Nursing theory


Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Examples of Middle range theory include Rogers’ Theory of Accelarating Change, Roy’s Theory of the Person as an Adaptive system, and King’s Theory of Goal Attainment
  • Situation relating :For example, the post open-heart surgery patient will experience cardiac arrhythmias if the blood potassium level goes below 3.5 meq
    Situation producing control: Examples include: pregnant women receive RHO-gram to prevent possible hemolysis in their infants; and the frequent turning and positioning of bed-ridden patients to prevent pressure ulcers.
  • Formative testing is a logistic teaching strategy, because, a course is conceived as consisting of separate and definite units, and tests are constructed to measure attainment of each unit.
  • Nursing theory

    2. 2. 2 INTRODUCTION:INTRODUCTION: Nursing profession is still under an evolution phase, a phase of receding and evolving new paradigms. Nursing theories and models provide information about definitions of nursing and nursing practice, principles that form the basis for practice, goals and functions of nursing. The 21st century opened changes for the nursing profession a shortage of practicing nurses, an increasing demand for nurses, fewer nursing faculty, and a rapidly changing global healthcare arena.
    3. 3. 3 CONCEPT:CONCEPT: A complex mental formulation of an object, property or event that is derived from individual perception and experience (Chinn and Jacob) Concepts are vehicles of thoughts that involve images. Concepts create images abstract in nature these concepts tend to have different meanings can lead to different interpretations. Therefore concepts are words that describe objects, properties or events and are basic components of theory
    4. 4. 4 TYPES OF CONCEPTS:TYPES OF CONCEPTS: CONCEPTS EMPIRICAL Easily observed in the real world INFERENTIAL Indirectly observable ABSTRACT Non observable
    5. 5. 5 MODELS:MODELS: “Models are representations of the interaction among and between the concepts showing the patterns”(George, 1990) Model is a pictorial representation of a proposition where proposition are explained as the statements that explain relationship between the concepts. Are required in order to understand & draw a relational statement. Model represents mental image of a phenomena Model aid to determine the relationship among the
    6. 6. 6 TYPES OF MODELSTYPES OF MODELS Physical or Isomorphic Model Homomorphic Model Symbolic Model Conceptual Model
    7. 7. 7 PHYSICAL OR ISOMORPHIC MODELPHYSICAL OR ISOMORPHIC MODEL  Empirical Model  Represents reality of structure & content
    8. 8. 8 HOMOMORPHIC MODELHOMOMORPHIC MODEL Similar to empirical model Model builder deliberately leaves out some of the properties of real object as they are not needed.
    9. 9. 9 SYMBOLIC MODELSYMBOLIC MODEL Also called Theoretical Model. No physical resemblance to reality. Numbers or symbols such as shapes or words are used to map out the real situation but follows the original.
    10. 10. 10 CONCEPTUAL MODELCONCEPTUAL MODEL Here the words or symbols do not represent mere ideas or perceptions but concepts. This reflects reality by placing words and symbols which are concepts in to the model.
    11. 11. 11 PARADIGMPARADIGM  It is a conceptual diagramIt is a conceptual diagram  It is a patternIt is a pattern  It serves as an example.It serves as an example.
    12. 12. 12 METAPARADIGM:METAPARADIGM:  Originates from two Greek words: Meta, meaning “with” and paradigm, meaning “pattern”.  It is the most global conceptual or philosophical framework of a discipline or profession.  It defines and describes relationships among major ideas and values.  It guides the organization of theories and models for a profession.
    13. 13. 13 COMPONENTS OF METAPARADIGM:COMPONENTS OF METAPARADIGM: 1. Person: Refers the recipient of nursing care, including physical, spiritual, psychological, and sociocultural components, and can include an individual, family or community. 2. Environment: Refers to all the internal and external conditions, circumstances, and influences affecting the person. 3. Health: Refers to the degree of wellness or illness experienced by the person. 4. Nursing: Refers to the actions, characteristics, and attributes of the individual providing the nursing care.
    14. 14. 14 THEORY:THEORY:  Theoria (Greek word) Vision  A theory is a conceptual system or frame work intended for some purpose.  It composed of interrelated – concepts, models, and propositions based on assumptions.  They provide a framework to develop new and validate current knowledge. They help to describe, explain and predict to prescribe.
