High Rise Building Research Document

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High Rise Building Research Document

  1. 1. NICHOLAS SOCRATESHigh-Rise Iconic Buildings HIGH-RISE ICONIC BUILDINGS RESEARCH DOCUMENT
  2. 2. NAMASTÉ TOWER IMAGES 1. Opened-up section of the tower where becomes clear how the program isMumbai, India, 2014 allocated through the build- ing. Note the various gardens inside. 2. The inspiration for the decoration of the Namasté Tower comes from the henna tattoo tradition.Architect: Atkins, Dubai 3. Applied to the elevation of the tower every view through the ‘henna tattoo’Client: Jaguar Buildcon from the interior appears different. 4. Floorplans of the luxurious hotel suites up to the 44th floor. The deep coves inPlot Area: 6500 m2 the corridors makes the building more connected to the outside.Building Footprint: 4100 m2 5. Rendering view of the building on it’s location.Gross Floor Area: 120.000 m2 SOURCESHeight: 301 m Cost US$: Unknown http://www.worldbuildingsdirectory.com/project. cfm?id=2878Lifts: 15 + 3 Service http://www.atkinsglobal.com/projects/namaste-hotelStatus: Proposed http://forum.skyscraperpage.com/showthread.php?t=188468 Concept CONCEPT OF THE ARCHITECT Namasté means respectfully ‘greeting’ or ‘bowing’ to your visitors in Hindi. It is an friendly expression what makes people feel welcome. The clasped hands are the basis of the concept for this hotel tower and clearly make a statement to invite people into the building. Since the luxurious hotel will mainly conceive celebrating people for events like weddings and family diners the architect expresses this even more in the façade idea. The decoration directly comes from the henna tattoo art. Indian people cover themselves with these decorations with the occasion of weddings and big birthday parties. Translated to the building envelope this means a partly coverage to keep the heat outside and collect sunlight in PV-cells. Also the roofs of the two large canopies have an additional layer of sun collecting cells which can provide about 12% of the total energy demand. In between the two ‘hands’ the space for corridors of the hotel remains. This transparent volume has a visual connection to the outside and provides a nice view over Mumbai and the adjacent race track. It almost feels like you are outside. This feeling is embraced by the many gardens EXTRA TEXT EXPLANATION applied to the corridors. The main programmatic occupancy of the Namasté Tower will On an urban level the entrance flows are wellconsidered. Besides hotel be hotel. The middle part houses regular hotel rooms, while guests, the office workers, deliveries and visitors has to be led into the the top part mainly consists of luxurious suites. The layout building. Distinct entrance roads and ramps regulate the movements. between the 36th and 44th floor varies from 3 to 8 suites per Below the canopies, an urban green oasis invite people to visit the floor. Above there is one entire layer intended to be one single building. Going up with panorama elevators brings them to the top floors apartment, probably for the hotel owner. where a restaurant and bar provide a wide view over downtown Mumbai. The top of the building houses bars, a restaurant and panoramic decks, enclosed by a glass roof where ‘the fingers’ EVOLUTIONARY ABOUT THE CONCEPT of the building come together. The very literal translation of the traditional Indian expression for hospitality The lower floors contain 9000 m2 of office space and 6000 makes the building an icon with benefits. Instead of placing a big sign what m2 of retail. All program will be accessed from the street level says ‘hotel’ at the street side the building itself acts like one. The clasped where ramps go up and down to enter the parking places hands decorated with the henna patterns immediately shows clearly what or the drop-off zones at the back of the tower. The specialty the purpose of the building is. Indian people will experience it as an inviting restaurants and the lounge are public accessible from the retail symbol for their natural habit to be friendly and cooperative. The icon will floors.Inside the cores, elevators provide vertical transport for become the highest building of India and become an entity in Mumbai. the different users. From level 10 upwards less elevators are needed so the configuration changes. The left-over space is used for both hotel service as corridor. 2 NAMASTÉ TOWER
