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Silicates And Carbonates

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Silicates And Carbonates

  1. 1. Mineral
Groups
‐
Silicates
and
 Carbonates

 Earth
Science
–
2nd
Semester

  2. 2. •  Minerals
can
be
 classified
into
groups
 based
on
their
 composi;on.

  3. 3. Silicates
 •  The
two
most
abundant
 minerals
in
earth’s
 con6nental
crust
are
 silicon
and
oxygen.
 •  These
two
elements
 combine
to
form
a
new
 structure
called
the
 silicon
–oxygen
 tetrahedron.

  4. 4. •  The
tetrahedron
 consists
of
one
silicon
 atom
and
four
oxygen
 atoms.

 •  It
provides
the
 framework
for
every
 silicate
mineral,


  5. 5. Ex.
Quartz.

  6. 6. •  The
internal
structure
 of
the
atoms
will
affect
 the
proper6es
of
the
 atom.
 •  Example:

Olivine
–
very
 hard
mineral,
made
 from
millions
of
 tetrahedron
bonded
 together.

  7. 7. •  Mica
–
the
tetrahedron
join
together
to
form
 sheets.

  8. 8. •  Quartz
–
Formed
by
 three‐dimensional
 networks
of
 tetrahedron


  9. 9. •  Silicate
minerals
crystallize
from
magma
as
it
cools.
 •  The
type
of
mineral
that
forms
is
a
result
of
the
 pressure
and
temperature
of
the
environment
of
 forma;on.

  10. 10. •  Example:
Olivine
will
crystallize
at
temperatures
of
 about
1200
°C,
under
great
pressure
below
the
 surface.

 •  Quartz
will
crystallize
at
700
°C
close
to
the
surface.

  11. 11. •  Silicate
minerals
such
as
clay
minerals
can
form
at
 the
surface
when
exposed
to
the
elements
and
 broken
down,
a
process
known
as
weathering.

  12. 12. •  Some
silicate
minerals
 only
form
from
the
 pressure
caused
by
 tectonic
plates
grinding
 together
to
build
 mountains.

  13. 13. •  Geologists
oSen
use
 silicate
minerals
as
 evidence
to
tell
them
 under
what
condi;ons
 the
mineral
formed
 under.

 •  This
in
turn
can
help
 geologists
to
determine
 how
the
planet
looked
 millions
of
years
ago.

  14. 14. Carbonates
 •  Second
most
common
 mineral
group.
 •  These
are
minerals
that
 contain
the
elements
 carbon,
oxygen,
and
 one
or
more
metallic
 elements.

  15. 15. •  Ex.
calcite

 •  Dolomite
–
magnesium
 and
calcium

  16. 16. •  These
minerals
are
 found
in
the
rocks
 limestone
and
marble,
 which
are
used
heavily
 in
construc;on
and
 building.


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