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Deewas Presents you Skyscraper and hope it helps you all...

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  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Skyscrapers are very tall buildings with many floors. Skyscrapers have been a fascination for people; for engineers it is a challenge to build structure that rises hundreds of feet above the ground. The Great Pyramid of Giza built at 2560 BC stood at 146.5 meters) and was tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years Burj Khalifa at an astonishing height of 829.8 m in Dubai is the current tallest man made structure. 2
  3. 3. NEEDS FOR SKYSCRAPERS  Expensive land Pricing  Economic Status of a city  Military Surveillance  Broadcasting Figure 1:World one, Mumbai 3
  4. 4. STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS  Sub-structure: it is the portion below the ground which transmits the entire load to the soil. It is also called foundation of the skyscrapers or building.  Super structure: it is the portion of structure above the ground level. 4Figure 2: sub and super structure
  5. 5. Foundation system Pile Foundation Deep Foundation Mat or Raft Foundation Pier Foundation 5
  6. 6. SUPERSTRUCTURE The portion of the building that remains above the ground level. A) Load bearing structural part: it transmits dead load and live load to the foundation. B) Non load bearing structural part : It does not carry load but perform functions for aesthesis, partition and privacy, illumination, ventilation, e gress etc. Shear wall, Steel frame, tube frame, Trussed tube and X-bracing. 6 Figure 3: Construction of super- structure
  7. 7. 7Figure 4: Types of frames used.
  8. 8. NON STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS Elevators: It is a necessity in a skyscraper to transport people and goods to different floors. Taller the building more elevators are needed. Placement of elevators needs to be properly planned and designed to maximize the profitability of the skyscraper. 8 Figure 5: Elevators
  9. 9. Escalators: Its used to transfer people at lower levels between lobbies and upper Lobbies. Location is important because elevators and escalators should be situated where they can be easily seen by the general public. 9 Figure 6: Escalators
  10. 10. BUILDING ORIENTATION  Orientation is very important to make a skyscraper energy efficient and to enjoy the gifts of nature. 10 Figure 7: Proper orientation of skyscraper
  11. 11. STABILITY OF A SKYSCRAPER Dead load of a skyscraper is very large compared to the live load. So the load analysis has to be done carefully to make it stable. The height exposes a skyscraper to various forces: 1) Wind Forces: As height of the skyscraper increases wind force acting on it also increases. So analysis of wind forces is very important. 2) Seismic Forces: A skyscraper can be made to tolerate seismic forces using : Tuned Mass Dampers Friction Pendulum Bearing (FPB) 11
  12. 12. ADVANTAGES Multipurpose: The whole structure can be used as residential, commercial and institutional. Space : It increases the total floor area and its best suited where land prices are expensive. Views : It provides long-range view in congested city. Symbolism : It gives the symbol of the country or state for wealth, power, history etc. Broadcasting : It provides excellent site for installing broadcasting equipment. 12
  13. 13. DISADVANTAGES Safety : Hundred percent safety cannot be achieved in skyscraper. Defective towers may pose a risk of falling and cause severe damage. The occupants at higher floor level gets difficult in evacuation during emergency. Cost of construction: All the process involved are very expensive(design, construction). Environmental impact : Pollution increases as lots of materials like steel, cement, etc. are used in the construction. Noise pollution due to large number of people and automobile. Psychological impacts: the old age people and children will have psychological impact in living at high height. 13
  14. 14. SKYSCRAPER SAFETY Design of a skyscraper is of prime importance to make it safe and stable against the loads acting on it. Fire safety and management plans are needed to minimize the danger on lives. There should be egress planned for evacuation in case of emergency. 14 Figure 8: Terror attacks on WTC
  15. 15. TALLEST SKYSCRAPERS 15Figure 9: Burj khalifa, (829 m) Taipei 101 (509m) Petronas tower (451.9m)
  16. 16. SKYSCRAPER SCENARIO IN INDIA MUMBAI SKYLINE AT NIGHT KOLKATA SKYLINE 16 Figure 10: Mumbai skyline Figure 11: Kolkata Skyline
  17. 17. GREEN SKYSCRAPERS A global movement of green skyscrapers is upon us. Architects, engineers, developers, and clients with the influence of governmental guidelines, are pioneering shift towards eco-towers. Qualities Energy Efficient and Eco-Friendly Efficient Water Recycling Quality indoor air. 17Figure 11: The Hearst Tower
  18. 18. CONCLUSION “Sky is the limit” foremost learning of the project. The competition for the tallest is never going to end. More ambitious projects are coming up around the world including World One in Mumbai. The greed to make the tallest has compromised the need to make a safe skyscraper. This was highlighted during 9/11 terror attacks on World Trade Center. The need for Green Skyscraper is immense to reduce impact on the environment. New generation engineers have a lot to innovate and make skyscrapers green and safe. 18
  19. 19. REFERENCES  Thornton, Mark., “Skyscrapers and Business cycles”  Mir M. Ali., “ Evolution of concrete structure” .  Das, M. M., “Fluid Mechanics and Turbomachines”, PHI Learning Private Limited, 2012.  Internet surfing  A website that discusses mega structures in the world.  Skyscraper enthusiast website featuring buildings database and discussion forum  : Daily Newspaper in India. 19
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