  3. 3. PEARL RIVER TOWER The building incorporates four large openings, approximately 3 x 4 meters wide. The building s unique curved design is intended to focus the strongGuangzhou, China, 2011 southern winds that blow through the region. Orientated to face theseArchitect: Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) winds headon, the Pearl River Tower s sculpted facade will increase theClient: China National Tobacco Company speed of these winds (by two-and-a-half times) and channel them throughPlot Area: 10,635 m2 two main slots in the building where wind turbines will be located. BecauseBuilding Footprint: 3015 m2 of this focusing of wind and higher speeds, it is estimated the verticalGross Floor Area: 214.100 m2 turbines will produce up to 15 times more energy than they would if theyHeight: 310 m were standalone units. By placing vertical axis wind turbines, one insideCost US$: Unknown each of the four openings of the building, the increased power potentialLifts: 13 of the air stream can be leveraged. These wind turbines provide powerStatus: Constructed year round. In most cases the velocity increases are more than twice the ‘ambient wind speeds. EXTRA TEXT EXPLANATION Double Facade Insulation Pearl River has double facades on the North and South facades. Hot air is vented to the north face and is drawn out through a stack effect. Cool air is brough in at night to cool the thermal mass of the building. The south fagade is double glazed for insulation and ventilation purposes. The facade features an internally ventilated double-wall system that incorporates a motorized blind system controlled by a photocell that tracks the path of the sun. Daylight Sensitive Lighting Controls Sensors in the rooms detect the current lighting level and adjust the artifcial lighting so that it supplements the natural daylight, rather than replacing or overpowering it. Concept CONCEPT OF THE ARCHITECT The city of Guangzhou, China experiences some of the worst air pollution on the planet. China s growing economy has increased their energy consumption this in turn has lead to a rapid increase in carbon emissions. In response to these great problems, the Chinese government has recently set a goal to reduce their carbon emission by 10% by the year 2010. The Pearl River Tower has been designed to be the most energy effcient of all the world s supertall structures. The original goal IMAGES was to design a ‘net zero-energy building that would sell its 1. photovoltaic cells integrated in the building s skin excess power to the local electrical grid, but now the building is 2. the design of the building sculpted for a better air fow expected to consume nearly 60% less energy than a traditional 3. air fow (section) 4. air fow (foorplan) building of similar size. Economical considerations and reulatory 5. Increasing wind speeds (m/s) challenges made this goal unachievable. 6. The 3x4 meters wide openings 7. Vertical axis wind turbines 8. Birdview impression The tower features both active and passive approaches to limiting 9. Section of the double facade 10. Ventilation priniciple carbon emissions. The photovoltaic cells will be integrated in the building s skin. To achieve the greatest productivity, the cells will SOURCES not only function as a source of power, but also function as a solar http //architectenweb.nl/aweb/redactie/redactie_de- tail.asp?iNID=6943&iNTypeID=55&extUrl=1 shade. http //buildingdb.ctbuh.org/building.php?building_id=454 http //emileglorieux.blogspot.com/2010/03/pearl-river- tower-world-greenest.html http //www.daapspace.daap.uc.edu/-larsongr/Larson- line/SkyCaseStu.../Pearl.pdf EVOLUTIONARY ABOUT THE CONCEPT http //www.iaacblog.com/selfsuffcientbuilding/fles/.../ Yashaswini-Case-studies.pdf http //www.sincerelysustainable.com/buildings/com- mercial/pearl-river-tower-to-be-one-of-the- What really makes this building stand out is its unique integration most-ener- gy-effcient-skyscrapers-in-the-world of wind turbines into the maintenance levels of the building and http //www.som.com/content.cfm/pearl_river_tower the sculpting of the building form to channel wind through those openings.PEARL RIVER TOWER 3
  4. 4. TAIPEI PERFORMING ARTS CENTER Concept course- not freely accessible. At the basis lies a four legged table construction that is reinforced in the corners.Taipei, Cheng De Road, Shilin District Multiple variants of ‘stiffening’ are used to create a variety of identities for the legs. CONCEPT OF THE ARCHITECTArchitect: Pieter Bannenberg, Walter van Dijk, Kamiel Klaasse By expanding the legs towards the top automatically the spans are reduced. TheClient: Unkown structure in a way is an orthogonal version of a dome. A building simple but sophisticated, elitist but accessible, simple butPlot Area: Unknown innovating. That was a challenge for NL Architects and it seems that theyBuilding Footprint: 110 x 80 The ground-level square bends up to allow cars and motor cycles to enter managed to combine all the above elements by creating TPAC. The TaipeiGross Floor Area: Unkown the parking garage. Here trucks can enter the basement. Heavy logistics will Performing Arts Center could be considered a table with four legs each oneHeight: 64 m be handled from here. Taxis will be able to drive up this ‘Hill’, culminating in different from the others. If this sounds ordinary then you’d better have aCost US$: 124 million a glamorous drop off. Locally the square folds down to allow more spacious look at the pictures as TPAC is far away more than that. An Urban cavity, aLifts: 25 connections to the underpasses to Night Market and the Jiantan train station. Proscenium Arch, an Upside-Down Skyline all in one.Status: Not realized The act of lifting the building allows for a more or less unobstructed crossing of the square –an elegant feature, since most architecture