    15. 15. 15 Theory can be defined as “an internally consistent group of relational statements (concepts, definitions and propositions) that present a systematic about a phenomenon and which is useful for description, explanation, prediction and control” (BODIE AND CHITTY)  Set of interpretative assumptions, principles or propositions that helps, explain or guide action. ( young,Taylor & Repenning, 2001 )  Creative and rigorous structuring of ideas that project a tentative purposeful and systematic view of phenomena ( chinn & krammer 2003) THEORY:THEORY:
    16. 16. Nursing theory: “Nursing theories are used to describe, develop, discriminate and use present knowledge in nursing.” “ a nursing theory is a set of concept, definition, relationships and assumptions or propositions derived from nursing models or from other disciplines and project a purposive, systematic view of phenomena by designing specific inter-relationship among concepts for the purpose of describing, explaining, predicting or prescribing” 16
    17. 17. Cont.. “ nursing theory is define as a conceptualization of some aspects of nursing reality communicated for the purpose of describing phenomena, explaining relationship between phenomena, predicting consequences or prescribing nursing care.” Nursing theories provide framework for nurses to systematize their nursing actions: what to ask? What to observe? What to focus on? And what to think about? 17
    18. 18. 18 CHARACTERISTICS OF A THEORY:CHARACTERISTICS OF A THEORY: • Theories can interrelate concepts in such a way as to create a different way of looking at a particular phenomenon. • Theories must be logical in nature. • Theories should be relatively simple yet generalizable. • Theories can be basis for hypotheses that can be tested. • Theories contribute to and assist in increasing the general body of knowledge within the discipline through the research implemented to validate them. • Theories can be utilized by the practitioners to guide and improve their practice. • Theories must be consistent with other validated theories, laws and principles but will leave open unanswered questions that need to be investigated.
    19. 19. 19 • Theories are composed of concepts and propositions. • Theories can consist of separate theories about the same phenomenon that interrelate the same concepts but describe and explain them differently. • Can describe a particular phenomenon; explain relationships among phenomenon on another; or be used to produce or control a desired phenomenon. • Theories differ from conceptual model; both can describe, explain, or predict a phenomenon, but only theories provide specific direction to guide practice; conceptual models are more abstract and less specific than theories but can provide direction for practice. CHARACTERISTICS OF A THEORY:CHARACTERISTICS OF A THEORY:
    20. 20. 20 NURSING THEORY: Society / Environment Human / Individual Health Nursing
    21. 21. Important of theory: Easy communication of nursing scope. Documentation of nursing practice. Empirical evidence of patient outcome. Measuring nurses satisfaction about patient outcome through nursing actions. The benefits of having a defined body of theory in nursing include better patient care. Enhanced professional status for nurses improved communication between nurses and guidance for research and education. 21
    22. 22. Cont… As medicine tries to make a move towards adopting a more multidisciplinary approach to health care,nursing continues to strive to establish a unique body of knowledge. Nursing theory aims to describe, predict and explain the phenomenon of nursing. It provides the foundations of nursing practice help to generate further knowledge and indicate in which direction in the future. Theory is important because it helps to decide what we know and what we need to know. It helps to distinguish what should form the basis of practice by explicity(stated in detail) describing nursing. 22
    23. 23. 23 KINDS OF THEORIES:KINDS OF THEORIES: Stress theories Developmental theories Goal attainment theory Role theory Science of Unitary human being Family theory Interactive theories Adaptation theories Self care theory General system theory Other theories
    24. 24. 24 CATEGORISATION OF THEORIESCATEGORISATION OF THEORIES Theories are categorized in various ways by theorists According to Meleis: Categorized with reference to Nursing’s domain concept that reflect focus on nursing education and practice. • Nursing Clients. • Human being environment interactions • Interactions • Nursing Therapeutics
    25. 25. 25 CATEGORISATION OF THEORIES (MELEIS)CATEGORISATION OF THEORIES (MELEIS) DOMAIN CONCEPT NURSING THEORIST / WORK Nursing clients Johnson: Behavioral System Model for Nursing Roy : Roy Adaptation Model Neuman: Neuman System Model Human Being Environment Interaction Rogers : Science of Unitary Human Beings Interactions King: Theory of Goal Attainment Orlando: Dynamic Nurse Patient relationship function, process & principles Paterson Zderad: Humanistic Nursing Wiednenbach: Clinical Nursing Art Nursing Therapeutics Levine: Conservation Principles of Nursing Orem: Orem’s General Theory of Nursing
    26. 26. 26 CATEGORISATION OF THEORIESCATEGORISATION OF THEORIES Categorization based on scope or level of abstraction: Philosophy or Metatheory Grand Theories Middle Range Theories Categorization based on purpose: Descriptive Explanatory Predictive Prescriptive Categorization based on Source or Discipline: Theories and concepts used from behavioral sciences, biologic sciences, and sociologic sciences as well as learning theories, organization and management theories.
