Chapter 4System Unit ComponentsDiscovering    Computers 2012     Your Interactive Guide      to the Digital World
Objectives OverviewDifferentiate among various                                             Describe the control unit style...
Objectives Overview                                                                             Differentiate between a po...
The System Unit• The system unit is  a case that  contains  electronic  components of  the computer  used to process  data...
The System Unit• The inside of the system unit on a desktop  personal computer includes:     Drive bay(s)     Power supply...
The System Unit• The motherboard is the main circuit board of the  system unit       – A computer chip contains integrated...
Processor• The processor, also called the central processing  unit (CPU), interprets and carries out the basic  instructio...
ProcessorPage 213     Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4   8Figure 4-4
Processor• The control unit is the component of the  processor that directs and coordinates most of  the operations in the...
Processor• For every instruction, a processor repeats a set of  four basic operations, which comprise a machine  cyclePage...
Processor    • Most current personal      computers support      pipelining           – Processor begins             fetch...
Processor  The processor contains registers, that  temporarily hold data and instructions  The system clock controls the t...
Processor    • The leading      manufacturers of      personal computer      processor chips are Intel      and AMDPages 2...
Processor• Determine how you plan to use a new computer  before selecting a processorPage 218         Discovering Computer...
Processor    • A processor chip      generates heat that      could cause the chip to      burn up    • Require additional...
Processor• Parallel processing uses multiple processors  simultaneously to execute a single program or task       – Massiv...
Data Representation Analog signals are continuous and vary in strength and quality Digital signals are in one of two state...
Data Representation    A computer circuit represents                Eight bits grouped together as a    the 0 or the 1 ele...
Data Representation    • ASCII (American      Standard Code for      Information      Interchange) is the most      widely...
Data RepresentationPage 222      Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4   20Figure 4-15
Memory• Memory consists of electronic components that  store instructions waiting to be executed by the  processor, data n...
Memory• Each location in memory has an address• Memory size is measured in kilobytes (KB or  K), megabytes (MB), gigabytes...
Memory• The system unit contains two types of memory:         Volatile memory                           Nonvolatile memory...
MemoryPage 224      Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4   24Figure 4-18
Memory• Three basic types of RAM chips exist:       Dynamic RAM                                           Magnetoresistive...
Memory• RAM chips usually reside on a memory module  and are inserted into memory slotsPage 225         Discovering Comput...
Memory• The amount of RAM necessary in a computer  often depends on the types of software you plan  to usePage 226        ...
Memory• Memory cache speeds the processes of the computer  because it stores frequently used instructions and dataPage 227...
Memory  Read-only memory (ROM) refers to memory chips  storing permanent data and instructions   • Firmware  A PROM (progr...
Memory• Flash memory can be erased electronically and  rewritten       – CMOS technology provides high speeds and consumes...
Memory• Access time is the amount of time it takes the  processor to read from memory       – Measured in nanosecondsPage ...
Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards    • An expansion slot is a      socket on the motherboard      that can hold an adapter...
Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards• With Plug and Play, the computer automatically  can configure adapter cards and other p...
Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards• Removable flash memory includes:       – Memory cards, USB flash drives, and PC        ...
Ports and Connectors A port is the point at which a peripheral attaches to or communicates with a system unit (sometimes r...
Ports and ConnectorsPage 232      Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4   36Figure 4-29
Ports and Connectors• On a notebook computer, the ports are on the  back, front, and/or sidesPages 232 - 233   Discovering...
Ports and ConnectorsPage 233      Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4   38Figure 4-31
Ports and Connectors• A USB port can connect up to 127 different  peripherals together with a single connector       – You...
Ports and Connectors• Other types of ports include:                  Firewire         Bluetooth                           ...
Ports and Connectors    A Bluetooth wireless port                  A smart phone might    adapter converts a USB port into...
Ports and Connectors    • A port replicator is an      external device that      provides connections to      peripherals ...
Buses                                 • A bus allows the various                                   devices both inside and...
Buses• Expansion slots connect to expansion buses• Common types of expansion buses include:                               ...
Bays    • A bay is an opening      inside the system unit in      which you can install      additional equipment         ...
Power Supply  The power supply converts the wall  outlet AC power into DC power  Some external peripherals have an AC  ada...
Putting It All Together                   Home                    Small Office/                           Mobile          ...
Putting It All Together                    Power                                  Enterprise                  Intel Xeon o...
Keeping Your Computeror Mobile Device CleanClean your computer or mobile device once or twice a yearTurn off and unplug yo...
Video: The Leopard with a Time Machine                      CLICK TO START              Discovering Computers 2012: Chapte...
Summary                                                                  Sequence of operations                           ...
Chapter 4System Unit ComponentsDiscovering    Computers 2012     Your Interactive Guide      to the Digital World    Chapt...
