kinds of people you want to conduct research with TIME: 10 minutes
  • 75. 75ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Variety of Methods + Tactics CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS Safaris Intercepts Interviews Observations 
 + Field Studies Diary (Cultural Probe) 
 Studies Surveys Analytics A/B Testing Pilot Testing Prototype Testing Participatory Design Usability Testing Card Sorting Focus Groups Eye Tracking Directed Storytelling
  • 76. 76ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Design research core methods CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS CONVERSATIONS The stories, conversations, and interviews you have with research participants. OBSERVATIONS The observed behaviors, tasks, and processes, including their resulting artifacts.
  • 77. 77ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Deciding on Methods 1. Why are you we doing research? 2. What do we need to understand? 3. What is the intended output of the research? 4. What kind of work do you need to inform? 5. What are the resources for research? CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS 1 2 3 4 5
  • 78. 78ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI What to Understand CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS GENERATIVE Problem EVALUATIVE Solution Inspired by model by Jenn + Ken Visocky O’Grady Safaris Intercepts Interviews Observations Diary Studies Surveys Analytics A/B Testing Pilot Testing Prototype Testing Co-Design Sessions Usability Testing
  • 79. 79ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Intended Output CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS JOURNEY MAP PERSONAS MVP +
 DESIGN CRITERIA Directed Storytelling Observations Diary Studies Interviews Intercepts Diary Studies Interviews Surveys Participatory Design Card Sorting Prototype Testing Surveys
  • 80. 80ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS LEAN RIGOROUS Quick & Lean: • Quickly putting something in front of people can be just as (or more) valuable than a rigorous research plan • Dependent on finding the right sample of people • Design methods + research activities that get more insights in less time (workshop style) • Build tools to help you synthesize as you go • Capture patterns as you see them occur to quickly get to insights (daily debriefs) Scale of Research
  • 81. 81ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS LEAN RIGOROUS Deep & Broad: • Carefully identify target participants • Employ a mix of methods and activities for deeper understanding • Create data capture and debrief tools/approaches • Take sense-making breaks; analyze as you go • Manage and safeguard collected data and artifacts Scale of Research
  • 82. Design research does not need to take weeks. Depending on time and constraints, your research may consist of a single participant for one hour. 
 Use the time you have to get the most value.
  • 83. 83ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Planning Research Tactics → What’s important to discover? → What don’t you know? → What do you need to validate? → What kind of engagement do you need? → Where do you need to go? → Who are your research participants? → How sensitive is the research topic? → What is the appropriate timing of research? CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
  • 84. 84ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Prioritizing Methods CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS USAGE DATA SURVEY FIELD RESEARCH Shows aggregate activity and trends, often without differentiation Tells a bit more about us who is visiting and about patterns of purpose and frequency Tells us what people are trying to do, how they go about it, and something about why they are doing it
  • 85. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI “Focus groups can’t identify unmet needs for the simple reason that most people don’t know what they are missing until they experience it.” - Gianfranco Zaccai CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS We don’t do Focus Groups.
  • 87. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Directed Storytelling Participant relates a past experience in detail, while an interviewer probes for underlying motivations and breakdowns. CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
  • 88. 88ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Directed Storytelling → Get people to tell stories of a past experience → Focus on uncovering motivations, needs, goals, breakdowns, and delights → Listen and probe for details; move beyond generalization → Use visual tools (sketching) to document and diagram their stories so participants can validate while they are sharing CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
  • 90. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Observations Observing people in a given context to understand their behaviors, interactions, and environment. CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS source: http://i1.ytimg.com/vi/21x9QBNHx-0/maxresdefault.jpg
  • 91. 91ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Types of Observations → Naturalistic: No interaction with the observed or interference with their actions or environment. → Controlled: Providing specific prompts or tasks. Contextual inquiry is a form of controlled observation. → Participatory: Actively taking part with those being observed and their environment. CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
  • 95. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Intercepts An in-context method for quickly asking questions that provide insights into what customers are doing. CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS source: http://i1.ytimg.com/vi/21x9QBNHx-0/maxresdefault.jpg
  • 96. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Video Ethnography A method combining observation and first-person annotation to capture an experience in real time. CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS source: http://stbyblogs.eu/cyclehiring/category/results/
  • 97. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Picture Cards Using visual, participatory prompts to help participants share stories, feedback, and to probe on tacit needs. CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS source: http://i1.ytimg.com/vi/21x9QBNHx-0/maxresdefault.jpg
  • 98. 98ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Picture Cards → Help people think systematically about their life experiences while maintaining a grounding in the contexts and details of their lives → Create cards with images that help people tell research-relevant stories → Bring blank cards to fill in the particulars that you were unable to account for ahead of time → Include cards that support thinking about future products and services CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
  • 104. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Participatory Design Directly involving service actors (customers, agents, stakeholders, etc.) in the research and design process. CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
  • 105. 105ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Participatory Design → Using co-creation activities can elicit new ideas, unspoken needs, and insights on relationships during an experience → Create activities with templates and supplies that are approachable and easy to use → Structure the activities so users can easily create while communicating their decisions CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
  • 107. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Diary Studies Journaling methods in which research participants capture their experiences visually and annotate those artifacts with a personal narrative. Sometimes called Cultural Probes or Annotated Experiences. CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS source: http://i1.ytimg.com/vi/21x9QBNHx-0/maxresdefault.jpg
  • 108. 108ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Diary Studies → Allows people to capture their thoughts and feelings while they are having an experience → Exposes a deeper view of users’ context, culture, and values → Give people tools and a flexible system for capturing and communicating their experience to you → Recruit people who have a digital camera or camera phone (or provide them one) → Design tools that can be easily integrated into the users’ daily routines or experience without being a distraction CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
  • 110. ASK FOR DETAILS… Would I look in the minibar for any of this? CDS? A FIRST AID KIT? AN “INTIMACY KIT”? WHAT IS AN “INTIMACY KIT”?
  • 111. HAVE THEM TELL YOU A STORY… “This is what I saw when I walked into my room.”
  • 112. “I had no idea what to do with this when I felt it on the wall the first time…” “After three days in the hotel, I still wasn’t sure whether I was supposed to use the button, the slider, or both.”
