Remaking of Mumbai


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We plan to re-create Mumbai, India as the world's most fantastic city. The idea is to spread the word - probably raise support for the concept. Visit us on to read more.

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Remaking of Mumbai

  1. 1. Remaking of Mumbai Federation Mayank Gandhi
  2. 2. Critical issues Housing Infrastructure Governance
  3. 3. Shortage 50,000 families Pavement dwellers & migrants Nil – Housing buffer stock
  4. 4. Proposed Rental housing projects in MMR  Self-contained - 160 sq.ft. (15 sqm) carpet  Plans all over the region to meet the demand Rental housing
  5. 5. Slums 1.5 mn. families 7.5 mn. people Low rise – High density housing No civic services Sub standard living
  6. 6. Slums Slum Redevelopment Authority - SRA  Around 450 slum projects - 250,000 homes.  Aiming for a slum-free Mumbai by 2015.
  7. 7.  10-15 km average speed  Poor services  Crumbling infrastructure Infrastructure…present condition
  8. 8. Major INFRASTRUCTURE projects proposed Free ways/Sea linksMetro
  9. 9. Suburban Monorail Major INFRASTRUCTURE projects proposed
  10. 10. Inner city chaos 5,00,000 families 2.5 mn. people Over 30,000 buildings Old & dilapidated Dangerous living conditions Poor infrastructure
  11. 11. Need for redevelopment…Mumbai over the years Removed the incentive for landlords to repair and maintain their buildings Over 20,000 buildings built on chawl style for clerks and workers in island city 1969 Building repairs & reconstruction act 1976 MHADA act 1986 Amendments in MHADA act Tenant co-operative 70% consent for redevelopment. 1999 Reconstruction policy Incentive F.S.I to developers July 2005 Record rainfall - Major disaster Human & property loss 2007 State Housing Policy PPP, JV Sector redev High Demand for housing and increase in population and trade in island city October 2005 Concept plan submitted to Chief Minister by Lalit Gandhi March 2009 Cluster Development policy 1949 Bombay Rent control act Post 1950 Pre -1940
  12. 12. Inner city infrastructure… Close to collapse
  13. 13. Dilapidated Building Conditions… Dangerous
  14. 14. Average living space
  15. 15.  40 years - 2,750 minor & major instances of collapses.  750 died  1,600 injured  Loss of Properties and Livelihood  On the July 26th, 2005 heavy rains resulted in collapse of 4 buildings and around 100 deaths  This has triggered the formation of a citizen centric NGO called the Remaking of Mumbai Federation
  16. 16. Managing Committee - RoMF Late Shri. Lalit Gandhi, Past President, MCHI Founder chairman Girsh Gokhale Ex Mun. Comm, Mumbai Y P Trivedi Hon. Rajya Sabha Member Padmashree Nana Chudasama World Chairman of GIANTS Anand Gupta Ex Chairman, BAI Adolf Tragler Dir, SRS Vice Presidents H.H Sri Sri Ravi Shankarji Master Visionary Justice P N Bhagwati, Ex Chief Justice of India President Mayank Gandhi, Activist Secretary Darshan Gandhi B.Tech, Civil, IIT - Bombay Chairman Jt. Coordinator Krishan Khanna Founder, i watch
  17. 17. Dr. Vijay Khole Ex- VC Mum. Univ Narayana Murthy Chief Mentor - Infosys Dr. Snehalatha Deshmukh Ex- VC Mum Univ Shashi Prabhu Architect Advisory Council Kaizer Rangwala Rangwala Asso, Los Angeles Dr. P S Rana Ex Chairman, HUDCO Dr. David Fisher Dynamic Intl Ltd., Rome and London Sunil Shastri Ex. Cabinet Min. Mahender Vasandani M square, Illinois Anil Hatkar Lambda Alpha Intl , US Permanent invitees Girish Bhagat The EuroIndia Center Members A Jockin (Presi- Nat’l Slum Dwellers Fed.) Sharad Mahajan (Architect) V.K.J. Rane (Ex. Md.-Ind Rly.Construction) Jt. Secretary Gurunath Dalvi ( President- Institute of Architects) Vijay Kalantri (Pres- All Indai Assn. of Industries) Mahableshwar Morje ( Gen. Sec- Flat Owners Assn) Shankar Desai ( Past Pres- Builders Assn. of India) Vikas Narayan (Vice Presi-Tenants Assn. of India) Zoeb A Bootwala (Pres. Sir JJ Marg Citizens Wel Assn)/ Treasurers Vimal Punmiya ( Chairman-All India Biss. Council) Muhammadli Patel (Gen Sec- Fedn.of Assn of Maha) Shashank Ninawe ( Prof- Raheja College of Archi) S Dharmadhikari ( Pres- Ind. Soc. Structural Eng) Yashwant Dalal (President- Estate Agent’s Assn.) Vinod Sampat ( Presi- Co-Op-Soc Resi Users & Welfare Assn.) Ashok Gulati (Realty expert) Coordinator