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Discovering computer 2012

  1. 1. Chapter 4System Unit ComponentsDiscovering Computers 2012 Your Interactive Guide to the Digital World
  2. 2. Objectives OverviewDifferentiate among various Describe the control unit styles of system units on Identify chips, adapter and arithmetic logic unit desktop cards, and other components of a computers, notebook components of a processor, and explain the computers, and mobile motherboard four steps in a machine devices cycle Identify characteristics ofvarious personal computer Define a bit and describe Explain how program processors on the market how a series of bits instructions transfer in and today, and describe the represents data out of memoryways processors are cooledSee Page 209 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 2for Detailed Objectives
  3. 3. Objectives Overview Differentiate between a port and Describe the purpose and types a connector, and explain the of expansion slots and adapter Differentiate among the various differences among a USB cards, and differentiate among types of memory port, FireWire port, Bluetooth slots for various removable flash port, SCSI port, eSATA port, IrDA memory devices port, serial port, and MIDI port Explain the purpose of a power Understand how to clean a Describe the types of buses in a supply and describe how it keeps system unit on a computer or computer cool mobile deviceSee Page 209 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 3for Detailed Objectives
  4. 4. The System Unit• The system unit is a case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process dataPage 210 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 4Figure 4-1
  5. 5. The System Unit• The inside of the system unit on a desktop personal computer includes: Drive bay(s) Power supply Sound card Video card Processor MemoryPage 211 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 5Figure 4-2
  6. 6. The System Unit• The motherboard is the main circuit board of the system unit – A computer chip contains integrated circuitsPage 212 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 6Figure 4-3
  7. 7. Processor• The processor, also called the central processing unit (CPU), interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer – Contain a control unit and an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) Multi-core Dual-core Quad-core processor processor processorPage 213 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 7
  8. 8. ProcessorPage 213 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 8Figure 4-4
  9. 9. Processor• The control unit is the component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer• The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operationsPage 214 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 9
  10. 10. Processor• For every instruction, a processor repeats a set of four basic operations, which comprise a machine cyclePage 215 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 10Figure 4-5
  11. 11. Processor • Most current personal computers support pipelining – Processor begins fetching a second instruction before it completes the machine cycle for the first instructionPages 215 – 216 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 11Figure 4-6
  12. 12. Processor The processor contains registers, that temporarily hold data and instructions The system clock controls the timing of all computer operations • The pace of the system clock is called the clock speed, and is measured in gigahertz (GHz)Page 216 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 12
  13. 13. Processor • The leading manufacturers of personal computer processor chips are Intel and AMDPages 216 – 217 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 13Figure 4-7
  14. 14. Processor• Determine how you plan to use a new computer before selecting a processorPage 218 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 14Figure 4-8
  15. 15. Processor • A processor chip generates heat that could cause the chip to burn up • Require additional cooling – Heat sinks – Liquid cooling technologyPages 219 - 220 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 15Figures 4-9 – 4-10
  16. 16. Processor• Parallel processing uses multiple processors simultaneously to execute a single program or task – Massively parallel processing involves hundreds or thousands of processorsPage 220 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 16Figure 4-11
  17. 17. Data Representation Analog signals are continuous and vary in strength and quality Digital signals are in one of two states: on or off • Most computers are digital • The binary system uses two unique digits (0 and 1) • Bits and bytesPage 221 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 17
  18. 18. Data Representation A computer circuit represents Eight bits grouped together as a the 0 or the 1 electronically by unit are called a byte. A byte the presence or absence of an represents a single character in electrical charge the computerPage 221 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 18Figures 4-12 – 4-13
  19. 19. Data Representation • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the most widely used coding scheme to represent dataPage 221 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 19Figure 4-14
  20. 20. Data RepresentationPage 222 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 20Figure 4-15
  21. 21. Memory• Memory consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processing the data• Stores three basic categories of items: Data being The operating Application processed and the system and other programs resulting system software informationPage 223 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 21
  22. 22. Memory• Each location in memory has an address• Memory size is measured in kilobytes (KB or K), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB), or terabytes (TB)Page 223 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 22Figure 4-17
  23. 23. Memory• The system unit contains two types of memory: Volatile memory Nonvolatile memory Loses its contents when Does not lose contents power is turned off when power is removed Examples include ROM, Example includes RAM flash memory, and CMOSPages 223 - 224 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 23
  24. 24. MemoryPage 224 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 24Figure 4-18
  25. 25. Memory• Three basic types of RAM chips exist: Dynamic RAM Magnetoresistive Static RAM (SRAM) (DRAM) RAM (MRAM)Page 225 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 25Figure 4-19