  • 113. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Love/Breakup letters Having participants or stakeholders write fictional love or breakup letters to a product or service. Highlighting their pinpoints and delights in an emotional manner. TIP: Great method to use as homework prior to a session CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS source: http://i1.ytimg.com/vi/21x9QBNHx-0/maxresdefault.jpg
  • 114. 114ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Smart Design – https://vimeo.com/11854531
  • 115. 115ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS TYPE OF INQUIRY METHOD APPLICATION/RESULT Demographic Who are they? Age, sex, geography Surveys Database analysis Lay of the land Audience segmentation Inform/validate other research Behavioral How do things get done? Behavior patterns, conceptual models Field research Contextual interviews Card sorting Prototype testing & iteration Product strategy Features and functions Interaction design Information architecture Motivational Why are they doing it? Goals, emotions, preferences, desires Field research Contextual interviews Surveys Product Strategy Framing the experience Visual interpretation Branding Evaluative How does it work for them? Usability testing Log analysis Customer feedback Card sorting Interaction design Interaction flow Page layout Nomenclature
  • 116. 116ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Frequently Used Methods CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS Learn about an end-to-end journey that occurs over a period of time. Identify the contextual factors that impact a person’s experience. PARTICIPATORY PROMPTS: PICTURE CARDS Understand daily activities and how a person prioritizes + organizes them. Collect people’s impressions of their world, especially for sensitive topics. DIARY STUDIES: ANNOTATED EXPERIENCES FIELD STUDIES: OBSERVATIONS + INTERCEPTS INTERVIEWS: 
 DIRECTED 
 STORYTELLING
  • 117. 117ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Triangulation CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS SURVEY
 RESULTS USAGE
 DATA FIELD
 RESEARCH
 DATA
  • 118. 118ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Choose Methods Wisely → Effective research for design requires flexibility and resourcefulness → Choose the right method for the job → Be mindful of assumptions and biases built into methods → Don’t be this guy CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
  • 119. 119ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Methods Toolkit CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS QUALITATIVE (INSIGHTS) QUANTITATIVE (VALIDATION) GOALS & ATTITUDES (SAY) BEHAVIORS (DO) Focus groups Card sorting Usability testing Eye tracking Customer support data analysis Surveys Automated usability testing Site traffic/log file analysis A/B testing – Steve Mulder
 The User is Always Right Diary/journal studies User interviews Field studies Participatory design
  • 120. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS Story: Mixing Methods
  • 121. 121ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Tips for Remote Research → Leverage remote meeting tools (GoToMeeting) → Incorporate tools to support remote participatory activities like card sorting and documenting user journeys → Email participants with clear directions on how to engage with tools used during research with easy access to links → Get comfortable with the tools using a dry run → Document everything with screen recordings → Have backup plans ready for technology malfunctions** CHOOSING RESEARCH METHODS
  • 122. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS Story: Remote Research
  • 123. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI EXERCISE #3 Match Your Methods 123 → For each challenge, choose which methods would be appropriate → Be ready to explain why → Add new methods you’ve 
 tried that could be valuable TIME: 15 minutes
  • 124. What methods did you choose for each challenge?
  • 125. Lunch Time! Lunch is located…
  • 126. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI WARM-UP Extract
 Human Needs 126 → Three people at each table should find a card with a “customer need” under their seat. → One at a time, each person with a card acts out the need they have (without saying/describing it). → As a table, interview the person to extract this tacit need. → Once you’ve guessed the need, move on to the next person to extract their need. TIME: 10 minutes
  • 127. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Collecting the Good Stuff → The art of effective interviewing → What to look for when conducting design research → Effective fields tools and tactics → Exercise 4: Conduct Research Sessions 127 DESIGN RESEARCH
  • 128. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 128 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES PARTICIPANTS 
 & METHODS COLLECT
 DATA ANALYZE
 DATA DEMONSTRATE
 FINDINGS
  • 130. Design research relies on a designer’s soft skills… Facilitation & Listening
  • 131. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Interviews Structured conversations guided by open-ended questions designed that set the stage for learning and deep understanding. FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
  • 132. 132ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Interview Contexts → In a Facility: Interviewing out of the participant’s typical context, such as an office or lab. → In the Field: Interviewing within a context familiar to the participant or applicable to the experience you are investigating. → In the Moment: Combining interviewing with observation to probe on what is being observed and to explore the unexpected. FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
  • 133. 133ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Setting Up for Success Interviewing can be simple and effective if you: 1. Try to answer what you don’t know and validate what you think 
 you know about a topic 2. Be objective, not subjective— leave opinions at home 3. Don’t ask leading questions, “you like this right?” vs. “What do you think about this?” Always start with What, why, where, when, how 4. Try to get at what people think, feel, do 5. Try to understand ‘why’ 6. Build rapport before diving in to the interview FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
  • 134. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Empathic Listening Empathic listening gets inside another person’s frame of reference. You look out through it, you see the world the way they see the world, you understand their paradigm, you understand how they feel. - Stephen R. Covey FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/96603394@N00/418349082/">NapInterrupted</a> via <a href="http://compfight.com">Compfight</a> <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/ 2.0/">cc</a>
  • 135. 135ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Try It: Listening → Pick a partner — someone you don’t know → Pull your chairs together so you are facing one another → Select one of you to be the first interviewer → Interviewers: You will ask the interviewee to speak for 2 minutes on a topic I will give you. As they answer, you must remain silent → Interviewees: Once the interviewer asks a question, you must speak on that subject for two minutes. Just keep talking, no matter what. FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
  • 136. 136ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI The Topic Tell me about a tourist attraction that you love — one that you have visited, explored, or that you would like to see in the future FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
  • 137. 137ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Try It: Listen & Appreciate → Keep your partner → Switch roles: Interviewers become interviewees and vice versa → Same as before: Interviewers ask a question I will give you. Interviewees speak for up to 2 minutes on the subject. → Modification: Interviewer will use one or more “appreciation” statements FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
  • 138. 138ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI The Topic Tell me about a neighborhood that you love — one that you have visited or lived in. FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
  • 139. 139ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI An Appreciation is Something Like… → Tell me more about about <subject>... → When you were speaking, I noticed <observation>... → You made me think about ... → It was interesting that ... → Tell me about a time ... Remember your topic... Tell me about a neighborhood that you love — one that you have visited or lived in. FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
  • 140. 140ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Facilitation Tips → Follow a thread → Ask, “Why?” or prompt with, “Tell me more about...” → Pretend you don’t understand — and don’t assume you do → Use your instincts to direct or shape the conversation → Don’t ask yes/no questions → When you get an answer don’t just say, “OK, great!” 
 and leave it at that → Find the story; prompt for it; explore for it FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
  • 141. 141ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Keep in Mind… → Native Categories
 Terms people use to describe their world, for example, “that’s our ‘junk drawer’” and “it’s our ‘Friday treat’,” “I’m not a BMW type of person,” etc. 
 
 → Over-generalizations
 “We always do it that way” and “she never uses that” are examples of over-generalizations. 
 
 
 
 FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
  • 142. 142ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Keep in Mind… → Claims of Idiosyncrasy 
 Interviewees will often make claims that they do things in an unusual manner or that there is something unique about them or their stuff. → Brush-offs
 Brush-offs are things people don’t think are important or worthy of explanation, or things they assume we wouldn’t be interested in, e.g., “that’s not important,” “I don’t use that radio, let me show you the one I do”, “oh that’s nothing”, “that’s just an extra room.” FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
  • 143. 143ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Remember… → Pay attention → Make the normal noticeable → Get people to show and tell → Set people up for success → Account for the unspoken rules → Make discussions tangible → Know your role FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
  • 144. 144ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Pay Attention FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
  • 145. 145ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Make the Normal Noticeable FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
  • 146. 146ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Get People to Show and Tell FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
  • 147. 147ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Set People Up For Success…? → What percentage of time do you spend each day checking email? → Tell me about about your favorite television programs. → What TV channels do you regularly watch? → What is your morning routine from awakening until you leave the house? → If you had a new Apple tablet PC, what would you do with it? FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
  • 148. 148ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Account For Unspoken Rules FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS All photos © Maria Cordell
  • 149. 149ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Make Discussions Tangible FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
  • 150. 150ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Know Your Role FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
  • 151. 151ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI People Principles → People play nice for strangers. → People adapt products and services to meet their needs. → People are creatures of habit. → Memory is context sensitive. → No person is an island. → Cognition is distributed. FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
  • 152. 152ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI When Studying Humans… → People are very bad at predicting how and why they WILL or MIGHT act. → People are pretty good at recalling how they DID act though still not so good at telling you why. → People are very bad at staying focused on activities that they don’t really care about. They will generally do poorly in fictitious or imaginary situations. FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS
  • 153. 153ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Personalities & Styles FACILITATING CONVERSATIONS Confident Suspicious Relationship-focused Free associating Reticent Content modified from eLab
  • 154. Preparing for the field
  • 155. 155ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI What to Take PREPARING FOR THE FIELD
  • 156. 156ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Set roles for the team PREPARING FOR THE FIELD CLASSIC RESEARCH TEAM MODERATOR NOTES + DOCUMENTATION
  • 157. 157ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Set roles for the team PREPARING FOR THE FIELD EXTENDED RESEARCH TEAM MODERATOR NOTES DOCUMENTATION
 (GREAT CLIENT ROLE)
  • 158. 158ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Setting up the room PREPARING FOR THE FIELD MODERATOR NOTES + DOCUMENTATION NOTES PARTICIPANT
  • 159. 159ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Tips on timing PREPARING FOR THE FIELD → Try to keep it under 2 hours → If you need to go longer, design in breaks and a diversity of activities → Know what activities and conversations you can cut out 
 if you’re running out of time → Don’t forget to design in breaks for the research team!