    28. 28. 28 1. MetatheoryGrand Theory Middle range theory Practice theory RANGE OF THEORIES
    29. 29. 29 METATHEORY:METATHEORY: Metatheory is the highest level of theory (The fourth level of theory) Is defined by the prefix META, meaning “change in position”, “beyond”, “on a higher level”, or “transcending,” Refers to the body of knowledge or about a field of study such as meta MATHEMATICS
    30. 30. 30 GRAND THEORYGRAND THEORY Macro level theory Composed of abstract concepts in relationship. This facilitates description but is not capable of research verification.
    31. 31. 31 MIDDLE RANGE THEORYMIDDLE RANGE THEORY Composed of less abstract conceptual frame works, closely aligned to observable reality, thus capable of research verification. It has categorization as: 1.High Middle Range Theory. 2.Middle Middle Range Theory. 3.Low Middle Range Theory.
    32. 32. Sociological TheorySociological TheoryComes in a variety of shapes and sizes… High-Level TheoriesHigh-Level Theories Mid-Range TheoriesMid-Range Theories Low-Level TheoriesLow-Level Theories Focus on trying to explain how and why society is ordered Focus on trying to explain some general aspect of social behaviour Focus on trying to explain a specific aspect of social behaviour. Why do I always fall asleep in Psychology lessons? Why do girls achieve higher educational qualifications than boys? FunctionalismFunctionalism… Interactionism…Interactionism…
    33. 33. 33 PRACTICE THEORY:PRACTICE THEORY: Practice theories, the first level of nursing theory, describe prescriptions or modalities for practice. Four steps are involved to determine practice theories, which include: • Factor isolating: to identify and describe a phenomenon; • Factor relating: to identify and describe possible explanations or causes of the phenomenon; • Situation relating: to predict occurrence of a phenomenon when the cause is present. • Situation producing control: to prevent occurrence of the phenomenon by controlling or eliminating possible causes.
    34. 34. Basic processes in the development of nursing theories: Nursing theories are often based on and influenced by broadly applicable processes and theories. Following theories are basic to many nursing concept: General system theory: -It describes how to break whole things into parts and then to learn how the parts work together in system. - These concepts may be applied to different kinds of systems, eg molecules in chemistry, cultures in sociology, organs in anatomy and health in nursing. 34
    35. 35. Adaptation theory: - It defines adaptation as the adjustment of living matter to other living things and to environmental conditions. - Adaptation is a continuously occurring process that effects change and involves interaction and response. - Human adaptation occurs on three levels: 1.The internal( self) 2.The social( others) 3.The physical( biochemical reactions) 35
    36. 36. Developmental theory: - It outlines the process of growth and development of humans as orderly and predictable, beginning with conception and ending with death. - The progress and behaviors of an individual within each stage are unique. - The growth and development of an individual are influenced by heredity, temperament, emotional and physical environment, life experience and health status. 36
    37. 37. 37
    38. 38. 38 A well developed and articulated theoretical basis gives a nursing program the perspective that shapes the content and the methods that guide students’ learning; eventually these methods have an impact on nursing practice. Mawn & Reece, 2000
    39. 39. 39 “Theoretical principles drawn from a number of sources directly after a curriculum whether faculty members recognize it or not.” - Barnum,1998
    40. 40. 40 APPLICATION OF NURSING THEORIES INAPPLICATION OF NURSING THEORIES IN NURSING EDUCATION:NURSING EDUCATION:  For decades, nursing educators have invested heavily in developing a philosophy and conceptual framework specific to a given school of nursing, regardless of the level of nursing education.  This missing theoretical piece is of critical importance for the student seeking nursing education at a variety of colleges and universities and through multiple programs such as practical nurse, associate degree nurse, baccalaureate degree nurse, masters degree nurse and even as a doctorate prepared nurse.