  26. 26. Memory• RAM chips usually reside on a memory module and are inserted into memory slotsPage 225 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 26Figure 4-20
  27. 27. Memory• The amount of RAM necessary in a computer often depends on the types of software you plan to usePage 226 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 27Figure 4-21
  28. 28. Memory• Memory cache speeds the processes of the computer because it stores frequently used instructions and dataPage 227 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 28Figure 4-22
  29. 29. Memory Read-only memory (ROM) refers to memory chips storing permanent data and instructions • Firmware A PROM (programmable read-only memory) chip is a blank ROM chip that can be written to permanently • EEPROM can be erasedPage 228 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 29
  30. 30. Memory• Flash memory can be erased electronically and rewritten – CMOS technology provides high speeds and consumes little powerPages 228 – 229 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 30Figure 4-23
  31. 31. Memory• Access time is the amount of time it takes the processor to read from memory – Measured in nanosecondsPage 229 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 31Figures 4-24 – 4-25
  32. 32. Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards • An expansion slot is a socket on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card • An adapter card enhances functions of a component of the system unit and/or provides connections to peripherals – Sound card and video cardPage 230 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 32Figure 4-26
  33. 33. Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards• With Plug and Play, the computer automatically can configure adapter cards and other peripherals as you install themPages 230 – 231 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 33Figure 4-27
  34. 34. Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards• Removable flash memory includes: – Memory cards, USB flash drives, and PC Cards/ExpressCard modulesPage 231 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 34Figure 4-28
  35. 35. Ports and Connectors A port is the point at which a peripheral attaches to or communicates with a system unit (sometimes referred to as a jack)A connector joins a cable to a portPage 232 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 35
  36. 36. Ports and ConnectorsPage 232 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 36Figure 4-29
  37. 37. Ports and Connectors• On a notebook computer, the ports are on the back, front, and/or sidesPages 232 - 233 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 37Figure 4-30
  38. 38. Ports and ConnectorsPage 233 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 38Figure 4-31
  39. 39. Ports and Connectors• A USB port can connect up to 127 different peripherals together with a single connector – You can attach multiple peripherals using a single USB port with a USB hubPage 234 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 39Figure 4-32
  40. 40. Ports and Connectors• Other types of ports include: Firewire Bluetooth SCSI port port port eSATA IrDA port Serial port port MIDI portPages 234 - 236 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 40
  41. 41. Ports and Connectors A Bluetooth wireless port A smart phone might adapter converts a USB port into communicate with a notebook a Bluetooth port computer using an IrDA portPage 235 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 41Figures 4-33 – 4-34
  42. 42. Ports and Connectors • A port replicator is an external device that provides connections to peripherals through ports built into the device • A docking station is an external device that attaches to a mobile computer or devicePage 236 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 42Figure 4-35
  43. 43. Buses • A bus allows the various devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other – Data bus – Address bus • Word size is the number of bits the processor can interpret and execute at a given timePage 237 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 43Figure 4-36
  44. 44. Buses• Expansion slots connect to expansion buses• Common types of expansion buses include: PCI Express Accelerated PCI bus bus Graphics Port USB and PC Card bus FireWire busPage 238 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 44
  45. 45. Bays • A bay is an opening inside the system unit in which you can install additional equipment – A drive bay typically holds disk drivesPage 238 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 45Figure 4-37
  46. 46. Power Supply The power supply converts the wall outlet AC power into DC power Some external peripherals have an AC adapter, which is an external power supplyPage 239 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 46
  47. 47. Putting It All Together Home Small Office/ Mobile Intel Core i5 or Home Office Intel Core i7 Extreme or Intel Core 2 i3 or Intel Core i7 or Intel Core i7 or AMD Athlon II or Intel Core i7 Extreme or AMD Phenom II or AMD Sempron AMD Phenom II or AMD Turion II AMD Athlon II Minimum RAM: 2 GB Minimum RAM: 2 GB Minimum RAM: 4 GBPage 239 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 47Figure 4-38
  48. 48. Putting It All Together Power Enterprise Intel Xeon or Intel Core i7 or Intel Itanium or Intel Core i7 Extreme AMD Opteron or AMD Phenom II or Minimum RAM: 8 GB AMD Athlon II Minimum RAM: 4 GBPage 239 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 48Figure 4-38
  49. 49. Keeping Your Computeror Mobile Device CleanClean your computer or mobile device once or twice a yearTurn off and unplug your computer or mobile device beforecleaning itUse compressed air to blow away dustUse an antistatic wipe to clean the exterior of the case and acleaning solution and soft cloth to clean the screenPage 240 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 49
  50. 50. Video: The Leopard with a Time Machine CLICK TO START Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 50
  51. 51. Summary Sequence of operations How memory stores Components of the that occur when a data, instructions, and system unit computer executes an information instruction Comparison of various How to clean the personal computer exterior and interior of processors on the a system unit market todayPage 241 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 4 51
  52. 52. Chapter 4System Unit ComponentsDiscovering Computers 2012 Your Interactive Guide to the Digital World Chapter 4 Complete

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