  • 160. 160ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Research session flow PREPARING FOR THE FIELD Project intro Rapport building Warmup activity Core activities Wrap up
  • 161. 161ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Research Protocol PREPARING FOR THE FIELD
  • 162. 162ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Tips on research protocols PREPARING FOR THE FIELD → Set 3-5 focus statements 
 (closely tied to you research objective) → Identify your key questions → Build in follow-up questions to deepen information gathered → Include timing details → Treat them as a check list so you can go with the conversational flow → Test it out before heading into 
 the field!!!
  • 164. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI COLLECTING THE GOOD STUFF Story: The Camera Consumer COULD REPLACE THIS WITH A STORY FROM CMD+F?
  • 165. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI COLLECTING THE GOOD STUFF Story: The Unexpected of Research http://www.flickr.com/photos/70872463@N00/3151164675/" http://www.flickr.com/photos/59666714@N00/1316420142/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/39640647@N02/4518128944/
  • 166. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Prepare for Everything 166ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI → Participant doesn’t genuinely meet criteria. Know when to end the session. → Participant doesn’t show up. Always plan for backups. → People are complex, you cannot always predict their behaviors during a session. Prepare for the unexpected. → People have difficult, emotional experiences. You have to empathize while trying to identify the right insights. → People do not instinctively and immediately trust. Dress the part, make them feel comfortable, and don’t hold it against them for hiding their feelings. COLLECTING THE GOOD STUFF Be prepared for your carefully crafted research plan to go haywire, off script, and wrong in the most inventive ways
  • 167. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI EXERCISE #4 Conduct Research Sessions 167 → Each team split into 2 groups → One group will go in the field to do observations + intercepts → The other group will conduct two 10- minute interviews with someone from another team • One person is the researcher, one person is the notetaker & sketcher, and one person is the participant for another team (you can rotate) → After 20 minutes, the teams should swap observation / interviewing roles 
 TIME: 40 minutes
  • 168. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 168 What to Uncover EXERCISE #4 What triggered his or her journey? What were his or her expectations? What actions did he or she take? What did he or she feel at different points in time? What was he or she thinking at specific moments? What touchpoints did he or she interact with? What people were involved? What tech (screens, devices, etc.) were involved? What events took place? What locations did actions take place in? What was his or her lasting impression?
  • 169. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 169 Building Blocks EXERCISE #4 Thinking Framing and expectations Doing Activities and behaviors Feeling Feelings and perceptions People Who is involved Context Place and environment Touchpoints Products, services, points of interaction
  • 171. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI EXERCISE #4 Conduct Research Sessions 171 → Each team split into 2 groups → One group will go in the field to do observations + intercepts → The other group will conduct two 10- minute interviews with someone from another team • One person is the researcher, one person is the notetaker & sketcher, and one person is the participant for another team (you can rotate) → After 20 minutes, the teams should swap observation / interviewing roles 
 TIME: 40 minutes
  • 173. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Translating to Design → Making Sense of It All → Exercise 5: Data Clustering → Representing Research Findings → Exercise 6: Journey Mapping → Leaping from Research to Design 173 DESIGN RESEARCH
  • 174. Making Sense of It All
  • 175. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 175 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES PARTICIPANTS 
 & METHODS COLLECT
 DATA ANALYZE
 DATA DEMONSTRATE
 FINDINGS
  • 176. 176ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Sensemaking → A set of processes that is initiated when an individual or organization recognizes the inadequacy of their current understanding of events. → Sensemaking is an active two-way process of fitting data into a frame (mental model) and fitting a frame around the data. → Neither data nor frame comes first; data evoke frames and frames select and connect data. → When there is no adequate fit, the data may be reconsidered or an existing frame may be revised. MAKING SENSE OF IT ALL Adapted from Jon Kolko’s writing on Design Synthesis
  • 177. 177ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI A Synthesis Framework → Prioritize: Stakeholder interviews, user interviews, market research, cultural trends, and forecasting all produce quantities of data. Decide which pieces of data are more important than another. → Judge: Not all of the data identified in a discovery process is relevant. Determine what is most significant in the current problem solving context. Constantly reassess. → Forge connections: Discrete elements of data are less interesting than the relationship between them. An abductively logical story posits a hypothesis based on inference. The activity of defining and forging connections actively produces knowledge. MAKING SENSE OF IT ALL Adapted from Jon Kolko’s writing on Design Synthesis
  • 178. 178ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI How to Start MAKING SENSE OF IT ALL Adapted from Jeremy Alexis WHAT DID WE SEE (HEAR)? (STORIES, FACTS) WHAT DID WE LEARN? (PATTERNS, THEMES) WHY IT HAPPENED? (DRIVERS, CAUSES) WHAT CAN WE DO ABOUT IT? (OPPORTUNITIES)
  • 184. 184ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI AEIOU Synthesis Framework → Activities
 Goal directed actions → Environments
 Location → Interactions
 Person-Person, Person-Thing, Person-Environment → Objects
 Touchpoints/Artifacts → Users
 Another word for People EFFICIENT DATA ANALYSIS
  • 185. 185ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI AEIOU Expansion Pack → Space
 Environment — Flow within space → Actors
 Participant + others → Activities
 Generalized behaviors → Acts
 Specific interactions → Goals
 What the actors are attempting to accomplish → Events
 If a specific event or location → Time
 Sequence of events → Emotions
 Observed, or explicitly stated EFFICIENT DATA ANALYSIS
  • 186. 186ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI POEMS Research Framework → People
 Players, roles, relationships → Objects
 Things, touchpoints, artifacts → Environments
 Spaces, locations → Messaging
 Communication, language, signage → Services
 Systems, processes EFFICIENT DATA ANALYSIS
  • 187. 187ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI NOABS Analytic Framework → Needs
 Behaviors, tacit + explit needs, motivations → Objectives
 Goals, plans, wants → Activities
 Actions, steps → Breakdowns
 Painpoints, issues, problem areas → Solutions
 Interventions, opportunities, recommendations EFFICIENT DATA ANALYSIS IIT Institute of Design, Jeremy Alexis
  • 190. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 190 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES PARTICIPANTS 
 & METHODS COLLECT
 DATA ANALYZE
 DATA DEMONSTRATE
 FINDINGS
  • 191. 191ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Creating the Right Representations Research Objectives What are the key questions that your research must answer to be considered successful? What are the strategic objectives? REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS Design Activities to Support What kinds of design activities need to be supported? What kind of future products or services need to be informed or shaped by the insights? Findings Based on Analysis What are the key themes in your data? What are the salient dimensions of your core findings: time, location, person, role, etc.? Stakeholder Characteristics How is information communicated in the organization? What representations have worked previously? What formats will best resonate with stakeholders? FINDINGS
 REPRESENTATIONS
  • 192. 192ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Flow Model REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS
  • 193. 193ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Physical Model REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS
  • 194. 194ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Content Model REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS
  • 195. 195ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Mental Model REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS Decide to Watch a Film Watch a Film for Pleasure Watch a Film for Entertainment Watch a Film for Aesthetics Watch a Film to Avoid Something Watch a Film because of the Weather Play Hooky from Work to Watch Film Watch a Film to Achieve a Mood Watch a Film to Cure Mood Watch a Film to Release Tension Watch a Film to Relax Have a Date Night Have a Date Night Take Family Dependents to a Film Take Family Dependents to a Film Share a Film with Friends Take Someone to a Film I Like Screen a Film for Friends Watch a Film to Learn Watch a Film to Challenge My Mind Watch a Film to See Different Cultures Watch in Theater for the Experience Watch a Film for Theater Ambiance Watch a Film for a Tie to History Watch a Film for Energy of the Audience Watch Films Regularly Watch Films Regularly Watch a Film Spontaneously Watch a Film Spontaneously Attend Films with a Group Attend Films with Family Attend Films with Friends Watch My Film Expenses Watch My Film Expenses Encounter a Film I Haven’t Heard Of Encounter a Film I Havent Heard Of See a Trailer Hear about a Film Search for Films Online Read a Book Choose Film Look for Certain Qualities Choose Film for the Story Choose Blockbusters Choose Quality Films Choose Serious Films Choose Self- Deprecating Films Choose Films by Director Choose Eclectic Films Choose Familiar Films Choose Film of Country I’ve Been To Choose Film Because I’ve Read Book Watch a Certain Genre in Winter Watch a Certain Genre in Winter Include Random Film Choices Choose a Variety of Films See Whats Playing to Choose Film Inherit Interest in a Genre from Family Inherit Interest in a Genre from Family Choose Films Togeth. with Companions Avoid Certain Films for Companion Compromise on Film Choice Avoid Certain Films Avoid Films with Bad Stories Avoid Certain Genres Avoid Mainstream Films Avoid Film to Preserve Book Experience Avoid Violent Films Avoid Non-PC Films Decide on Film Based on Reviewers Opinion Read Reviews When mye Not Sure Decide if I Agree with Reviewers Points Choose Film Based on Reviewers Opinion Postpone a Film Wait for Film to Come Out on DVD Learn More about a Film Read Review to Get an Idea of the Film Read Review to Get an Idea of the Film Talk About Films I Want to See Talk About Films I Want to See Look for Trailers Online Look for Trailers Online Anticipate a Film Set Expectations Read Reviews Regularly Read the Reviewers I Respect Read Compiled Reviews Read Many Reviews to Get a Consensus Read Newspaper Reviews Read Film Festival Reviews Read Reviews Out of Curiosity Choose a Theater Choose a Good Theater Choose Clean Theater Choose Theater with Good Sound Choose Theater with Good Projection Choose Theater w/ Comfortable Seating Choose Theater with Good Eats Choose Theater w/ Good Parking Choose Easy Theater Choose Multiplex for Familiarity Choose Central Location to Meet Friends Choose Smaller Theater Choose Smaller Theater for Aesthetics Choose Smaller Theater for the Neighborhood Choose Smaller Theater for Eclectic Film Choose Theater with Big Crowd Energy Choose Theater with Big Crowd Energy Choose Theater Close to Good Restaurants Choose Theater Close to Good Restaurants Get Annoyed by Commercials Get Annoyed by Commercials Choose a Time Look Up Running Times (Length) Look Up Running Times Choose Screening Time Choose Early Screening Avoid Early Screening Choose Later Screening Avoid Films at Home Avoid Films at Home Go to the Theater Avoid Being Late to Theater Avoid Being Late to Theater Resolve Group Logistics Schedule a Time with a Group Get Tickets for a Group Meet Group at Theater Buy Tickets Buy Tickets in Advance Avoid Standing in Line to Buy Tickets Avoid Buying Tickets Online because of Surcharges Buy Concessions Buy Popcorn Buy Chocolate Eat Concessions Instead of Dinner Avoid Concessions Choose Seats Choose Seats Where I Can See Choose Seats with Good Sound Choose Seats Anywhere Choose Front Row Seats Bring Coat to Cold Theater Bring Coat to Cold Theater Watch a Film at Home Rent a Film Rent if Don’t Feel Like Going Out Try Renting through NetFlix Rent a Film to Save Money Watch a Film on Projector Watch a Film on Projector Watch a Film on DirecTV Watch a Film on DirecTV Watch DVD Extras Watch DVD w/ Commentary On Watch Extras on DVD Avoid Extras on DVD Make Popcorn Make Popcorn Eat Dinner Eat Dinner Eat Dinner Before Film Eat Dinner After Film Eat Lunch Before a Film Eat Dinner with a Companion/ Date Decide When to Eat Dinner Decide When to Eat Dinner Make Reservations Make Reservations Skip Dinner Skip Dinner Attend a Film Event Attend a Film Retrospective Attend a Film Retrospective Attend Academy Screening Attend Academy Screening Attend Opening Night Attend Opening Night Dress in Costume Dress in Costume Watch the Film React to the Film During Screening Avoid Audible Reactions Share Reactions w/ Companion Feel Strong Emotions Hide My Eyes Fall Asleep During a Film Observe Other’s Reactions Observe Other’s Reactions Ignore Other People/ Immerse Myself Avoid People So I Can Concentrate Immerse Myself in a Film Watch Certain DVDs Alone Attend Films Alone Compare Film to Book Get Nitpicky About Interpretation Anticipate Scenes from Book Comment on Film During Screening Comment on Film During Screening Look for Jokes/ References Look for Jokes/ References Admire Craft of the Film Admire Craft of Film Admire Craft of Screenplay Look for Choreography, Stunts Respect the Artist Watch a Film Respectful of the Artist Feel Reac- tions Director Wants Avoid Leaving in the Middle Identify with a FilmAllow a Film to Permeate My Life Let the Movie Linger Wish that a Film Can Change How I Act Investigate Story of Film Afterwards Read the Book Afterwards Use Quote from Film in Conversation Listen to Soundtrack Collect Film-Related Stuff Collect Toys Collect Film Artwork Save Tickets in Scrapbook Get the DVD Get DVDs as Gifts Buy Special DVDs Watch a Film Multiple Times Watch Film Multiple Times Watch DVDs I Own More than Once Interact with People about the Film Discuss the Film Afterward Go Somewhere to Sit and Discuss Film Discuss Film Afterwards Learn Craft from Discussion of Unusual Points Discuss Interpretation of Book Ask Strangers Their Opinion After a Film Avoid Discussions Recommend a Film Write a Review Recommend a Film when Asked Follow the Industry Track Box Office Competition Track Box Office Competition Track Production Studio News Track Production Studio News Become Serious about the Craft Study Film Craft Write Entertainment Get Job at Theater/ Video Store Get Job at Theater/Video Store Watch Minimalist Films to Meditate Theaters Near Me Theaters Near Me Theaters Near Me Theaters Near Me My Favorite Theaters List My Favorite Theaters List My Favorite Theaters List My Favorite Theaters List My Favorite Theaters List My Favorite Theaters List My Favorite Theaters List My Favorite Theaters List My Favorite Theaters List Pick Favorite Theater (by peer rating) Pick Favorite Theater (by peer rating) Pick Favorite Theater (by peer rating) Pick Favorite Theater (by peer rating) Pick Favorite Theater (by peer rating) Pick Favorite Theater (independents) Pick Favorite Theater (independents) Pick Favorite Theater (independents) Rate a Theater Rate a Theater Rate a Theater Rate a Theater Rate a Theater Pick Favorite Theater (by location) Pick Favorite Theater (by location) Pick Favorite Theater (by location) Pick Favorite Theater (by concessions) Pick Favorite Theater (by screen size) Pick Favorite Theater (by location) Pick Favorite Theater (by sound system) Pick Favorite Theater (by seating) Pick Favorite Theater (by seating) Pick Favorite Theater (by architecture) Pick Favorite Theater (by parking) Pick Favorite Theater (by nearby restaurants) Pick Favorite Theater (by nearby restaurants) Get to Theater Map to Theater Map to Theater Map to Theater Driving Directions to Theater Driving Directions to Theater Driving Directions to Theater Parking Directions for Theater Parking Directions for Theater Parking Directions for Theater Prices at Nearby Parking Prices at Nearby Parking Map to Theater Map to Theater Map to Theater Time Limits at Nearby Parking Prices at Nearby Parking Time Limits at Nearby Parking History of the Theater Link to Theater Website Link to Theater Website Link to Theater Website Link to Theater Website Link to Theater Website Link to Theater Website Link to Theater Website Link to Theater Website Link to Theater Website What’s Playing Today (by location) What’s Playing Today (by location) What’s Playing Today (by location) What’s Playing Today (by location) What’s Playing Today (by location) What’s Playing Today (by location) What’s Playing (by location) What’s