    41. 41. 41 A theoretical basis provides a framework that helps nursing students define their professional philosophies and values. It identifies and describes essential concepts and significant problems and suggests approaches to structure and methods that the student may use in continuing to develop her or his knowledge. Theoretical basis of the nursing program influences the means by which material is presented and the methods by which learning is evaluated. APPLICATION OF NURSING THEORIES INAPPLICATION OF NURSING THEORIES IN NURSING EDUCATION:NURSING EDUCATION:
    42. 42. 42 APPLICATION OF NURSINGAPPLICATION OF NURSING THEORIES IN NURSING EDUCATION:THEORIES IN NURSING EDUCATION: The theoretical principles, concepts and models are used in two major ways in nursing education. • They are used to determine the content and structure of a program’s curriculum. • They are used to determine the instructional processes and strategies used by faculty to teach students.
    43. 43. 43 APPLICATION OF THEORY INAPPLICATION OF THEORY IN NURSING EDUCATIONNURSING EDUCATION • Problem based learning • Caring. • Lifelong learning. • Informatics. • Competency. • Evidence-based education. •Quality. •Performance. •Improvement. •Culturally. •Relevant care. •Interpersonal. •Communication. •Excellence.
    44. 44. 44 NEW MODELS FOR CURRICULANEW MODELS FOR CURRICULA REFLECT:REFLECT: “Humanistic” approaches to teaching Learning Practice Highlight caring relationships Student faculty shared responsibilities for learning and Multiple ways of knowing.
    45. 45. 45 THEORETICAL ISSUES IN NURSING CURRICULATHEORETICAL ISSUES IN NURSING CURRICULA The issues incorporation of theoretical principles and frameworks into nursing curricula are: Basic curriculum design. The impact of regulating organizations on nursing curricula. Components of curricular conceptual or organizational frameworks and The process involved in designing and organizing nursing curricula.
    46. 46. 46 CURRICULUM DESIGN IN NURSING EDUCATION:CURRICULUM DESIGN IN NURSING EDUCATION: The curricula of most nursing programs are based on the Tyler Curriculum Development Model which was published in 1949. According to Bevis (1989), introduction of Tyler’s concepts in the 1950s along with her first book on curriculum development, and Mager’s (1962) publication of Preparing Instructional Objectives, led to the development of Tyler type curricula throughout nursing education. Eventually, the Tyler Model became the only model used in developing nursing curricula for all levels of nursing education – Diploma, Associate Degree, and Baccalaureate.
    47. 47. 47 TYLER MODELTYLER MODEL 1. It begins with Identification of the educational purposes or objectives for the program. 2. Then differentiates what learning experiences should be selected to attain the objectives. 3. Third issue is how to organize learning experiences for effective instruction. 4. Finally, the model focuses on evaluation of behaviors to determine if objectives have been met.
    48. 48. 48 NURSING CURRICULA AND REGULATING BODIESNURSING CURRICULA AND REGULATING BODIES The Tyler –Based Curriculum development process has been translated into essential curricular components, and without evidence of these components, state boards will not grant program approval. Bevis, (1989) The rules and regulations set by state boards of nursing typically specify content areas that must be covered minimum hours that must be spent by all students in clinical settings and competencies or skills that all students must possess at completion of the nursing program. Boland & Finke, (2005) Stated or defined conceptual framework is required for program approval by many state boards of nursing
    49. 49. 49 CONCEPTUAL / ORGANISATIONALCONCEPTUAL / ORGANISATIONAL FRAMEWORKS FOR NURSING CURRICULAFRAMEWORKS FOR NURSING CURRICULA The conceptual or organizational framework of nursing program must be an outgrowth of the philosophy of the faculty, which typically reflects the faculty’s philosophical beliefs about the metaparadigm concepts. - Boland, (2005); Keating, (2006) A curriculum conceptual framework is an “interrelated system of premises that provides guidelines or ground rules for making all curricular decisions- objectives, content, implementation, and evaluation” Bevis (1989)
    50. 50. 50 THEORETICAL ISSUES IN NURSING INSTRUCTIONINSTRUCTION According to Barnum (1998), what is taught in nursing programs can be divided in 3 categories: 1. Cognitive Content 2. Psychomotor tasks 3. Application of content and skills in nursing practice
    51. 51. 51 1. Cognitive Content:1. Cognitive Content:  Refers to all the information the nurse learns as background for functioning  Eg: Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Psychology, Medical procedures, Nursing techniques  Cognitive content can be easily transmitted through a variety of means: lectures, discussions, programmed learning, or reading assignments.  Acquisition of cognitive content can be achieved in the absence of skilled teaching if another source of information (i.e a textbook) is available
    52. 52. 52 2. Psychomotor tasks2. Psychomotor tasks  Are the acts or skills nurses perform according to a given rationale by applying accepted techniques.  Eg: Administering medication, Changing dressings, Inserting I.V lines.  Requires demonstration, return demonstration, with corrective feedback, and skill development through practice.  Most complex task to learn to application.  Takes time as learning accumulates from multiple clinical experiences in varied setting
    53. 53. 53 3. Application of content and skills in3. Application of content and skills in nursing practicenursing practice  Involves recognizing and interpreting phenomena in the clinical setting and adapting care based on the interpretation
    54. 54. 54 THEORY BASED TEACHING STRATEGIESTHEORY BASED TEACHING STRATEGIES To best meet the learning needs of students at the beginning of the 21st century nursing educators are encouraged to move beyond reliance on traditional techniques of lecture and reading assignments to incorporate other teaching strategies which are based on sound theoretical principles.
