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102
Dancers at a club in
Kathmandu, Nepal.
PART V Connected Speech
Chapter 11 Linking and Sound Change
Chapter 12 Consonant Clusters
Linking and Sound Change 103
C H A P T E R 11 Linking and Sound Change
OBJECTIVES
In this chapter, you will learn how to:
• link or connect words within thought groups.
• identify common sound changes when words are connected in the stream
of speech.
SUMMARY
In written English, there is space between words: What is her name?
In spoken English, there is no space between words: Whatsername?
Words in a thought group are linked or joined together and often sound like one
long word. It is sometimes difficult to tell the end of one word from the beginning
of the next.
When words are connected, sounds may change. Learning to recognize common
sound changes will improve your ability to understand conversational English, and
learning to make a smooth connection from the end of one word to the beginning
of the next will improve your fluency.
A Listen. Do the phrases in each pair sound the same or different?
Check Same or Different. CD 3; Track 2
EXERCISE 1
Notice
Same Different
1. art class arc class
2. ate breakfast ape breakfast
3. bad credit bag credit
4. made your bed major bed
5. let her letter
6. light green like green
7. them all the mall
8. all of her Oliver
B Discuss your answers from part A with your class.
104 Chapter 11
Rules and Practice
When we link one word with the next, sounds shift, change, and/or get dropped. As
a result, phrases like them all/the mall, light green/like green, and let her/letter sound
almost the same.
Linking Same Consonant Sounds
Listen. What happens when you link a word ending with a consonant sound to
another word beginning with the same consonant sound? CD 3; Track 3
class schedule we’ll look take control
Circle the correct answer to complete the rule.
RULE 11.1 When you link two consonant sounds that are the same, say the
sound (once / twice), but hold it a little longer.*
*Note: When you link two consonant sounds that are almost the same (made in the same place), make only
one tongue or lip placement for the two sounds: late dinner come back face time
Linking and Sound Change 105
Linking Consonant to Vowel
Listen. What happens when you link a final consonant sound to a beginning
vowel sound? CD 3; Track 4
beautiful eyes (sounds like beautifu-lies)
clean up (sounds like clea-nup)
job offer (sounds like jo-boffer)
Circle the correct answer to complete the rule.
RULE 11.2 When you link a final consonant sound to a beginning vowel
sound, it sounds like the (consonant / vowel) moves to the next word or is shared
by both words.
A Close your book. Listen and repeat the phrases you hear. Say each phrase as if
it were one word. CD 3; Track 5
EXERCISE 2
B Open your book. With a partner, take turns reading each phrase.
bad day class schedule look good speak clearly
business school come back need time think it over
check it out log on pick it up web based
A With a partner, find the hidden words in the quotes. Then take turns saying
the quotes.
Hidden Words Quotes
1. lit Why do they call it rush hour when nothing moves?
—Robin Williams
2. sit Let’s face it. Friends make life a lot more fun.
—Charles R. Swindoll
3. doubt How can you get burned out doing something you love?
—Tommy Lasorda
4. fizz Life is a crazy ride and nothing is guaranteed.
—Eminem
5. fin In the end, it’s not the years in your life that count. It’s
the life in your years.
—Abraham Lincoln
6. kit As a child, my family’s menu consisted of two choices:
take it or leave it.
—Buddy Hackett
EXERCISE 3
106 Chapter 11
Linking Consonant to Consonant
What happens when you link one word ending with a consonant sound to the
next word beginning with a different consonant sound? Listen and circle the sound
you hear at the end of the first word. CD 3; Track 6
I already ate breakfast. /t/ /p/
He has bad credit. /d/ /g/
She’s still in Boston. /n/ /m/
RULE 11.3 When you link two consonant sounds that are different, the first
sound often changes to be more like the next sound.*
*Note: The final consonant sounds most likely to change are /t/, /d/, and /n/.
Linking and sound change are natural parts of spoken English. The
amount depends on the speaker, the formality of the situation, and
the rate of speech.
A Work with a partner. The underlined word in each sentence sounds like one of the
words in the box above it. Write the word in the blank.
1. cheek cheap
a. They cheat by copying other peoples’ work.
b. Don’t go there. They cheat customers.
2. ache ape
a. There are eight girls on the team.
b. There are eight boys on the team.
3. quip quick
a. They need to quit being critical.
b. They need to quit complaining.
4. sung some
a. You need sun protection.
b. You need sun cream.
B Discuss your answers to part A with your class. Practice saying the sentences with
the words you wrote in the blanks.
EXERCISE 4
cheap
cheek
Linking and Sound Change 107
A Listen to the sentences with natural pronunciation. Then write the proper
spelling of each underlined word. CD 3; Track 7
EXERCISE 5
Sound Spelling
1. The jury found the man knock guilty.
2. Did the police catch the bag guy?
3. These are grape papers.
4. John’s not a dog person. He’s more of a cap
person.