tends to stand it the The Taipei Performing Arts Center aspires to become accessible for everybody. way. Whether you are walking from Bai Lin Highschool to take the bus or you The principal act performed by the building is to elevate a substantial part of are coming from Shinlin Market and are looking for a place to eat your lunch, the its program. By doing so a public square is created underneath it. As such the square will provide everybody with a sheltered and exciting route or place to stay. square fundamentally becomes part of the building: it is included inside it. This could turn out to be a radical innovation… Balconies or terraces with several different programs activate the space. Sometimes they are open and public; sometimes exclusive or intimate. Ticketable, VIP or free. They act as swimming pool, skate area, public green, play ground, EVOLUTIONARY ABOUT THE CONCEPT hotel garden, breakfast café, thus attracting many different ‘target groups’. The audience can take center stage. In a way the building could be considered a Table: four ‘legs’ support a horizontal slab. This ‘open’ block measures 110 x 80 meters with a total height of A Hotel could be a successful additional pro- gram. It might be beneficial for the 64 meters. The ‘tabletop’ is 14 meters high and can in principle accommodate exploitation of the complex as a whole. It is supportive also in a literal way, since 3 stories. Inside you’ll find a kind of Mall; a fragment of the city that is elevated, a it constitutes the fourth leg of ‘table’. The Performing Arts Hotel can comfortably public ‘browsing space’ in the sky. This will be the domain for cultural facilities: feature 60 bedrooms and additional facilities. The bedrooms overlook the city the multimedia library, music stores, galleries, lobbies, bars, restaurants and and the spectacular Urban Interior that it helps forming. The Revolving Bar clubs. A gaming zone and a casino might be exciting additions. somewhere hangs from the ceiling. The ‘legs’ are programmed as well; in fact they are small skyscrapers. All four In a way, the project is an Upside-Down Sky- line. The horizontal top layer helps are different. One has a ‘waist’, with a large plan that narrows half way and to frame the space beneath. It is not so much the beauty of the form itself that is widens again. One has an oversized foot; it contains the Proscenium Theater compelling, but the space in-between. With every step you take this urban cavity at its base. And then becomes more slender. One is small at the bottom and changes shape. The structure could be understood as a Proscenium Arch in 4 expands towards the top -here you’ll find the Grand Theater. By lifting the main directions framing city life in many ways. plateau of the building to a level slightly higher than the adjacent structures, wonderful panoramas are created. It becomes possible to overlook the city and the surrounding hills. The additional asset of this gravity-defying operation is the urban void that comes into being. This 3D urban square creates an informal foyer for the building as a whole. There is no interface, no threshold. Come in, we’re open! It is a place for interaction, for performances, for concerts, for markets. It is a square with a ceiling. Rain and Sun automatically are kept out. It is open-air, but covered! Surprisingly the building contains more void than mass; it’s a space-container, a 3D Plaza. The three main programmatic elements, the Theatres, are positioned on different altitudes. The Proscenium Playhouse is placed at the base of the southeast ‘Leg’. The Lobby is placed under this theater so that it is flush with the square, activating the space around it. The Multiform Theatre however, is connected to the southwest leg close to the top. The volume of the Grand IMAGES Theater is suspended under the horizontal slab. It hovers over the square while 1. building image still being a part of it. 2. section 3. floor plan 4. concept drawing, stage There are many ways to travel through the building. There are elevators, 5. concept diagram, creating a square stairs and escalators. It is possible to go in a direct way or to take the scenic 6. concept diagram, routing 7. side view drawing of TPAC , sun shading, rain route. A detour is rewarding! It is no longer necessary to take the same path 8. taipei performing art center structure diagram on your way out. A System of Loops comes into being. Some of the elevators 9. taipei performing art center program 10. taipei performing art center image square are oversized. They can be used for transportation of large goods, but also for 11. taipei performing art center image square moving large groups of people at the same time. Many elevators are placed 12. taipei performing art center image square towards the outside. They are not hidden in a core but become part of the SOURCES performance. Riding them gives you the feeling of being part of an interactive http://www.nlarchitects.nl/slideshows/TPAC/TPAC. html urban environment. They move up and down like ants on the leg of a table. When reaching the top some elevators suddenly move sideways, allowing http://www.thearchitectureroom.com/competitions/ Taipei_competition.html unexpected horizontal movement: Logistic Entertainment. The Grand Route http://www.archdaily.com/15785/taipei-per- forming-arts-center-proposal-by- nl-architects/ connects the Lobbies of the Theaters with a series of escalators. It ties them together. Part of the Foyers as such will be open to everybody, but here you will also find the ticket control. Beyond a certain point the theaters are -of 4 TAIPEI PERFORMING ARTS CENTER