  18. 18. Over 17,000 local members and  Mumbai University  The Indian Institute of Architects  Sir J. J. College of Architecture  Rizvi College of Architecture  Old Building Landlord Welfare Association  Citizen Forum for C Ward Development  Federation of Assn. Of Maharashtra  Indian Soc of Structural Engineers.  The Inst. of Engineers (I)  All India Business Council  Indian Council of Foreign Trade  All India Assn. Of Industries  Maharashtra Soc. Welfare Assn.  Indian Merchants' Chamber  Indian Concrete Institute  Mumbai District Co-op Housing Fedn Ltd  Estate Agents Assn.  Builders Assn. Of India  Giants International  Flat Owner's Assn.  Slum Rehabilitation Soc.  Tenants Assn. of India Associations NGOs Academic Institutions
  19. 19. COUNCIL ON TALL BUILDINGS AND URBAN HABITAT (CTBUH) To support RoMF in Remaking Mumbai with Sector-by-Sector redevelopment. The agreement will help to bring together all of the disciplines involved in creating the urban environment on a global basis. RoMF has been appointed as the country leader and will be in a position to bring the best planners, architects, developers & consultants for rejuvenating Mumbai into a world class city. International tie-ups…
  20. 20. Name of Organisations Place Name of Organisations Place Arup USA Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences Kuwait The Blume Foundation USA Skidmore Owings & Merrill, L.L.P. USA Bovis Lend Lease S.r.I. Tishman Speyer Properties USA Davis Langdon LLP U.K Walter P Moore USA DeSimone Consulting Engineers USA Omrania & Associates Saudi Arabia Gale International USA RISE International USA Illinois Institute of Technology, College of Architecture USA Leslie E. Robertson Associates USA KONE Oyj Finland Rosenwasser/Grossman Consulting Engineers P.C USA NBBJ USA Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin Inc. Canada Samsung Corporation (Engineering & Construction Korea Solomon Cordwell Buenz & Associates, Inc. USA Schindler Elevator Corporation USA The Thornton Tomasetti Group USA Schirmer Engineering Corporation USA Woods Bagot UK WSP Group UK CPP, Inc. USA American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. USA Dong Yang Structural Engineers Korea Zuhair Fayez Partnership Saud Arabia Dubai Waterfront Dubai Hongkong Land Ltd. HongKong T.R. Hamzah & Yeang Sdn Bhd, Arkitek Malaysia KLCC (Holdings) Berhad Malaysia Institute of Architectural Design CTBUH Members Cosentini Associates USA NORR Architects & Engineers Canada CS Associates USA Palafox Associates Philippine CTL Group USA Pan Arab Consulting Engineers Kuwait Dar Al.Handasah (Shair and Partners) Egypt Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects Connectient DeStefano + Partners Ltd. USA Plannungsgruppe Droge Baade Nagaraj Germany Dunbar & Boardman UK STS Consultants Ltd. USA Terry Farrell & Partners UK Taylor Thomson Whitting Pty.Ltd. Australia Flack + Kurtz USA Tekla, Inc. USA FXFOWLE Architects P.C. USA The Calvin Group, LLC USA HP Konig, Heunisch and Partner Germany Traynor O’Toole Architects UK
  21. 21. RoMF Mission: Save Mumbai – Make Mumbai Objectives:  Cluster development  Deliberate planning process for the entire city of Mumbai  Increase and augmentation of infrastructure  Creation of housing stock for the poor.  Transform Mumbai into a WORLD CLASS CITY.  Replicate this process in all major cities of India and outside
  22. 22. Hong Kong, Singapore, Shanghai and many other cities were in much worse shape than the present Mumbai. It is high time to muster strong political and administrative will and by applying innovative ideas, latest technology and the use of the public- private partnership - remake Mumbai to “A WORLD CLASS CITY”
  23. 23. 24  Crammed population Early Shanghai  Poor infrastructure  Abysmal quality of life
  24. 24. 25 Shanghai 2006  Block-by-block development  Strong political and administrative will
  25. 25. 26 Hong Kong in 1965  Low Shanties  No open spaces Unplanned growth  Few green areas
  26. 26. 27 Hong Kong in 1980s
  27. 27. Hong Kong today
  28. 28. Singapore in 1972  Crammed layout  Horizontal structure  No open space
  29. 29. Singapore today  World class city  Sector by sector massive development FSI of 5-25
  30. 30. 2 redevelopment model  Individual buildings – DCR 33(7)  Clusters – DCR 33(9) Housing policy for inner city redevelopment