    55. 55. 55 SOME THEORIES SUGGESTED BY BARNUM (1998)SOME THEORIES SUGGESTED BY BARNUM (1998) Dialectic Learning Problem Based Learning Strategies Operational Teaching Strategies Logistic Teaching Strategies
    56. 56. 56 DIALECTIC LEARNINGDIALECTIC LEARNING  Leads students to develop and expand their own thoughts on a given subject, primarily through the use of well constructed questions.  Shown to be effective, as Ironside (1999) described how questioning and dialogue techniques used by nursing faculty, promote critical thinking in nursing students.  Questioning can lead to demonstration of inconsistencies in, or contradictions to, the student's position.  The student moves from a narrow conception of the subject matter to a broader and more comprehensive understanding that encompasses more events and more complexities.  Eg: It is commonly used in clinical situations and postclinical conferences.  Online discussions provide an environment for dialectic learning.
    57. 57. 57 PROBLEM BASED LEARNING STRATEGIESPROBLEM BASED LEARNING STRATEGIES • Involves the use of predefined clinical situations and case studies to enhance or stimulate students to acquire specific skills, knowledge and abilities (Rowles & Brigham, 2006) • The objective of Problem based learning is to determine how to manage the person’s care. • Stimulated clients may be used, or the student might be given real problem in an actual clinical case. • Allow the instructor to manipulate the multiple variables to add increasingly complex issues or circumstances that must be considered in problem resolution • Problem based learning is innovative and encourages self direction, interpersonal communication, and use of information technology. • Typically small groups of students work together in self directed teams, the case studies challenge them to improve their critical thinking capabilities, learn self evaluation strategies and promote communication among peers (Bently, 2004; Rowles & Brigham, 2006)
    58. 58. 58 • Focus on presenting various perspectives regarding an agent or issue. • Eg: A symposium that uses speakers with different perspectives on the same subject matter or a debate. • Other Operational strategies focus on providing different or atypical activities for the learner. • Using educational games or viewing nonmedical videos for illustration are considered to be operational teaching activities (Barnum, 1998) • Many nursing faculty use operational teaching techniques to make learning more interesting and enjoyable and to provide a different perspective on a particular topic (Rhorer, 2000) • Use of games to enhance students understanding of ethical situations was described by (Metcalf and Yankou, 2003) OPERATIONAL TEACHING STRATEGIESOPERATIONAL TEACHING STRATEGIES
    59. 59. 59 LOGISTIC TEACHING STRATEGIESLOGISTIC TEACHING STRATEGIES • Based on the concept of mastery of sequential learning • Logistic teaching techniques generally divide the material to be learned into learning sequences, where acquisition of one section of the material is a necessary prerequisite to acquisition of another component. • Teach the student clearly defined components and provide for reinforcement and testing of each component as the program progresses. • As the sections of the material are added and related to each other, knowledge accumulates (Barnum, 1998) • Some of the strategies include use of Self instructional modules and portfolios; these are typically logistic in nature because they follow a pattern of assembling information that is built on previously explained material (Rowles & Brigham, 2005)
    60. 60. 60 CONCLUSION:CONCLUSION: The Theory of Nursing Knowledge and Nursing Practice presents a global perspective of the science and art of nursing and accounts for the past, present, and future impacts on nursing knowledge and nursing practice.