  5. 5. BANK OF CHINA TOWER EXTRA TEXT EXPLANATION The tower was initially built by the Hong KongHong Kong, 1989 Branch of the Bank of China, but the entranceArchitect: I.M. Pei continues to display the name “Bank of China”,Client: Bank of China / Hong Kong rather than BOCHK. The top four and the bottomPlot Area: 8000 m2 19 stories are used by the Bank, while the otherBuilding Footprint: 2.700 m2 floors are leased out.Gross Floor Area: 130.000 m2Height: 370m When the Bank of China was completed, it wasCost US$: 130 million the tallest building in Asia and was the firstLifts: 21 building outside the USA to break the 1000Status: Constructed foot mark (305 meter).The towers sharp corners and bright, reflective features caused a lot of controversy when it the designs were made public. The tower was contrary to “Feng Shui” for its sharp edges and its negative symbolism by the numerous ‘X’ shapes in its original design. That’s why Pei modified the design to some degree before construction following this feedback, he decided to incorporate a few water features around the building as a ‘remedy’ to the sharp edges of the tower. Unfortunately, some of the water features were incorrectly placed. Concept CONCEPT OF THE ARCHITECT I.M. Pei designed the building with the structure of bamboo in mind. However, the building looks nothing like a bamboo stalk, but more like a ‘glittering tower of diamonds’. The cross braces and triangular framework of the building are designed to withstand typhoons. Because of the strong framework of the building, there was less steel needed for the building’s construction. The Bank of China Tower is reminiscent of the Willis Tower in Chicago that was the tallest building in the world for a long time. The difference is that the Bank of China Tower is composed of triangular sections with triangular frames and the Willis Tower is composed of rectangular blocks and has rectangles The glass façades of the building reflect the light and its surroundings, so it is like a bright and shiny white crystal, while the Sear Tower appears dark and ominous. The whole structure is supported by the four steel columns at the corners of the building and one in the centre of the building, with the triangular IMAGES frameworks transferring the weight of the structure onto these five 1. Isometric drawing columns. It is covered with glass curtain walls. 101 of the world’s tallest buildings By Georges Binder 2. Breakdown of the tower structure http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank_of_China_Tower,_Hong_Kong 3. Floorplans; A 51-66; B 38-50; C 20-37 101 of the world’s tallest buildings By Georges Binder EVOLUTIONARY ABOUT THE CONCEPT SOURCES For the first time a megastructure composed of a pure space-truss was http://www.pcfandp.com/a/p/8220/s.html used to support the weight of a skyscraper. The megastructural steelwork http://www.archdaily.com/153297/ad-classics-bank-of- china-tower-i-m-pei/ is expressed externally by naturally anodized panels that form part of the http://whitedragonhome.com/Articles/FSBankofChina.pdf curtainwallBANK OF CHINA 5
  6. 6. EARTHSCRAPER ConceptMexico City, Mexico, 2009 CONCEPT OF THE ARCHITECTArchitect: BNKR Arquitectura The main plaza of Mexico City, known as the “Zocalo” is 57,600Client: Evolo square meters (240m x240m), making it one of the largest inPlot Area: 57.600 m2 the world. It is bordered by the Cathedral, the National PalaceBuilding Footprint: 57.600 m2 and the Federal District Buildings. This is the location of theGross Floor Area: 775.000 m2 proposed Eathscraper, an inverted skyscraper that digs downHeight: -300 m through the different layers of Mexico City. The EarthscraperCost US$: Unknown preserves the iconic presence of the Zocalo and the existingStatus: Competition proposal hierarchy of the buildings that surround it. It is an inverted pyramid with a central void that allows all habitable spaces to enjoy natural light and ventilation. The first ten stories are dedicated to a pre-Columbian museum. The next ten stories are retail areas and housing while the deeper 35 stories are offices. The architects think that Earthscraper may have burst the bounds of the architectural world because it has taken a truly new approach to escalating megacity problems like planning for population growth, curbing sprawl, preserving open space, and conserving energy and water. In the process, however, the concept also incorporates respect for the city’s past, by seeking to integrate the centuries of Mexico City’s history into its proposed solutions to present and future problems, rather than obliterate them. The Earthscraper’s multi-use