TEAM 18 PRESESNTATION:
DEEWAS KHARKA 103
BISTEERNA MEDHI M45
PENCHEN LEPCHA 101
YIGO RIBA E14
Skyscrapers are very tall buildings with many
Skyscrapers have been a fascination for people; for
engineers it is a challenge to build structure that
rises hundreds of feet above the ground.
The Great Pyramid of Giza built at 2560 BC stood at
146.5 meters) and was tallest man-made
structure in the world for over 3,800 years
Burj Khalifa at an astonishing height of 829.8 m in
Dubai is the current tallest man made structure.
NEEDS FOR SKYSCRAPERS
Expensive land Pricing
Economic Status of a city
Figure 1:World one, Mumbai 3
Sub-structure: it is the
portion below the
transmits the entire
load to the soil. It is
also called foundation
of the skyscrapers or
Super structure: it is
the portion of
structure above the
4Figure 2: sub and super structure
Mat or Raft Foundation
The portion of the building that
remains above the ground level.
A) Load bearing structural part: it
transmits dead load and live load
to the foundation.
B) Non load bearing structural part
: It does not carry load but perform
functions for aesthesis, partition
privacy, illumination, ventilation, e
Shear wall, Steel frame, tube
frame, Trussed tube and X-bracing. 6
Figure 3: Construction of super-
NON STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS
Elevators: It is a necessity in a skyscraper to transport
people and goods to different floors. Taller the
building more elevators are needed. Placement of
elevators needs to be properly planned and designed
to maximize the profitability of the skyscraper.
Figure 5: Elevators
Escalators: Its used to transfer
people at lower levels between
lobbies and upper Lobbies.
Location is important because
elevators and escalators should be
situated where they can be easily
seen by the general public.
Figure 6: Escalators
Orientation is very important to make a skyscraper
energy efficient and to enjoy the gifts of nature.
Figure 7: Proper orientation of skyscraper
STABILITY OF A SKYSCRAPER
Dead load of a skyscraper is very large compared to
the live load. So the load analysis has to be done
carefully to make it stable.
The height exposes a skyscraper to various forces:
1) Wind Forces: As height of the skyscraper
increases wind force acting on it also increases. So
analysis of wind forces is very important.
2) Seismic Forces: A skyscraper can be made to
tolerate seismic forces using :
Tuned Mass Dampers
Friction Pendulum Bearing (FPB)
Multipurpose: The whole structure can be used as
residential, commercial and institutional.
Space : It increases the total floor area and its best
suited where land prices are expensive.
Views : It provides long-range view in congested
Symbolism : It gives the symbol of the country or
state for wealth, power, history etc.
Broadcasting : It provides excellent site for
installing broadcasting equipment.
Safety : Hundred percent safety cannot be achieved in
skyscraper. Defective towers may pose a risk of falling and
cause severe damage. The occupants at higher floor level
gets difficult in evacuation during emergency.
Cost of construction: All the process involved are very
Environmental impact : Pollution increases as lots of
materials like steel, cement, etc. are used in the construction.
Noise pollution due to large number of people and automobile.
Psychological impacts: the old age people and children will
have psychological impact in living at high height.
Design of a skyscraper is of
prime importance to make it
safe and stable against the loads
acting on it.
Fire safety and management
plans are needed to minimize
the danger on lives.
There should be egress planned
for evacuation in case of
Figure 8: Terror attacks on WTC
SKYSCRAPER SCENARIO IN INDIA
MUMBAI SKYLINE AT NIGHT
Figure 11: Kolkata Skyline
A global movement of green skyscrapers is upon us.
Architects, engineers, developers, and clients with the
influence of governmental guidelines, are pioneering
shift towards eco-towers.
Energy Efficient and Eco-Friendly
Efficient Water Recycling
Quality indoor air.
17Figure 11: The Hearst Tower
“Sky is the limit” foremost learning of the project. The
competition for the tallest is never going to end. More
ambitious projects are coming up around the world
including World One in Mumbai.
The greed to make the tallest has compromised the
need to make a safe skyscraper. This was highlighted
during 9/11 terror attacks on World Trade Center.
The need for Green Skyscraper is immense to reduce
impact on the environment.
New generation engineers have a lot to innovate and
make skyscrapers green and safe.
Thornton, Mark., “Skyscrapers and Business cycles”
Mir M. Ali., “ Evolution of concrete structure” .
Das, M. M., “Fluid Mechanics and Turbomachines”, PHI
Learning Private Limited, 2012.
www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/skyscraper: A website that
discusses mega structures in the world.
www.skyscraperpage.com: Skyscraper enthusiast website
featuring buildings database and discussion forum
http://www.timesofindia.com : Daily Newspaper in India.