    62. 62. INTRODUCTION Theory helps provide knowledge to improve practice by describing, explaining, predicting, and controlling phenomena. Nurses' power is increased through theoretical knowledge because systematically developed methods are more likely to be successful. In addition, nurses will know why they are doing what they are doing if challenged. Theory provides professional autonomy by guiding the practice, education, and research functions of the profession. The study of theory helps develop 'analytical skills, challenge thinking, clarify INTRODUCTION
    63. 63. DEFINITIONS
    66. 66. PHENOMENA Phenomena comprise the subject matter of a discipline. A phenomenon is defined as an object or aspect known through the senses rather than by thought or intuition a fact or event of scientific interest susceptible to scientific description and explanation.
    67. 67. PHILOSOPHY Philosophy is the science comprising logic, ethics, aesthetics, metaphysics and epistemology. It is the “investigation of causes and laws underlying realty” and is “inquiry into the nature of things based on logical reasoning rather than empirical methods.
    68. 68. THEORY A theory is a set of concepts, definitions, relationships, and assumptions that project a systematic view of phenomena.
    70. 70. • Nursing Theory helps in building knowledge and Establishing Nursing as a Profession. • Nursing Theory is a Source of Professional Autonomy and Power.
    71. 71.  The development of nursing theory will help in strengthening nursing practice.  It helps in provide systematic structure and rationale for nursing activities
    72. 72.  Theory is important because it helps us to decide what we know and what we need to know. It helps to Develop curriculum plans for nursing education.  A formal definition of nursing theory also provides nurses with an understanding of their purpose and role in health care.
    73. 73. • It helps to Guide development of nursing care delivery system. • It helps to formulate legislation governing nursing practice, research and education • It guides nursing education, research and practice and differentiate nursing practice.
    74. 74. • Nursing theory aims to describe, predict and explain the phenomenon of nursing. It should provide the foundations of nursing practice, help to generate further knowledge and indicate in which direction nursing should develop in the future.
    75. 75.  Theory Provides knowledge to improve nursing administration, practice, education, and research.  It Identify nature of contribution that research will make to advancement of knowledge  Theories serves as a springboard for scientific advances.
    76. 76.  It helps to guide research to establish empirical knowledge base for nursing.  It helps to Identify research techniques and tools that will be used to validate nursing interventions.
    77. 77.  Nursing is a learned profession, a science, and an art. Nurses need a theoretical base to exemplify the science and art of the profession when they promote health and wellness for their clients, whether the client is an individual, a family, or a community.
    78. 78.  Theories constitute much of the knowledge of a discipline, and theory and inquiry are vital linkages to each other. Nursing theories provide nurses with a perspective to view client situations, a way to organize data, and a method to analyze and interpret information.
    79. 79.  Nursing Theory is used to: Define commonalities of the variables in a stated field of inquiry; guide nursing research and actions; predict practice outcomes; and predict client response. A nursing theory is a conceptualization of some aspect of nursing communicated for the purpose of describing, explaining, predicting, and/or prescribing nursing care.
    80. 80.  Theory is useful. Nursing practice settings are complex and the amount of data available to nurses is virtually endless. Nurses must analyze a tremendous amount of information about each patient and decide what to do. If a theory helps practicing nurses categorize and understand what is going on in nursing practice, it is helps them predict patient responses to nursing care, and it is helpful in clinical decision making it is useful as a guide to practice.
    81. 81.  Commitment to practice based on sound, reliable; knowledge is intrinsically valuable to nursing. That is to say, knowledge is desirable by its very nature. The growth and enrichment of theory in and of itself is an important goal for nursing, as a scholarly discipline to pursue.
    83. 83.  Theories can interrelate concepts in such a way as to create a different way of looking at a particular phenomenon.  Theories can be the basis for hypotheses that can be tested.  Theories contribute to and assist in increasing the general body of knowledge within the discipline through the research implemented to validate them.
    84. 84.  Theories can be utilized by the profession to guide and improve practice.  Theories must be consistent with other validated theories, laws, and principles but will leave open, unanswered questions that need to be investigated.  Theory supports professional autonomy by guiding practice, education and research.
    85. 85. Conclusion Nurses should actively support the development of nursing theory because it offers them a sense of identity and can help patient, managers and other healthcare professionals to recognize the unique contribution nurses make to the healthcare service. The definition of nursing theory also provides nurses with an understanding of their purpose and role in the healthcare setting.
    86. 86. 87