design is aimed at curbing urban sprawl and its attending problems. Although by law a project of this size would normally have to plan for 10 – 15 thousand parking spaces. The interior design concept also incorporates a system of gardens occurring roughly every 10 stories, to help generate fresh air. It will be insulated by earth while the gardens would create microclimates inside the tower. EVOLUTIONARY ABOUT THE CONCEPT The innovation of this utopian project is the fact that it is the first totally underground skyscraper. In many competitions concerning skyscrapers, groundbreaking ideas are often suggested yet this one is by far the closest to reality. The reverse pyramid shape of the atrium also suggests a solution to the casting of natural light into the building which is the most common problem in all underground buildings. IMAGES 1. Bird’s eye view of Zocalo with the Earthscraper 2. The Reverse-Pyramid shape atrium 3. The glass plaza above the Earthscraper 4. Green Walls to increase sustainability 5. The History Museum in the palimpsest 6. Pathways under the zero level 7. Perspective section of the building SOURCES http://www.bunkerarquitectura.com/ http://www.archdaily.com/156357/the-earthscraper- bnkr-arquitectura/ http://www.archdaily.com/156357/the-earthscraper- bnkr-arquitectura/ http://www.ecomagination.com/earthscraper-concept- takes-sustainable-design- underground http://www.sodahead.com/united-states/mexico-city- considers-earth-scraper- brilliant-or-bogus/question-2273777/ http://urbdezine.com/2011/11/24/subterranean-earth- scraper/ 6 EARTHSCRAPER
  7. 7. CANTON TOWER ConceptGuangzhou, China CONCEPT OF THE ARCHITECTArchitect: Information Based Architecture Mark Hemel, IBA architect and director, comments, “WhereClient: Guangzhou Construction Investment & Development Co, Ltd, most skyscrapers bear ‘male’ features; being introvert, strong, GuangzhouTV station straight, rectangular, and based on repetition, we wanted toPlot Area: 174.000 m2 create a ‘female’ tower, being complex, transparent, curvy,Building Footprint: ... m2 gracious and sexy. Our aim was to design a free-form towerGross Floor Area: 114.000 m2 with a rich and human-like identity that would representHeight: 600m Guangzhou as a dynamic and exciting city.” The result isCost US$: 326 million a tower, very slender and tall, that EHDUV VLPLODULWLHVLifts: 6 ZLWK WKH ¿JXUH RI D IHPDOH, the reason that it earnedStatus: Constructed the nickname: ‘supermodel‘. The form, volume and structure are generated by two ellipses, one at foundation level and the other at a horizontal plane at 450 meters. The two ellipses are rotated relative to one another, where a tightening caused by the rotation between the two ellipses forms a ‘waist’. The structure at the bottom of the tower is porous and spacious, but becomes denser at waist level that occurs about halfway up. The structural engineering was performed by Arup. The structural concept exists out of three primary elements: columns, rings and braces. None of the 1100 steel nodes are identical, but they were able to create one single type of node to be used in all areas. The rings are placed on the inside of the columns so that they are connected but don’t intersect with each other. This creates an inside view dominated by rings, while the outside views are dominated by the sloping columns. All rings are placed at an angle of 15 degrees so that an opening is created for the entrance at the base of the tower, and a sloping viewing deck is created at the top of the building. The columns are all perfectly straight although they lean towards one direction, giving the tower its dynamic twist. The columns also taper from bottom to top, further amplifying the perspective view up the tower from the ground. EVOLUTIONARY ABOUT THE CONCEPT The Scala Tower is interesting because of its twist and parametric design, which allows the use of just one joint for the whole building. Another interesting element are its stairs that creates possibilities for a expansion of public spaces and transition between different public spaces on the skywalk. IMAGES 1. Construction design build-up http://www.solaripedia.com/13/342/4233/canton_tower_pv_shapes_illustration. EXTRA TEXT EXPLANATION html 2. Floor Plans http://www.solaripedia.com/13/342/4233/canton_tower_pv_shapes_illustration. The waist of the tower contains a 180 meter open-air stair walk html (“Skywalk”) where visitors can physically climb the tower starting at 170 meters and spiralling almost 200 meters higher, all the way through SOURCES the waist. There are outdoor gardens set within the structure, and at http://gztvtower.info/index.htm the top, just above 450 meters, a large open-air observation deck is http://www.solaripedia.com/13/342/4253/canton_tower_ section_dwg.html encircled by a sort of Ferris wheel. The interior of the tower is subdivided http://www.solaripedia.com/13/342/4233/canton_tower_pv_ shapes_illustration.html into programmatic zones with various functions, including TV and http://www.arup.com/News/2010_09_September/29_ Sep_2010_GZ_TV_Tower_opens. radio transmission facilities, observatory decks, revolving restaurants, aspx computer gaming, restaurants, exhibition spaces, conference rooms, http://www.arup.com/Projects/Guangzhou_TV_Tower/Details. aspx shops, and 4D cinemas.CANTON TOWER 7