B Discuss your answers to part A with the class. Then, with your partner, take
turns saying each sentence with the spoken and written forms. Which way is
easier to say?
not
In North American English, the voiceless /t/ sometimes sounds like a
quick, voiced /d/ called a “flap /t/” because the tongue taps or flaps
against the back of the front teeth. The flap /t/ occurs when /t/ is
between two vowel sounds and the second vowel is unstressed.
metal sounds like medal
data sounds like dada
The flap also occurs across words that are linked:
right away sounds like righ-daway
put it on sounds like pu-di-don

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wellsaid_partv_sample.pdf

  • 1. 102 Dancers at a club in Kathmandu, Nepal. PART V Connected Speech Chapter 11 Linking and Sound Change Chapter 12 Consonant Clusters
  • 2. Linking and Sound Change 103 C H A P T E R 11 Linking and Sound Change OBJECTIVES In this chapter, you will learn how to: • link or connect words within thought groups. • identify common sound changes when words are connected in the stream of speech. SUMMARY In written English, there is space between words: What is her name? In spoken English, there is no space between words: Whatsername? Words in a thought group are linked or joined together and often sound like one long word. It is sometimes difficult to tell the end of one word from the beginning of the next. When words are connected, sounds may change. Learning to recognize common sound changes will improve your ability to understand conversational English, and learning to make a smooth connection from the end of one word to the beginning of the next will improve your fluency. A Listen. Do the phrases in each pair sound the same or different? Check Same or Different. CD 3; Track 2 EXERCISE 1 Notice Same Different 1. art class arc class 2. ate breakfast ape breakfast 3. bad credit bag credit 4. made your bed major bed 5. let her letter 6. light green like green 7. them all the mall 8. all of her Oliver B Discuss your answers from part A with your class.
  • 3. 104 Chapter 11 Rules and Practice When we link one word with the next, sounds shift, change, and/or get dropped. As a result, phrases like them all/the mall, light green/like green, and let her/letter sound almost the same. Linking Same Consonant Sounds Listen. What happens when you link a word ending with a consonant sound to another word beginning with the same consonant sound? CD 3; Track 3 class schedule we’ll look take control Circle the correct answer to complete the rule. RULE 11.1 When you link two consonant sounds that are the same, say the sound (once / twice), but hold it a little longer.* *Note: When you link two consonant sounds that are almost the same (made in the same place), make only one tongue or lip placement for the two sounds: late dinner come back face time
  • 4. Linking and Sound Change 105 Linking Consonant to Vowel Listen. What happens when you link a final consonant sound to a beginning vowel sound? CD 3; Track 4 beautiful eyes (sounds like beautifu-lies) clean up (sounds like clea-nup) job offer (sounds like jo-boffer) Circle the correct answer to complete the rule. RULE 11.2 When you link a final consonant sound to a beginning vowel sound, it sounds like the (consonant / vowel) moves to the next word or is shared by both words. A Close your book. Listen and repeat the phrases you hear. Say each phrase as if it were one word. CD 3; Track 5 EXERCISE 2 B Open your book. With a partner, take turns reading each phrase. bad day class schedule look good speak clearly business school come back need time think it over check it out log on pick it up web based A With a partner, find the hidden words in the quotes. Then take turns saying the quotes. Hidden Words Quotes 1. lit Why do they call it rush hour when nothing moves? —Robin Williams 2. sit Let’s face it. Friends make life a lot more fun. —Charles R. Swindoll 3. doubt How can you get burned out doing something you love? —Tommy Lasorda 4. fizz Life is a crazy ride and nothing is guaranteed. —Eminem 5. fin In the end, it’s not the years in your life that count. It’s the life in your years. —Abraham Lincoln 6. kit As a child, my family’s menu consisted of two choices: take it or leave it. —Buddy Hackett EXERCISE 3
  • 5. 106 Chapter 11 Linking Consonant to Consonant What happens when you link one word ending with a consonant sound to the next word beginning with a different consonant sound? Listen and circle the sound you hear at the end of the first word. CD 3; Track 6 I already ate breakfast. /t/ /p/ He has bad credit. /d/ /g/ She’s still in Boston. /n/ /m/ RULE 11.3 When you link two consonant sounds that are different, the first sound often changes to be more like the next sound.* *Note: The final consonant sounds most likely to change are /t/, /d/, and /n/. Linking and sound change are natural parts of spoken English. The amount depends on the speaker, the formality of the situation, and the rate of speech. A Work with a partner. The underlined word in each sentence sounds like one of the words in the box above it. Write the word in the blank. 1. cheek cheap a. They cheat by copying other peoples’ work. b. Don’t go there. They cheat customers. 2. ache ape a. There are eight girls on the team. b. There are eight boys on the team. 3. quip quick a. They need to quit being critical. b. They need to quit complaining. 4. sung some a. You need sun protection. b. You need sun cream. B Discuss your answers to part A with your class. Practice saying the sentences with the words you wrote in the blanks. EXERCISE 4 cheap cheek