Playing (by location) What’s Playing (by location) What’s Playing (by location) What’s Playing (by location) What’s Playing (by location) What’s Playing (by location) Choose Theater Playing Film to See What’s Playing Today (by location) What’s Playing (by location) What’s Playing Today (by title) What’s Playing Today (by title) What’s Playing Today (by title) What’s Playing Today (by title) What’s Playing (by title) What’s Playing (by title) What’s Playing (by title) What’s Playing (by title) What’s Playing Today (by title) What’s Playing (by title) What’s Playing Today (by director/actor) What’s Playing (by director/ actor) What’s Playing Today (by director/actor) What’s Playing (by director/ actor) What’s Playing Today (by director/actor) What’s Playing (by director/ actor) What’s Playing Today (at favorite theaters) What’s Playing (at favorite theaters) What’s Playing Today (at favorite theaters) What’s Playing (at favorite theaters) What’s Playing Today (at favorite theaters) What’s Playing (at favorite theaters) What’s Playing Today (at favorite theaters) What’s Playing (at favorite theaters) What’s Playing Today (at favorite theaters) What’s Playing (at favorite theaters) What’s Playing Today (at favorite theaters) What’s Playing (at favorite theaters) What’s Playing Today (at favorite theaters) What’s Playing (at favorite theaters) Showtimes Running Time How Much Longer Will It Be Playing? Showtimes Running Time How Much Longer Will It Be Playing? Showtimes Running Time How Much Longer Will It Be Playing? Showtimes Running Time How Much Longer Will It Be Playing? Showtimes Running Time How Much Longer Will It Be Playing? Buy Tickets Is It Sold Out? Is There a Line? Is It Sold Out? Is There a Line? Is It Sold Out? Is There a Line? Is It Sold Out? Is There a Line? What’s Playing in the Next Two Hrs (by location) What’s Playing in the Next Two Hrs (at favorite theaters) What’s Playing in the Next Two Hrs (by actor/ director) What’s Playing in the Next Two Hrs (by title) Film List (by genre) Film List (by director/actor) Film List (by genre) Film List (by genre) What’s Playing Today (by title) What’s Playing (by title) What’s Playing Today (by director/actor) What’s Playing (by director/ actor) What’s Playing Today (at favorite theaters) What’s Playing (at favorite theaters) Film List (compiled reviews) Film List (by peer rating) Film List (by favorite reviewer) Rent a DVD from Sponsor Reserve a DVD from Sponsor Rent a DVD from Sponsor Reserve a DVD from Sponsor Rent a DVD from Sponsor Reserve a DVD from Sponsor Rent a DVD from Sponsor Reserve a DVD from Sponsor Film List (compiled reviews) Film List (by peer rating) Film List (by favorite reviewer) Film List (compiled reviews) Film List (by peer rating) Film List (by favorite reviewer) Pick a Film (by favorite theater) Film List (by related films) Film List (based on books) Film List (by country of story) Film List (by country of origin/director) Film List (by related films) Film List (by related films) Film List (by related films) Film List (by related films) Film List (by related films) Film List (by related films) My Favorite Reviewers List Pick Favorite Reviewer Links to Other Review Websites My Favorite Reviewers List Pick Favorite Reviewer Links to Other Review Websites My Favorite Reviewers List Pick Favorite Reviewer Links to Other Review Websites Rate a Film My Favorite Films, and Why Rate the Mood of a Film Rate a Film My Favorite Films, and Why Rate the Mood of a Film Look for Film Information Online Link to IMDB Link to Official Film Website Links to Unofficial or Fan Sites Links to Fan Films (Remakes by Fans) Film Chat Room (by title) Film Chat Room (by genre) Film Chat Room (by director) Film Chat Room (by actor) Link to IMDB Links to Unofficial or Fan Sites This Film is Like Another... If You Like This Director, You Will Like... If You Like This Actor, You Will Like... This Film is Like Another... If You Like This Director, You Will Like... If You Like This Actor, You Will Like... This Film is Like Another... If You Like This Director, You Will Like... If You Like This Actor, You Will Like... Mental Space MovieGoer'sMentalModelTools&Content External Site Another Place for Content or Function Primary Location for Content or Function Conceptual Group Popular (5+ Voices) Added During Workshop Rare (1 Voice) Normal (2-4 Voices) Added Content Legend Content Behind Login Send Story Idea to Studio Write Fan Mail to a Director Write Fan Mail Write Fan Mail to an Actor Local Film Festivals National Film Festival List Links to Film Festival Websites Links to Film Festival Schedules Attend Film Festival Attend Outdoor Screening Links to Local Outdoor Screenings Top Box Office Performers Links to Gross Income Tracking on Films Links to Box Office Websites Track DVD Sales Top DVD Sales Performers Links to Film Institute Schedules Local Theater Job Listings DVD Release Dates DVD Release Dates Trailer Top Requested Trailers Trailer Top Requested Trailers Trailer Release Dates List of Movies Playing Now List of Movies Playing Now List of Movies Playing Now List of Movies Playing Now List of Movies Playing Now DVD Release Dates Get Excited about a Film Read About Films I Want to See Link to IMDB List of Extras on Film Links to Entertainment Websites Links to Entertainment Websites Links to Entertainment Websites Links to Entertainment Websites Links to Entertainment Websites List of Movies Coming Soon Theater Release Dates Trailer Release Dates List of Movies Coming This Weekend List of Movies Coming Soon Theater Release Dates List of Movies Coming This Weekend Links to Film Archive Websites Links to Film Archive Websites Links to Film Archive Websites Links to Film Institute Websites Links to Film Archive Schedules Local Restaurant Links Local Restaurant Links Movie Goer Alignment Diagram Research Conducted by Indi Young June 2004 Alter my Behavior/ Opinion DVD Release Dates Local Restaurant Links Local Film Festivals National Film Festival List Links to Film Festival Websites Links to Film Festival Schedules Links to Local Outdoor Screenings Film List (by mood) Get to Restaurant Buy Soundtrack Indi Young, Mental Models, Rosenfeld Media
  • 196. 196ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Dimensions or Spectra REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS THE COUNSELORTHE PRACTICE BUILDER THE RELATIONSHIP BUILDER THE EXPERT THE CONDUIT OPENNESS TO NEW EXPERIENCES TECH PROGRESSIVENESS ATTITUDE TOWARD 
 MF COMPANIES CLIENT APPROACH explores new things resists change open, but not actively seeking open, needs to be convinced of benefits pioneerlaggard late majority early majority early adopter dependent on for info skeptical open, but on adviser’s terms open, if on approved list open, not soliciting help emotional intellectualfunctional
  • 197. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Personas From large wall posters to 3x5” cards, and even easels, personas can be used in a variety of formats depending on the objective. They help us retain empathy with the people we’re designing for. Properly developed, they also strongly anchor organizations and designers in the things that matter to people. REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS
  • 198. CORE IDENTITY Background, goals, motivations, 
 and attitudes or behaviors that  distinctly represent the persona
 NEEDS & CHALLENGES What this persona needs to 
 accomplish goals, as well as unmet 
 needs, obstacles, and pain points
 
 CURRENT EXPERIENCE How this persona lives or works, 
 who they interact with, and relevant activities, tools, or info sources 
 THEMES & INSIGHTS Representative scenarios or themes that illustrate how this persona feels, interacts, or behaves 198ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Personas REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS
  • 199. 199 Mapping to Institutional Understanding REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS Member Persona/Segmentation Map Younger Singles & DINKS Older Singles & DINKS Young Families Teen Families Empty Nesters Young Retirees Older Retirees Service Seeker No Face-toFace Skeptics Minimizers Low Involvement Active Enthusiasts Security Conscious Value Driven Middle-of-the-Road No Hassle Convince Me Alexandra JamesSofiaNaveedSarah CSAA095LS Life Stages Screener Auto Insurance Segmentation Placemat ERS Customer Segmentation Card PERSONAS SEGMENTS Persona-Segment Matrix → Cross-maps Perspectives
 Maps personas directly and visibly to the segments used and trusted by the company. → Makes Clear Connections
 The mapping is very explicit and helps everyone make connections between personas and what they know. → Drives Conversation
 It helps people talk about similarities and differences that help them see the role of personas.
