1
Communications & Control – Autonomous vs. Central Control
PV Distribution System Modeling Worksho 3-1-Advanced
Inverter ...
2
Contents
1 KACO new energy introduction
2 Autonomous vs. Central Control
3 International Grid Standards Comparisons
4 HM...
3
KACO new energy Introduction
Third largest inverter manufacturer worldwide
More than 1000 employees globally
Manufacturi...
4
THE AMERICAS
Canada
USA
Mexico
Central America
South America
EUROPE, AFRICA
Germany
Greece
Spain
Italy
France
UK
South A...
5
Product line introduction
KACO new energy inverter families are diverse and extensive
The product range covers systems f...
6
US Manufacturing – San Antonio, TX
KACO new energy, San Antonio, TX
60,000 square foot manufacturing facility
Baseline o...
7
Contents
1 KACO new energy introduction
2 Autonomous vs. Central Control
3 International Grid Standards Comparisons
4 HM...
8
Central vs. Autonomous Control
 Autonomous Control
– Locally monitor voltage/frequency to determine operating point
– B...
9
Typically Implemented Controls
 Anti-Islanding
– IEEE 1547/UL 1741
 Fault Ride Through
– Voltage and Frequency support...
10
Communications Methods
System operatorUtilityProjectInverter
ProtocolPhysicalLayer
ModBus TCP,
RS485, WiFi,
Zigbee, Dig...
11
Project Diagram
12
Market
Enterprise
Operation
Station
Field
Process
Transmission Energy
Market Clearinghouse
ISO/RTO/TSO
Balancing Author...
13
Contents
1 KACO new energy introduction
2 Autonomous vs. Central Control
3 International Grid Standards Comparisons
4 H...
14
International grid codes
Korea
Germany (NEON)
Italy (ENEL)
Spain
Austria
France
Greece
USACzech Mexico
China South Afri...
15
 Number of processes
 "Same" processes not the same in various standards
Standard VDE-AR-N
4105
BDEW
MS-RL
CEI 0-21 C...
16
Most common inverter level autonomous control; may require coordination with plant
level anti-islanding and ride throug...
17
Grafik FRT Übersicht
Ride through of voltage drops
18
Q(V) Function programming
19
P&Q Curve of inverter
20
BDEW MS-RL VDE-AR-N 4105
CFE MV CEI 0-21
Overfrequency based power reduction
21
Contents
1 KACO new energy introduction
2 Autonomous vs. Central Control
3 International Grid Standards Comparisons
4 H...
22
• Human- and Machine-Machine Interfaces
• Local Display or Remote Computer Terminal
• PV array, Inverter, Utility Input...
23
Central Command Interface
• Fully documented Modbus
solution
• SunSpec v103 and V113 read
• SunSpec R12 command map
• E...
24
Control Implementation
25
Contents
1 KACO new energy introduction
2 Autonomous vs. Central Control
3 International Grid Standards Comparisons
4 H...
26
Summary
Function Inverter Plant Utility System Operator
Anti-Islanding Auto - - -
Fault Ride Through Auto - - -
Volt-VA...
27
Thank you very much!
Bill Reaugh
Sr. Director, Product Management
KACO new energy - USA
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2014 PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop: Communications and control – Autonomous and Central Control: Bill Reaugh, KACO New Energy

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2014 PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop: Communications and control – Autonomous and Central Control: Bill Reaugh, KACO New Energy

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2014 PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop: Communications and control – Autonomous and Central Control: Bill Reaugh, KACO New Energy