  8. 8. CHINA CENTRAL TELEVISIONHEADQUARTERSBeijing, China, 2010Architect: Office of Metropolitan Architecture (OMA)Client: China Central Television (CCTV)Plot Area: 75.000 m2Building Footprint: 44.000 m2Gross Floor Area: 473,000 m2Height: 234 mCost US$: 1.13 billionLifts: 76Status: Constructed Concept CONCEPT OF THE ARCHITECT The new headquarters for China Central Television, OMA’s largest project to date, combines the entire process of TV-making (administration, production, broadcasting) into a single loop IMAGES of interconnected activity. Rising from a common platform 1. Distribution of the program accommodating production facilities, two towers (one for 2. The morphology of the building allows the program to have a visitors loop with corresponding renders broadcasting, one for services, research, and education) lean 3. Regular diagrid; colours indicate the amount of stress distribution 4. Generative designed structure grid with equally dimensioned beams towards each other and eventually merge in a dramatic, almost 5. Structural set up of the towers impossible cantilever. 6. Structural set up of the 37th and 38th floor 7. Construction order 8. Building overview CCTV’s distinctive loop offers an alternative to the commonly known 9. Picture of the facade 10. Facade set up typology of the skyscraper. Instead of competing in the race for ultimate height and style within the traditional two-dimensional SOURCES skyward tower, CCTV creates a three-dimensional experience, that Architecture and Urbanism, July 2005 Special Issue, CCTV by OMA symbolically tries to embraces the entire city. http://oma.eu/projects/2002/cctv-%E2%80%93-head- quarters http://www.arupinbeijing.com/arup_projects/china_central_television_headquarters/overview/ The loop also facilitates public access to the production of China’s media: visitors will be allowed in to a internal path circulating through the building, connecting all elements of the program and offering spectacular views from the multiple facades towards the Central Business District, the Forbidden City, and the rest of Beijing. EVOLUTIONARY ABOUT THE CONCEPT The unusual shape of the building asked for a different structural approach than the conventional way. The large overhang could be realised because the outer shell consists diagonal beams and lets the entire building functions as one stiff tube-structure. Instead of covering the facade with large trusses and overdimensioned beams, EXTRA TEXT EXPLANATION engineers used computer generative design based on algorithmes to come up with a structure that directly expresses the stress The tube system made the actual construction of the building possible. On its intensity. own the leaning towers had enough stiffness to be constructed first and later on suits the construction of the overhang link, which cantilever from the towers in The overhang floors have a regular grid of internal colomns, which the temporary situation. are supported by two storey transfer trusses on the 37th and 38th floor. These trusses span between the tube faces and provide a The flow of forces which is expressed in the structure is also visable in the face of space-frame like arrangement for the tip of the overhang. the building. But not the entire structure can be seen from the outside, because only the diagonals of the structure are copied to the facade. U-shaped beams are placed in front of the larger structure on the inside with conventional rectangular 8 CHINA CENTRAL TELEVISION HEADQUARTERS
  9. 9. KANCHANJUNGA APT.Bombay, India, 1970-1983Architect: Charles CorreaClient: -Plot Area: 2900m2Building Footprint: 432 m2Gross Floor Area: 5,260 m2Height: 84 mCost $ Unknown -Lifts: 3 + 1Status: Constructed Concept CONCEPT OF THE ARCHITECT The Tower is one of the masterpieces of Indian architect, Charleas Correa. Kanchanjunga Apartments is a 28 story height high end residential building built in Bombay, 1983. It was clear that the architect has reference to Lecorbusier’s crossover units in Unit habitation in Marseilles in 1952. Correa planned the 3 and 4 bedroom units interlocking with 5 and 6 bedroom units. 3-4 bedroom units occupies on and half level, and 5-6 bedroom units occupies two and half levels. There are small level displacement within the units to differenciate outdoor terrace and indoor living space, dining room and bedrooms and so on. These change of levels hide the living and bed rooms from the heat of sun and rains, while the big opening of balcony could get as much day light as possible. The whole building structure is built by reinforced concrete. The open terrace part is a 6m deep cantilever structure. Central core with lifts and shafts and building services so it also provide central stability element for lateral loads. The appearance of the building has strong resemblance of modern western building design. Especially the white plain surface with concrete construction. But the apartment design is an interperation of