  31. 31.  Purchase / development rights of existing buildings  Agreements with tenants  Removal of existing buildings to transit accommodation  Clearing of space  Constructing Rehab buildings  Shifting tenants back  Parallelly constructing free sale apartments along with all infrastructure and sustainable measures  Selling extra incentive area Process of redevelopment
  32. 32. DCR 33 (7) FSI of 2.5 or Rehab + Incentive, whichever is more – 1 Property – 50% incentive – 2-5 Properties – 60% incentive – 6 or more Properties – 70% incentive
  33. 33. Individual building redevelopment Further load on existing POOR INFRASTRUCTURE Decrease in per capita OPEN SPACE, PARKING & AMENITIES Shortage of WATER Average travel speed – 6-8 kmph & bottle necks Damage to CULTURAL HERITAGE UNSUSTAINABLE model of development Only feasible buildings get redeveloped
  34. 34. • Incentivizing redevelopment through cluster approach. • Facilitate market oriented redevelopment strategy. • Promote higher FSI to large cluster redevelopment. • To transform the fractured development in to cohesive urban unit as laid down in Development Plan • Promote better living environment & living standards • To facilitate development and proper maintenance of infrastructure • To generate surplus tenements for rehabilitation of the occupiers who are on the master list of MHADA • MHADA will play the nodal role in the cluster approach • MHADA shall be a signatory to all the agreements to provide greater acceptability and credibility amongst the tenants and landlords. Maharashtra State Housing Policy 2007 some excerpts of redevelopment In order to accelerate the redevelopment of old and dilapidated buildings, it is proposed to encourage redevelopment projects through joint ventures in which MHADA along with the tenants, landlords and private developers will come together for undertaking redevelopment of cluster
  35. 35. DCR 33 (9) – cluster redevelopment FSI of 4 or Rehab + Incentive, whichever is more – Area between 1 and 2 acres – 55% incentive 2 and 3 acres – 65% incentive 3 and 4 acres – 70% incentive 4 and 5 acres – 75% incentive above 5 acres – 80% incentive
  36. 36. • PPP basis • Cluster approach • Self- financing scheme • Inclusive process with win-win solutions • Sustainability measures • In-situ rehabilitation • Transparent and accountable process • Global best practices with local involvement Principles of Cluster redevelopment
  37. 37. Advantages Upgradation & augmentation of INFRASTRUCTURE LIFE TIME MAINTENANCE of buildings - free of cost INCLUSIVE APPROACH Restoration of HERITAGE & RELIGIOUS buildings FINANCIAL INCENTIVES to the building landlords HOLISTIC PLANNING Fast process of city REMAKING SELF FINANCING model WIN – WIN solution for all SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  38. 38. as per new DCR 33(9) Rehab component 100 % Min 300 sqft or equivalent present area to each residential tenement Owner share 10% of Rehab component Corpus Fund for main. 5% of Rehab component Developer share 65% of Rehab component 80 %
  39. 39. Productivity Value Employment Growth Bio-DiversityRecycling Clean Air Bio-Capacity Amenity Public safety Public service Cultural Identity Power Water Infrastructure Outside The Premises Inside The Premises SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Sustainable Development & the City
  40. 40. Sustainable Development & the City
  41. 41. Water management (Usage Augmentation) Rain Harvesting Bioswale Storm water Bath Sink Laundry Dish water 1. Filters 2. Chemical Treatments Wastewater toMunicipal treatment Evaporated into Air Absorbed into ground Marine release Toilet & Urinal Commercial 3. UV sterilizer SOLIDWaste Municipalwatersupply
  42. 42. Black water management Micro pore Filter UV Radiation/ Ozone Clean Pathogen Free water Landscape / Irrigation Black water SolidWaste Energy ( Back To Grid) Methane Reactor H H H HC Carbon Dioxide Result - 37 % savings
  43. 43. Alternative energy Energy network Waste 70% Electricity 30% Energy Source 100% Electricity Electricity Supply Grid Centralized Electricity Room Loss 20% Heat 50% District Hot water Centralized Mechanical Room Supply to Individual Users Utility Company Power Generation On-Site Ultra- Efficient & Clean Power Generation On-Site Renewable Power Generation End User Utility Cogeneration Facility Fuel Cells Wind Turbines Photovoltaic Arrays Traditional Result - 39 % savings