  • 200. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Experience Map A visualization of experiences over space and time, and across touchpoints REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS
  • 201. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 201 Why Map The Experience? → Create a shared frame of reference of the customer experience → Build organizational knowledge of customer behaviors and needs across channels → Identify specific areas of opportunity to drive ideation and innovation → Distribute key customer insights in a easy-to-understand form that will be used, not shelved → Further organizational evolution towards customer-centric thinking REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS
  • 204. STAGES DOING FEELING Research & Planning Shopping Booking Post-Booking, Pre-Travel Travel Post Travel People choose rail travel because it is convenient, easy, and flexible. Rail booking is only one part of people’s larger travel process. People build their travel plans over time. People value service that is respectful, effective and personable. EXPERIENCE Rail Europe Experience Map Kayak, compare airfare Google searches Research hotels Talk with friends Relevance of Rail Europe Enjoyability Helpfulness of Rail Europe Paper tickets arrive in mail • I’m excited to go to Europe! • Will I be able to see everything I can? • What if I can’t afford this? • I don’t want to make the wrong choice. • It’s hard to trust Trip Advisor. Everyone is so negative. • Keeping track of all the different products is confusing. • Am I sure this is the trip I want to take? • Website experience is easy and friendly! • Frustrated to not know sooner about which tickets are eTickets and which are paper tickets. Not sure my tickets will arrive in time. • Stressed that I’m about to leave the country and Rail Europe won’t answer the phone. • Frustrated that Rail Europe won’t ship tickets to Europe. • Happy to receive my tickets in the mail! • I am feeling vulnerable to be in an unknown place in the middle of the night. • Stressed that the train won’t arrive on time for my connection. • Meeting people who want to show us around is fun, serendipitous, and special. • Excited to share my vacation story with my friends. • A bit annoyed to be dealing with ticket refund issues when I just got home. View maps Arrange travel Blogs & Travel sites Plan with interactive map Review fares Select pass(es) Enter trips Confirm itinerary Delivery options Payment options Review & confirm Map itinerary (finding pass) Destination pages May call if difficulties occur E-ticket Print at Station Web raileurope.com Wait for paper tickets to arriveResearch destinations, routes and products Live chat for questions Activities, unexpected changes Change plans Check ticket status Print e-tickets at home web/ apps Look up timetables Plan/ confirm activities Web Share photos Share experience (reviews) Request refunds Follow-up on refunds for booking changes Share experience Buy additional tickets Look up time tables Stakeholder interviews Cognitive walkthroughs Customer Experience Survey Existing Rail Europe Documentation Opportunities Guiding Principles Customer Journey Information sources RAIL EUROPE THINKING • What is the easiest way to get around Europe? • Where do I want to go? • How much time should I/we spend in each place for site seeing and activities? • I want to get the best price, but I’m willing to pay a little more for first class. • How much will my whole trip cost me? What are my trade-offs? • Are there other activities I can add to my plan? • Do I have all the tickets, passes and reservations I need in this booking so I don’t pay more shipping? • Rail Europe is not answering the phone. How else can I get my question answered? • Do I have everything I need? • Rail Europe website was easy and friendly, but when an issue came up, I couldn’t get help. • What will I do if my tickets don’t arrive in time? • I just figured we could grab a train but there are not more trains. What can we do now? • Am I on the right train? If not, what next? • I want to make more travel plans. How do I do that? • Trying to return ticket I was not able to use. Not sure if I’ll get a refund or not. • People are going to love these photos! • Next time, we will explore routes and availability more carefully. Ongoing, non-linear Linear process Non-linear, but time based Communicate a clear value proposition. STAGE: Initial visit Connect planning, shopping and booking on the web. STAGES: Planning, Shopping, Booking Arm customers with information for making decisions. STAGES: Shopping, Booking Improve the paper ticket experience. STAGES: Post-Booking, Travel, Post-Travel Make your customers into better, more savvy travelers. STAGES: Global Proactively help people deal with change. STAGES: Post-Booking, Traveling Support people in creating their own solutions. STAGES: Global Visualize the trip for planning and booking. STAGES: Planning, Shopping Enable people to plan over time. STAGES: Planning, Shopping Engage in social media with explicit purposes. STAGES: Global Communicate status clearly at all times. STAGES: Post-Booking, Post Travel Accommodate planning and booking in Europe too. STAGE: Traveling Aggregate shipping with a reasonable timeline. STAGE: Booking Help people get the help they need. STAGES: Global GLOBAL PLANNING, SHOPPING, BOOKING POST-BOOK, TRAVEL, POST-TRAVEL Relevance of Rail Europe Enjoyability Helpfulness of Rail Europe Relevance of Rail Europe Enjoyability Helpfulness of Rail Europe Relevance of Rail Europe Enjoyability Helpfulness of Rail Europe Relevance of Rail Europe Enjoyability Helpfulness of Rail Europe Relevance of Rail Europe Enjoyability Helpfulness of Rail Europe Mail tickets for refund Get stamp for refund
  • 205. PATIENT ACTIVITIES INFORMATION NEEDS activities i think i need helpstages give me immediate relief discover what's wrong with me fix the problem send me on my way to recovery tie up loose ends 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Critical Moment Patient needs JMH Critical Moment Severity of condition can determine the tone of the journey Redirect Get patient on correct path: ER/UC/PCP Critical Moment Patient sees Care Provider Critical Moment Get patient on the road to normal Critical Moment Determines severity and length of problem Redirect Get patient on correct path: ER/UC/PCP Redirect Get patient to a specialist or on new care path: CH/CO EXPERIENCE DRIVERS UNDERSTANDING: Building knowledge and clarity REPETITION: Multiplying the unknown UNKNOWN: Creating uncertainty and obscurity STABILITY: Progressing and sense of security COMFORT: Growing ease and alleviation DOUBT: Growing skepticism and mistrust HIGH IMPACT + ANXIETY + RELIEF STORY ARC The relative change in anxiety and relief and the range in patient stories key moment i think i need help Don’t know where to go. Don’t know who to ask. Don’t expect my primary doctor to help me. my needs Validate how to seek help key moment wait to be seen No expectation of how long. No one is showing empathy. my needs Distract me or don't make me wait key moment wait for results No expectation of how long. No one is showing empathy. Prolonging the unknown. my needs Distract me or calm me down key moment get results Not sure where to go. May not have a great relationship with their health care. my needs Reassure me that you can help me; Remember this information for me key moment at-home care instructions Not sure where to go. May not have a great relationship with their health care. my needs Confirm I am doing the right thing key moment something feels wrong Unsure what is wrong. Scared of the unknown. my needs