traditional Indian bungalow with verandah which is a main part of living area of indian family. The tower is 21m square on plan, and 1:4 proportion on elevation, 84m height. It has a plain facade surface, with cut away to open up double height balcony. EXTRA TEXT EXPLANATION EVOLUTIONARY ABOUT THE CONCEPT The building is oriented in east- west direction to catch the natural The tower design reinterperated the traditional wind from the sea and also this living style of indian with modern architecture. IMAGES direction has best view from city And it is succesfully merged with environmential 1. Partial Section of two apartments to the sea. But this face is also most consideration, and social needs in this tower. Correa’s 2. view from east side heat up surface by the sun. The old 3. Sectional perspective of environmential considera- tion strong design signiture of sectional displacement 4. Diagrams of spacial organizatiion and units inter- locking bungalows solved this problem by where appropriate by changes in floor surface is 5. Terrace photo from outside warpping a thick layer of around 6. Terrace photo from inside most elaborated in this project. The complexity of living area verandas to protect internal spacial organization to create level changes SOURCES from heay monsoon rain and sun and interlocking four types of units was pushed to an http://identityhousing.wordpress.com/2009/12/03/charles-correa- heat. Kanchanjuna Apartment is extreme in this project.. kanchanjunga-apartments-cumballa-hill-mumbai-1970-1983/ housing-in- applying this concept into the barcelona-made-with-100-recyclable-materials/ apartment design. http://architectureyp.blogspot.com/2011/05/kanchanjunga-apart- ments.KANCHANJUNGA APARTMENT 9
  10. 10. AL BAHR TOWERSAbu Dhabi, United Emirates, 2012Architect: Aedas R&DClient: Abu Dhabi Investment CouncilPlot Area: 11.500 m2Building Footprint: 1.960 m2Gross Floor Area: 32.000 m2Height: 150 mCost US$: 245 millionLifts: 25Status: Constructed Concept CONCEPT OF THE ARCHITECT In Abu Dhabi, it is a neverending battle against the suns heat, mostly with airconditioning. The temperatures in July and August can reach till 48 degrees Celcius. Because of that reason, the Al Bahr towers got a unique second skin facade. The north side of the second skin is open because it never sees the sun. The design is a new twist on an old Islamic tradition. It is inspired by Islamic patterns, called a `mashrabiya’, which protects the most exposed parts of the building. In history, the mashrabiya was also used to produce shade. This modern mashrabiya has been conceived as a dynamic façade which will open and close in response to the sun’s path, it will significantly reduce the solar heat gain and providing a more comfortable internal environment. By using the data of the sun’s path, it was possible to let the ‘umbrella’s’ respond to the path of the sun. The frame of the mashrabiya components is a combination of aluminium and duplex stainless steel. It gives a high resistance against corosion, that is because the building is near the sea. The mash is made out of fyberglass, coated with a teflon based material. IMAGES Most elements are 6 x 4 meters and weights more than 600 kilogram. 1. Traditional mashrabiya 2. Closed facade The mash wraps the whole building, only tq, north side is open because it will never 3. 4. Open facade Section of the double facade see the sun. The south facing roofs of each tower incorpo-rate photo-voltaic cells, 5. Impression by night generating approxi-mately five percent of the total required energy from renewable 6. 7. Floorplan in 3D The second skin is open at the north side energy sources. SOURCES http://www.aedas.com/ADIC-Headquarters http://aedasresearch.com/features/ EVOLUTIONARY ABOUT THE CONCEPT view/all/project/al-bahr-towers-cdr http://www.ameinfo.com/218427.html The Masharabiya shading system — based on a traditional Arabic shading work — is http://blog.punjabilokvirsa.com/2010/07/adic-head-quarters-in-abu-dhabi/ the main concept of the winning competition. The 1000 facade panels response to http://www.hitachi.com/New sun exposure and changing incidence angles during the different days of the year. The http://www.preconstruct.com/newsblog/index. php/2011/08/03/al-bahr-towers- second skin is saving on energy consumption and carbon emissions, it reduces the by-aedas-and-arup-uses-brilliant-dynamic-shading-system/ cooling load by over 20 percent. The windows in the first facade don’t have to be heavily http://www.skyscraperlist.com/showthread.php?82-ADIC-HEADQUARTERS-%7C- tinted, so the light transmission is up to 40 % better than in comparable buildings in Abu 150m-x2-%7C-25f1- x2-%7C-Com-(AL-BAHR-TOWERS-) Dhabi. 10 AL BAHR TOWERS