  1. 1. 1 Communications & Control – Autonomous vs. Central Control PV Distribution System Modeling Worksho 3-1-Advanced Inverter Talk 5-6-2014.pdf p Santa Clara, CA, May 6th, 2014 Bill Reaugh, Sr. Director, Product Management, KACO new energy - Americas
  2. 2. 2 Contents 1 KACO new energy introduction 2 Autonomous vs. Central Control 3 International Grid Standards Comparisons 4 HMI/MMI Details 5 Summary
  3. 3. 3 KACO new energy Introduction Third largest inverter manufacturer worldwide More than 1000 employees globally Manufacturing on 3 continents – including the USA Cooperating with 67 service partners in 34 countries Global production capacity of 10 GW 100 years of experience in designing and manufacturing power conversion devices
  4. 4. 4 THE AMERICAS Canada USA Mexico Central America South America EUROPE, AFRICA Germany Greece Spain Italy France UK South Africa ASIA, MID EAST South Korea China Japan Australia Dubai Saudi Arabia Israel Global presence
  5. 5. 5 Product line introduction KACO new energy inverter families are diverse and extensive The product range covers systems from residential homes to megawatt solar farms KACO new energy offers solutions for all relevant regions and markets blueplanet 2002 blueplanet 10.0 TL3 blueplanet 72.0 TL3 blueplanet XP550U-TL Global inverter solutions blueplanet IPS11345
  6. 6. 6 US Manufacturing – San Antonio, TX KACO new energy, San Antonio, TX 60,000 square foot manufacturing facility Baseline of 400 MW annual production capacity Creating LOCAL jobs in solar – anticipated 70 this year Providing a great reference project with CPS Energy
  7. 7. 7 Contents 1 KACO new energy introduction 2 Autonomous vs. Central Control 3 International Grid Standards Comparisons 4 HMI/MMI Details 5 Summary
  8. 8. 8 Central vs. Autonomous Control  Autonomous Control – Locally monitor voltage/frequency to determine operating point – Based on pre-defined algorithms to maintain desired operating state – Advantage: Speed of reaction – Disadvantage: Limited to detection point  Central Control – Dictates point of operation – From the POV of the command center is autonomous  Only Centralized from the POV of downstream devices – Advantage: Larger view of system – Disadvantage: Communication latency
  9. 9. 9 Typically Implemented Controls  Anti-Islanding – IEEE 1547/UL 1741  Fault Ride Through – Voltage and Frequency support to prevent blackouts  Volt-VAr – Q(V), fixed Q, fixed pf, schedule based  Power-Frequency – P(Δf/fn),  Curtailment – Includes Ramp Rate, schedule based  Operating Status – Directed Shutdown, Equipment Fault Status, Available Capacity
  10. 10. 10 Communications Methods System operatorUtilityProjectInverter ProtocolPhysicalLayer ModBus TCP, RS485, WiFi, Zigbee, Digital I/O Cat5/6/7, Fiber Optic, Wireless DNP3, Ripple Controller, PLC Internet Standards, Utility conductors DNP3, Others ECN, similar networks
  11. 11. 11 Project Diagram
  12. 12. 12 Market Enterprise Operation Station Field Process Transmission Energy Market Clearinghouse ISO/RTO/TSO Balancing Authority Hierarchical DER System Five-Level Architecture, in SGAM Format Level 4: Distribution Utility Operational Analysis and Control for Grid Operations DER Management System (DERMS) Distribution Management System (DMS) Outage Management System (OMS) System to Establish Demand Response (DR) Pricing Transmission Bus Load Model (TBLM) “DER SCADA” System for Control & Monitoring Utility Grid Facilities Site Loads Circuit breaker Meter and PCC Level 2: Facilities DER Energy Management System (FDEMS) Level 1: Autonomous cyber-physical DER systems Level 5: Transmission and Market Interactions Facilities DER Energy Management Systems (FDEMS) Facilities Site WAN/LAN Utility WAN/LAN Facilities DER Energy Management Systems (FDEMS) Facilities DER and Load Energy Management System PV Equipment Electric Vehicle PV Controller Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Battery Storage Controller Battery Diesel Generator Diesel Controller Distributed Energy Resources (DER) Customer PremisesTransmission Distribution ECP ECPECPECP Geographic Information System (GIS) Energy Management System (EMS) Level 3: Utility and REP ICT Information & Communications Retail Energy Provider (REP) and/ or DER Aggregator Demand Response (DR) System REP DER & Load Management System Facilities Load Management Distribution Energy Market Clearinghouse Retail Energy Market Clearinghouse System Diagram
  13. 13. 13 Contents 1 KACO new energy introduction 2 Autonomous vs. Central Control 3 International Grid Standards Comparisons 4 HMI/MMI Details 5 Summary
  14. 14. 14 International grid codes Korea Germany (NEON) Italy (ENEL) Spain Austria France Greece USACzech Mexico China South Africa
  15. 15. 15  Number of processes  "Same" processes not the same in various standards Standard VDE-AR-N 4105 BDEW MS-RL CEI 0-21 Calif Rule 21 Q fixed X X X X Cos ϕ fixed X X X X Cos ϕ (P) X X X Q(V) X X X Control technology X X Autonomous and Central control examples
  16. 16. 16 Most common inverter level autonomous control; may require coordination with plant level anti-islanding and ride through settings. Grid Inverter Load Blackout Voltage Current Frequency Blackout Voltage Current Frequency Grid Inverter Load Simulation results without anti-islanding control Simulation results with KACO’s anti-islanding control Anti-islanding
  17. 17. 17 Grafik FRT Übersicht Ride through of voltage drops
  18. 18. 18 Q(V) Function programming
  19. 19. 19 P&Q Curve of inverter
  20. 20. 20 BDEW MS-RL VDE-AR-N 4105 CFE MV CEI 0-21 Overfrequency based power reduction
  21. 21. 21 Contents 1 KACO new energy introduction 2 Autonomous vs. Central Control 3 International Grid Standards Comparisons 4 HMI/MMI Details 5 Summary
  22. 22. 22 • Human- and Machine-Machine Interfaces • Local Display or Remote Computer Terminal • PV array, Inverter, Utility Input Monitoring & Control • Local Data Storage • Multiple Language options • TCP, RS232, RS485, USB, Wi-Fi interface PV, Inverter, Grid Monitoring History Setup Parameter Setting Statistics Statistic data of year, month, day The fault & event record of inverter Human- and Machine-Machine Interfaces
  23. 23. 23 Central Command Interface • Fully documented Modbus solution • SunSpec v103 and V113 read • SunSpec R12 command map • Ethernet interface
  24. 24. 24 Control Implementation
  25. 25. 25 Contents 1 KACO new energy introduction 2 Autonomous vs. Central Control 3 International Grid Standards Comparisons 4 HMI/MMI Details 5 Summary
  26. 26. 26 Summary Function Inverter Plant Utility System Operator Anti-Islanding Auto - - - Fault Ride Through Auto - - - Volt-VAr Auto/Cent Auto/Cent Auto/Cent Auto Power Frequency Auto/Cent Auto/Cent Auto/Cent Auto Curtailment Cent Cent Auto/Cent Auto Operating Status Cent Cent Auto -  Implementation of a function as Autonomous or Central depends on project specific requirements  Multiple function definitions across regions require more flexible (and costly) equipment to accommodate all needs.
  27. 27. 27 Thank you very much! Bill Reaugh Sr. Director, Product Management KACO new energy - USA

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