Validate how I seek health key moment triage at check-in Given comfort. Front desk was empathetic and set expectations of wait. my needs Comfort me and take me seriously key moment given next steps Staff took the time to help me understand. Built confidence and set my expectations. my needs Reassure me I am going to be okay; Empower me for at-home care key moment deal with the bill Expectations not set. Contents of bill were a surprise. No clear resolution between insurance and JMH. my needs Confirm I am doing the right thing key moment decide to get help Confident that I’ll get help. Expectation that I’ll get help today. my needs Be ready for me Pain causes a more dramatic emotional experience and higher expectations for empathy and comfort from Care Providers. Since Urgent Care can be a discrete experience, the potential for highs and lows is amplified. Urgent and Emergency Care Patient Experience Map something feels wrong • Have pain or onset of symptoms • Notice a sudden change in at-home monitoring i think i need help • Call Primary Doctor or a General Line • Ask family/friends with similar symptoms • Self diagnose • Google triage decide to get help • Schedule same day appointment by phone for Urgent Care Center • Get basic triage over phone before visit • Walk into ER or Urgent Care Center check in • Give Insurance Card • Fill out paperwork • Ask about wait triage at check-in • Given temporary relief • Nurse does quick diagnosis to determine priority wait to be seen • Sit • Pace • Distract myself with phone or magazines get an exam • Explain my symptoms • Explain my medical history or allergies get tests • Nurse administers tests • Visit techs to get tests wait for results • Stay in the patient room • Return to the waiting room get results and diagnosis • Ask additional questions • Hear results of the tests and what they mean • Learn about diagnosis and what that means • If unsure about diagnosis, get referral for Specialist • Hear treatment option(s) get treatment or procedure • Get treatment or procedure by Nurse or Doctor • Get re-examined after treatment at-home care instructions • Do any at-home care during recovery • Take prescriptions get follow-up call • Update Nurse or Doctor on how I'm doing • Answer any follow-up questions schedule follow-up • Call to schedule appointment • Prepare any records or results given to me by the ER or UC deal with the bill • Receive bill • Handle any billing issues • Pay bills given next steps • Nurse care and treatment discharge instruc- tions • Get prescription • Get referral pick up at-home care supplies • Fill and pick up prescriptions • Pick up at-home care supplies something feels wrong • Symptom checker • Google triage • Primary care phone number for triage i think i need help • Where do I go for what • Triage phone number • Insurance benefits - cost/benefit of where to go • Primary care phone number for triage decide to get help • Facility address • Time of appointment • Phone numbers check in • My place in line • Wait time estimate triage at check-in • Expectations of the visit • Early diagnosis • How to stay comfortable during wait wait to be seen • How much longer get an exam • What to do get tests • How long this will take • Reason for the tests wait for results • How long this will take get results and diagnosis • Why this is happening to me • What the diagnosis is and how do I have it • How things will change or what I need to do get treatment or procedure • Why this treatment • Side effects from this • What treatment will entail at-home care instructions • Instructions • Number just in case get follow-up call • What does progress look/feel like • How to track progress schedule follow-up • My records for my Primary • My progress report deal with the bill • Why I owe what I owe • Important phone numbers • Payment method options given next steps • Who to call for what • Discharge papers • Prescription • Doctor's note • After-care info pick up at-home care supplies • Side effects • Prescription information • What to look out for 1 2 1 2 3 4 3 4 5 7 10 11 12 14 16 1715 13 8 9 6 5 7 10 11 12 14 16 1715 13 8 9 6 TRIAGE AT CHECK-IN "I was being ignored; I felt like I was going to die." GET AN EXAM "The doctor listened to me and I felt like he saw the big picture." GET FOLLOW-UP CALL "The ER doctor followed up with me to see that I was doing OK." GIVEN NEXT STEPS "I was in pain; I couldn’t process anything that was going on."
  • 207. THERE AND BACK AGAIN A SF MUNI USER JOURNEY KEY GOOD ACTIVITIES BAD } ] !!! ! HOME #10OUTBOUND #10INBOUND c WAITING AT BUS STOP DAYNIGHT cWAITING AT BUS STOP SCHOOL HOME NEXTBUS SOCIAL u u qq SOCIAL Z Z Z j TIRED LOUDv M eIBOOKS EMAIL HOT RUSHED CROWDED uuu } c
  • 208. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 208 Four Steps to Mapping → Study customer behavior and interactions across channels and touchpoints → Collaboratively synthesize key insights into a customer journey model → Visualize a compelling story that creates empathy and understanding → Follow the map to new ideas and better customer experiences REPRESENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS
  • 209. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI EXERCISE #5 PART I Modeling the Journey 209 → In teams, use your journey mapping template to map the common end-to-end journey you uncovered in research. → Use a different sticky note color per building block. TIME: 45 minutes
  • 210. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 210 EXERCISE #5 PART I ACTIONS (DOING) TOUCHPOINTS PEOPLE FEELING THINKING
  • 211. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 211 Building Blocks EXERCISE #5 PART I DOING STAGE STAGE STAGE STAGE THINKING FEELING TOUCHPOINTS
  • 212. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 212 Putting it together EXERCISE #5 PART I DOING STAGE STAGE STAGE STAGE THINKING FEELING TOUCHPOINTS
  • 213. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 213 Building Blocks EXERCISE #5 PART I Thinking Framing and expectations Doing Activities and behaviors Feeling Feelings and perceptions People Who is involved Context Place and environment Touchpoints Products, services, points of interaction Stages Meaningful chunks of activities
  • 214. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI EXERCISE #5 PART I Modeling the Journey 214 → In teams, use your journey mapping template to map the common end-to-end journey you uncovered in research. → Use a different sticky note color per building block. TIME: 45 minutes
  • 215. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI EXERCISE #5 PART II What’s the story 215 → Individually, fill out the worksheet of the “Story POV template” to identify what you have learned from mapping the journey. TIME: 5 minutes
  • 216. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 216 The visual tells the story for you EXERCISE #5 PART II
  • 217. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 217 What’s the story? EXERCISE #5 PART II Individually, fill out the worksheet of the “Story POV template” to identify what you have learned from mapping the journey. → When mapping, what stood out for you? → What did the mapping help you better understand about the patron and his/her experience? → From the perspective of a person involved in the journey you mapped, what are the key moments, good and bad? TIME: 5 minutes
  • 219. 5 Lessons in 
 Modeling a Journey
  • 220. 5 LESSONS 1. Use Before/After Research journey ideation blueprint touchpoints storyboard research
  • 221. 5 LESSONS 2. Frame and Reframe start end
  • 222. 5 LESSONS 3. Decide Your Level of Zoom organization service product feature control What journey are you mapping?