  • 6. Linking and Sound Change 107 A Listen to the sentences with natural pronunciation. Then write the proper spelling of each underlined word. CD 3; Track 7 EXERCISE 5 Sound Spelling 1. The jury found the man knock guilty. 2. Did the police catch the bag guy? 3. These are grape papers. 4. John’s not a dog person. He’s more of a cap person. B Discuss your answers to part A with the class. Then, with your partner, take turns saying each sentence with the spoken and written forms. Which way is easier to say? not In North American English, the voiceless /t/ sometimes sounds like a quick, voiced /d/ called a “flap /t/” because the tongue taps or flaps against the back of the front teeth. The flap /t/ occurs when /t/ is between two vowel sounds and the second vowel is unstressed. metal sounds like medal data sounds like dada The flap also occurs across words that are linked: right away sounds like righ-daway put it on sounds like pu-di-don
  • 7. 108 Chapter 11 A Listen to phrases with the flap /t/. Fill in the blanks with the phrases you hear. CD 3; Track 8 1. Sorry your order is taking so long. It should be . 2. Laila her cold in three days. 3. Don’t let this stress you out. Take . 4. This is my sister. I don’t think you’ve ever . 5. Ray had his cell phone out and his teacher told him to . 6. I had an awful morning, but I need to go and move on. B Check your answers to part A with your class. With a partner, take turns saying each sentence in part A with a flap /t/. EXERCISE 6 Linking /t/ to /y/ Listen. What sound do you hear when /t/ is linked with /y/? CD 3; Track 9 Don’t you know? Haven’t you heard? Can’t you go? RULE 11.4 When a word ends in /t/ and the next word begins with /y/, the resulting sound is /tʃ/, as in choose. Linking /d/ to /y/ Listen. What sound do you hear when /d/ is linked with /y/? CD 3; Track 10 Did you know? Would you help? made your bed RULE 11.5 When a word ends in /d/ and the next word begins with /y/, the resulting sound is /dʒ/, as in job.* *Note: The /tʃ/ sound is common in negative questions with you. For example, Don’t you sounds like don-chə. *Note: The /dʒ/ sound is common in affirmative questions with you. For example, Did you sounds like di-jə.
  • 8. Linking and Sound Change 109 A Listen to each sentence. Does the speech sound linked or unlinked? Check the form you hear. CD 3; Track 11 EXERCISE 7 Linked Unlinked 1. Did you go out for dinner? 2. Where did you go? 3. What did you order? 4. Didn’t you like the food? 5. Did you eat your vegetables? 6. Why didn’t you call me? 7. Could you please bring the check? 8. Would you like dessert, sir? B Compare your answers to part A with your class. Practice saying the sentences. Which ones are easier to pronounce—the ones with linking or without linking? TIP Using di-jə and don-chə It is not necessary to use di-jə or don-chə in your own speech. It is more important that you recognize common changes like this in the connected speech of others. If you practice saying these forms, however, you will likely get better at identifying them.
  • 9. 110 Chapter 11 A With a partner, take turns reading the following questions about driving rules. Link the words in the highlighted phrases. 1. On which side of the road / should you drive? 2. If you see a police car with flashing lights behind you, what should you do? 3. If you start to fall asleep while driving, / what should you do? 4. How should you set your car’s headlights / in foggy weather? 5. If you’re feeling dizzy / and need to get home, / what should you do? 6. If your gas tank is almost empty, / what should you do? 7. If you need to make a turn, / what should you do? 8. What should you do with your phone / while driving? B Student A, ask the questions in part A. Student B, select answers from the box. Each answer should sound like one word. fill it up put it away take a break the right side set them on low take a taxi turn on your signal pull over Note: Driving laws vary from state to state and country to country. Consult your local government’s traffic laws if you have questions about driving in your area. Communicative Practice Rules of the Road
  • 10. Linking and Sound Change 111 Knock! Knock! jokes are often based on two features of spoken English: reductions and connected speech. A With a partner, read the jokes. The underlined word in each joke sounds like a phrase in connected speech. Write that phrase on the lines. X: Knock! Knock! Y: Who’s there? X: Letter. Y: Letter who? X: Letter in. It’s cold out. (“Letter” = ) X: Knock! Knock! Y: Who’s there? X: Oliver. Y: Oliver who? X: Oliver friends are coming over. (“Oliver” = ) X: Knock! Knock! Y: Who’s there? X: Dewey. Y: Dewey who? X: Dewey have to keep telling these silly jokes? (“Dewey” = ) B Practice saying the jokes with your partner. C Record yourself saying the jokes. Listen to your recording. Are the words in each line smoothly linked? If not, re-record. Submit the recording to your teacher. Pronunciation Log Linking and Sound Change