  44. 44. Landfill Local collection and carriage without separation Garbage containers waste collection Individual Discharge Without separation Proposed New Product to users Manufacturer Production stream Back to Grid Incinerator center Landfill Central trash yards Diverter Recyclable waste Rotating separator Compactor & Container Pneumatic waste Collection system Dry waste Wet waste Non Recycled waste Traditional Solid Waste Management
  45. 45. Existing cluster Area Advantage Vertical growth Augmented infrastructure Parking, sewage treatment, water recycling, waste management Public spaces Public amenities –  Temples, jain derasars, masjids, agiaries  Existing new buildings, schools, heritage structures, health centers etc will be maintained and augmented. Wide roads
  46. 46. Water (lpcd) < 100 < 80 >135 Water harvesting & recycling * Values of Present & individual from diff sources & Cluster outcomes on RoMF’s pilot project master plan Outcomes – Infrastructure matrix Sewage bad worse n excellen t Water treatment Parking bad worse n excellen t Multi-storied & offsite parking Open & Play acres/1000 0.03 margi nal 0.6 (20 times) Vertical development & intermittent open Humans: Tree ratio 9:1 > 9:1 3.5:1 Huge open spaces & Vertical gardens Schools/disp ensaries less worse n excellen t Primary school & dispensaries acc to popn’ Road network 9-12% conge stion Upto 20% Hierarchy & planned Waste disposal worst worst excellen t In-situ segregation & treatment Renewable Energies nil nil excellen t Solar & Wind energy usage in clusters Present Individ ual Cluster * Processes in Cluster development
  47. 47.  Single room tenement to 300 sq.ft house  In-situ redevelopment  Nearby transit  Financial guarantees will be given along with penalty clause  Two level Grievance Council consisting of ex-judges, ex-bureaucrats and eminent citizens  Corpus fund to ensure life time free maintenance.  Revenue from extra parking areas, hosting of hoardings and hiring of community halls for rehab buildings  Convertible debenture to each tenant which will convert into equity Tenant’s Advantage Landlord’s advantage  Fair compensation  Convertible debenture to each tenant which will convert into equity
  48. 48. Traders and Shopkeepers advantage  In-situ redevelopment  No malls and super bazaars in the free sale component  Shops in the ground floors with road frontage will be rehabilitated in the same way  Rehabilitation in the last stage to minimise the loss of income  Convertible debenture to each tenant which will convert into equity  Increased work opportunities for laborers  Dormitories with clean beds, kitchen and toilet blocks  Separate hawking zones  Back lanes in markets and shopping areas for loading and unloading.  Increased public toilets and rest rooms. Advantages for the hawkers and laborers
  49. 49. 50,000 crores INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT FUND AFFORDABLE HOUSING for Lower & middle income groups OUTCOMES - Housing & Infrastructure >25,000 units Housing stock EWS & LIG GOOD QUALITY housing for rehabilitated people WORLD STANDARD LIFE QUALITY
  50. 50. MJ Market Mumba Devi Temple Mosqu e S K Patil Udyan Mangaldas Market Marine Lines Station Swadeshi Market ROMF  Total Area 233 acres  Number of Buildings 2, 202  Cessed Buildings 1, 777  Population 96, 673  Residential units 22,222  Avg size 140 sq ft  Commercial units 20,000  Avg. size 150 sq ft Night time: Day time population ratio 1 : 5 Cluster in C Ward…
  51. 51. Data mapping…
  52. 52. Various Clusters
  53. 53. Summary of clusters
  54. 54. Building details of every cluster
  55. 55. Details of every building
  56. 56. Hindu Christian Muslim Parsi Communities
  57. 57. 49% Residential 6-7% Single person that share a place with other people Age 22-58 male 3-4% Elderly Age around 58-70 50-52% Couples Age around male 24-55 female 23-50 32-35 % Kids 2.5 / house 7% Servants 3% Widow Age 45-58 Source: Various HH surveys by RoMF
  58. 58. 51% Commercial 10-15 % Office 1-2 % Doctor 30-32 % Paper-Printing 25-30 % Textile 2-3 % Restaurant 1-2 % Tea Shop 1 % Pan Shop 1 % Electronics 1,2 %Agent 25-30% Shop 2-3 % Gold 10 % Miscellaneous Source: Various HH surveys by RoMF