  • 223. 5 LESSONS 4. Know Your Audience design team organization
  • 224. 5 LESSONS 5. Make It Stand Alone Makes sense to me.
  • 225. Moving from Research 
 to Design
  • 226. 226ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Now what? MOVING FROM RESEARCH TO DESIGN COMMUNICATE USE YOUR MODEL TO TELL THE STORY SOLVE IDENTIFY KEY MOMENTS FOR DESIGN INTERVENTIONS ANALYZE + EXPLORE BUILD FRAMEWORKS FOR CONCEPTING
  • 227. DOINGTHINKINGFEELING RESEARCH PURCHASE USE • How will this process work? • What sort of payment plans are available? • How do I even get started? • Excited, but a little anxious • Unsure • Ready to get started • Worrying about money • Wants to consult friends and family for advice • Browsing the internet • Comparing experiences with friends and family • Doing background research • Reading horror story reviews online • Watching commercials • Reading advertisements • Is there a trial period for this product? • Would a friend like this product? • Can I save money by buying multiple products? • Can I buy it online? Do I need to go to a store? • In the mood to spend • Convinced • Excited to own something brand new • Interacting with sales staff • Sharing information about the purchase via social networks • Driving to brick-and- mortar store to buy product • Does this store have a return policy? • Why is nothing about returns or warranties written on their website? • I’m happy about my purchase and would be willing to tell others about this service! • Happy • Relieved • Impressed • Satisfied • Ready to refer friends and family to service • Relaxing • Writing rave reviews online • Using the new product on a regular basis • Refering friends and family “YAY!” “OH, NO!” “CAN SOMEONE HELP ME?”
  • 228. 1 2 4 I’m not crazy. If I keep doing this, people will think I'm crazy. I didn’t get the right help, so I’m out. Better someone else than me. I don’t have mental health problems. My family’s got issues, but that’s normal. I don’t want to hear it. There are people I can talk to. I feel like I'm not alone. Talking to others like me really helps. 5 I don’t trust you. I want to help others. It’s a little better. 3 ACTIONS Keeping silent Using drugs and alcohol Denying problems FEELING Confused, Scared, Alone NEEDS Education Hope Unawareness PHASE 1 ROADBLOCKS CAN BE OPPORTUNITIES THROUGHOUT THE JOURNEY Youth is not considering change. ACTIONS Changing behavior Helping others Relapsing FEELING Supported, Validated, Hopeful NEEDS Culturally competent care Family and peer support Engagement PHASE 5 Youth’s commitment to change and new emerging behaviors are reinforced by positive experiences. ACTIONS Self-diagnosing Seeking help Talking to someone NEEDS Trust Validation Awareness PHASE 3 Youth is gathering information and self-reflecting while getting closer to seeking help. FEELING Confused, Skeptical, Uncertain ACTIONS Linkage to help Talking to caregivers for treatment consent Starting / Quitting therapy NEEDS Trust Safety Privacy FEELING Relieved, Ambivalent, Anxious, Hopeful Connection PHASE 4 Youth believes change can happen and is actively taking steps to get help. Youth need the right support, education, privacy, and safety to ensure they don’t fall off the grid. Creating Positive Change for Youth in the Western Addition A Journey to Empowerment ACTIONS Seeking distractions Self-medicating Hurting others FEELING Complacent, Angry, Numb NEEDS Role Modeling Education New Possibilities Sensing PHASE 2 Youth may think they have no control over the problem, yet are on the fence about getting help. I’m not crazy, but I need help. I'm not talking about my problems. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! OUTREACH & EDUCATION Provide empathy, acceptance, and opportunities to expand self-awareness NEW JOURNEY (Empowered) I’ve changed, but nothing else has. I feel bad, but I don’t know why. GUIDANCE & SUPPORT Provide encouragement to take small steps, build relationships, and strengthen coping strategies ! STIGMA Reframe mental health ! TRUST Strengthen valuable relationships with family, friends, and community ! ACCESS Deliver services when and where youth need them ! SAFETY Ensure protected passage to services, given the risk of invisible boundaries “There are things I need to deal with.” “I’m not alone.” “I can change.”“Why am I like this?”“Nothing is wrong with me.” ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI
  • 229. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI UNAWARENESS + SENSING AWARENESS + CONNECTION ENGAGEMENT STIGMA ACCESS KNOWLEDGE MOVING FROM RESEARCH TO DESIGN Ideating from the Research STAGES FROM JOURNEY NEEDS OR OPPORTUNITIES
  • 230. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI EXERCISE #6 Prioritize Insights for Design 230 → Individually fill out the Part B of the “Story POV Template.” → Think back to your research participants and what you mapped in the journey. → TIME: 10 minutes
  • 231. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI 231 ScopeFocus Concepts &
 Language Research
 Questions Context & Form Design Principles DAY 1 DESIGN STRATEGY DS DAY 2 USER RESEARCH DR DAY 3 SERVICE DESIGN SD DAY 4 INTERACTION DESIGN IxD
  • 232. 232ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI It’s an Iterative Process… The lines between strategy, research, and design are blurry. And that’s good. MOVING FROM RESEARCH TO DESIGN RESEARCH DESIGN DEVELOPMENT WK1 WK2 WK3 WK4 WK5 WK6 WK7 WK8 WK9 WK10 WK11 WK12 WK13 STRATEGY
  • 233. 233ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI The Outcomes of Design Research → Explore… to set direction
 Support the success of a new product or service by understanding context and identifying opportunities → Understand... to reduce risk
 Ensure the viability of the product/service by exposing specifics, nuance, and subtlety → Evaluate... to improve quality
 Focus efforts on areas of greatest need and accelerate and/or fine tune the design MOVING FROM RESEARCH TO DESIGN
  • 234. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Design research is a strategic tool that drives the design process. But it’s also a strategic tool that drives business and assures engagement with what you put out in the world.
  • 235. Advice
  • 236. 1. Research doesn’t have to be its own project. 2. Never rely on one source. 3. Treat research like something you would design. 4. Make insights tangible. 5. Iterate. ADVICE 5 Things to Remember
  • 237. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Select References 237 Design Research: 
 Methods and Perspectives
 Brenda Laurel, Ed.
 MIT Press The Elements of User Experience, 2nd Edition
 Jesse James Garrett
 New Riders Publishing Exposing the Magic of Design: 
 A Practitioner's Guide to the Methods and Theory of Synthesis
 Jon Kolko
 Oxford University Press Interviewing Users: 
 How to Uncover Compelling Insights
 Steve Portigal
 Rosenfeld Media Observing the User Experience, 2nd Edition
 Mike Kuniavsky et al
 Morgan Kaufman Storytelling for User Experience
 Whitney Quesenbery and Kevin Brooks 
 Rosenfeld Media Universal Methods of Design: 
 100 Ways to Research Complex Problems, Develop Innovative Ideas, and Design Effective Solutions
 Bruce Hanington and Bella Martin
 Rockport Publishers Mental Models:
 Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior
 Indi Young
 Rosenfeld Media The following are a few (of many) great books that may support you in your work, many of which are referenced in this workbook.
  • 238. ADAPTIVE PATH | UXI Design Research Q&A 238
  • 239. Check out the UXI Alumni LinkedIn Group Check your email for an invite to join the group
  • 240. Thank You. Pier One San Francisco CA 94107-110 415-495-8270 Nick Remis
 @dreamis