  11. 11. HONG KONG BANK (HSBC)Hong Kong, 1985Architect: Lord Norman Foster and PartnersClient: Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC)Plot Area: -Building Footprint: -Gross Floor Area: 99000 m2Height: 179 mCost US$: 5.2 billionLifts: 10Status: Constructed Concept CONCEPT OF THE ARCHITECT Fosters first sketches of the design for a new bank building, which needed to be constructed on a site of limited size, and phased in order for banking to continue in the old building during construction, resemble in a large part the final design. The main themes in the design were: reflecting the essence of Hong Kong, high IMAGES rise but also to maintain the human scale. Therefore, the building reached the, at that time, existing maximum building height in Hong Kong, at 180m. However, 1. Preliminary design sketch, of bridge-like construction above the old building. soon after the opening of the Hong Kong Bank building, the maximum building 2. Axonometric drawing of the floors, trusses and supporting height was raised, and the Bank of China Tower, built soon after, reached much structure. 3. More detailed drawing of the hanging floors system. higher. 4. Seawater pipes in tunnel under the building; the seawater, pumped from and back to the bay, is used for cooling and toilets. 5. Section of the building showing the voids in the EVOLUTIONARY ABOUT THE CONCEPT construction (white) and the “sunscoop”, letting light into the atrium. 6. A service module, prefab, being lifted into place to be Very revolutionary is the fact that bridge building techniques have been used fixed to one of the main columns. 7. Picture of the large wind supports between the main in the construction of this skyscraper. Eight large tubular steel columns on two columns. sides of the building, braced by rectangular beams, act as bridge supports, with 8. Sketch of the lobby with atrium above. the floors suspended from them. This allows for very free floor plans with ample SOURCES floor area lost to columns. Services are also located in and around the concrete Bennet, D., Skyscrapers, form and function, 1995, Simon and columns. The floors are built up of sheet metal topped with reinforced concrete. Schuster Publishers, New YorkHONG KONG BANK (HSBC) 11
  12. 12. LINKED HYBRIDBeijing, China, 2007Architect: Steven Holl ArchitectsClient: Modern Investment Group, BeijingPlot Area: 61.800 m2Building Footprint: 15.500 m2Gross Floor Area: 221.000 m2Height: 68 mCost US$: UnknownLifts: 34Status: Constructed Concept CONCEPT OF THE ARCHITECT Linked Hybrid projects a renewed thinking about the public space within large scale high rise projects. Holl shows us in this project how his ideal vertical city should work. It is his ideal city within a city. The horizontal traditional urban structure, continuous plinth with services, is combined with the vertical city, disrupted plinth. Living is combined with commercial program in various towers. The commercial program is located in the plinth and living above. An ‘urban’ ring of commercial and cultural public activities link the towers on the twentieth floor. This skyhigh public space provides a cinematc experience of the whole complex and the city surrounding it. A big variation of urban functions are located in this ring, for example: a swimmingpool, a fitness centre, a nail and hair studio, an architecture office, galeries, bars, theesaloons and stores (more info on page 3). To prevent the city within a city to become an isolated island, Holl introduces the term urban porosity. He connects his ideal city with it’s context by attracting people to the centre of linked hybrid. Urban space is enclosed in the heart of the project. On street level pedestrians are able to EXTRA TEXT EXPLANATION move in and out the project. Three different public entrances connect the skyring with the These two themes, ‘city within a city’ and ‘urban porosity’ are also the basis public space on ground floor. These entrances (coloured red in the for Holl’s second big housing project in China, the sliced urban porosity floor plan above) each offer a different variety of pro- gram. One block. area for health and sportcentre, one area for recreational program opened through the day and one area for restaurants openede during night. The entrance to the restaurant is located next to the EVOLUTIONARY ABOUT THE CONCEPT acces to the cinema within the heart of the project. The ensemble of high rise towers instead of the vertical tower pinned in the city projects a new way of thinking about high rise architecture. FUNCTIONS IN THE RING The public space in heart of the large plot area connected with the highly 1. reading room 15. office, locker rooms accesible program in the skyring makes a unique contribution to the public 2. design/book store 16. lane lap pool life in the city. 3. architecture gallery 17. suspended catwalk 4. sculpture gallery 18. spa/massage 5. art gallery 19. meetin place 6. viewing platform 20. viewing platform IMAGES 7. dinning deck 21. hair/nail salon 1. interwoven vertical and horizontal structure public vs private concept 8. ultra lounge 22. health food store 2. core that attracts publc life 3. poetic idea of conected bodies (Matisse, la dance, 1909) 9. bar/cocktail 23. tea seating 4. linked bodies after construction 10. listening lounge 24. tea store/gaming place SOURCES 11. fitness 25. coffee shop 12. juicebar 26. café seating A+T hybrids 1 13. group axcersice space 27. book event space 14. spinning room 28. book store 12 LINKED HYBRID

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