  59. 59. Public Participation… Old Building Landlords Welfare Association (OLWA) Association formed for the cause of the landlords of dilapidated buildings in Mumbai, who are suffering from various laws imposed under the Bombay Rent Control Act. Citizens Forum for C Ward Development (CFCD) A large group of eminent citizens of C ward who have come together to work constructively for the redevelopment of its ward and is represented by a managing committee and a mohalla committee consisting of representatives of each of the 129 mohallas Federation of Associations of Maharashtra (FAM) An apex body representing more than 750 associations/chambers of Trade, Transport and Small Scale Industries from all over Maharashtra. FAM has been able to gain the confidence and respect of the Trading community, since it has been trying to solve problems and genuine grievances of business community when they are in difficulties Building Representative Forum (BRF) 3 to 5 representatives from each building for discussions, opinions & changes in the master planning and individual building design
  60. 60. Public outreach Sharing the concept – 3 public mtgs of over 15000
  61. 61. Public outreach Mohalla and street meetings for Sharing the concept
  62. 62. Public outreach Public meetings to unveil plan and policies
  63. 63. Public outreach Building wise meetings
  64. 64. Public outreach Street and locality opinion forming
  65. 65. Public outreach Business and commerce
  66. 66. Public outreach Door to door suggestions
  67. 67. Public outreach 24 hrs free ambulance inaugurated by Dy Mayor and Ex- MP
  68. 68. Public outreach Disaster Relief Cell
  69. 69. Public outreach Involving global technical experts
  70. 70. Public outreach Public seminars on various issues
  71. 71. Public outreach Understanding the issues
  72. 72. Public outreach Design studio with Indian and Int’l architecture students
  73. 73. Public outreach Public exhibition on some works
  74. 74. THE REMAKING TIMES monthly newsletter in 4 languages – over 22,000 copies
  75. 75. 3 Round table discussions on 1. Inner city redevelopment of India 2. Remaking Sustainable Cities in the Vertical Age 3. Remaking Sustainable Cities: Infrastructure & Finance
  76. 76. CTBUH 2010 Conference, 3rd – 5th Feb, Mumbai “Remaking Sustainable Cities in the Vertical Age" 77 global speakers & 1100 delegates, spanning 29 countries
  77. 77. Pilot project - 30 acresPilot project - 30 acres
  78. 78. Proposed 30 acres project in Chira bazar area
  79. 79. Project details… 30 acres 373 362 3,840 4,484 8,324 962 7,281 6,092 73.9% 83.7 % Cluster area Total buildings (including new, temples etc) Buildings under proposal Residential tenements Commercial tenements Total tenements Locked units Net open premises Consent received - 13th May 09 % of consents received Consent % of open premises
  80. 80. CPMC - City Planning and Monitoring Committee Chief Minister Mayor & Dy. Mayor, Leader of opposition Members of various associations Chambers of federation, National & int’l developers, Consultants & collaborators, Planners, designers, FI’s, FII’s etc Development authorities/ Municipal corporations, Public Works Dept. Traffic & Transport authorities Water supply and sewage treatment agencies, Telecom, electricity Other Para-statal agencies CUDC Government Undertaking - State - Local Stakeholders Advisory Committee Accountability, Transparency Project Mgnt & Monitoring Creation of sectors Survey & Planning Finance, Environment & Ecology City Planning and Monitoring Committee ( CPMC ) Sector by Sector development Scheme (SSDS)
  81. 81. CPMC – City Planning and Monitoring Committee Public Private People Partnership for Regulating, Planning and Monitoring • Formation of a City planning and monitoring corporate through a SPV on a PPP basis • Create mode of implementation by Sector – by – Sector Development scheme • Address all other categories of development • Involve global and top quality professionals • Create Financial Tools • Create Accountability and transparency structure through Corporate Governance • Survey and Study • Sectorial planning pertaining to old& dilapidated buildings • Pro-active facilitating • Prequalification of Sector Developers • Execution of social infrastructure • Enabling laws / rules • Rehousing of tenants, landlords etc • Monitoring quality, time and aesthetics by international project management firms Concept Objectives Functions
  82. 82. Do not doubt that a small group of thoughtful people could change the world. Indeed, it's the only thing that ever has. - Margaret Mead