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  • Maternity Blues is not a psychiatric illness but a frequently experienced physiological event for most new mothers. It requires no clinical intervention and usually resolves within 2 weeks of birth. If present it does increase the risk of Postpartum Depression. Adjustment Disorder defines a mother who is experiencing a greater than normal adjustment that would be expected for a new mother. These women can benefit from short term therapy focused on education, support, skills training and family interventions. The exact incidence is unclear as many women who experience this condition will not seek clinical attention of any type. The onset of Postpartum Depression according to DSM IV is within four weeks. However clinical experience seems to indicate that the onset frequently occurs within 3 months but may present up to a year after the birth of the child. Many factors can contribute to the delay in the clinical identification of this disorder. Key factors may include denial of illness, shame and stigma, intermittent and fluctuating course of the disorder. Postpartum psychosis is rare and occurs with an incidence of one to three per thousand life births. It is a medical emergency usually requiring hospitalization and should be under the care of a psychiatrist. Although infanticide is a rare phenomenon in postpartum disorders, women with postpartum psychosis are at the highest risk. Finally postpartum mania can also present with or without psychotic features and may also require intensive treatment and hospitalization.
  • Among high and moderate risk factors for postpartum mood disorders most notable is any history of psychiatric illness, before or during the pregnancy. Anxiety, including panic attacks, obsessive compulsive symptoms and general fearfulness very frequently accompany or are markers of depressive episodes. Substance abuse is a red flag for other co-morbid conditions, which the patient may be “self medicating.” The other most significant risk conditions concern lack of social support systems, which include the family of origin and marital relationship, and finally severe life stresses occurring during pregnancy. Less predictive as a risk factor is lower socioeconomic status.
  • The perception of being not supported can be a central issue in a depressed post partum mother, even if the facts do not support her perception. In the case where multiple generations of relatively recent immigrants are living in a community, the extent of acculturation across generations may pose conflicts to the new mother who wishes either to reject or restrict cultural practices related to pregnancy and new motherhood. Ex: types of foods, level of activity etc. In our increasingly mobile society, new mothers may find themselves far away from family and friends and the isolating aspects of pregnancy have not given sufficient opportunity to create new friendships. When geographic or social circumstances already isolate a mother her relationship with her partner becomes even more important. If difficulties are present, the isolation can be profound. Very young or older mothers may find themselves in the position of lacking social support or identification with others in their age group. For example, an adolescent mother may feel more isolated and resentful as her friends continue to enjoy their youth and freedom without such responsibilities. An older mother may find she has little in common with mothers in their twenties and early thirties because her birth story and life circumstances are different, while women her age may have already passed through the motherhood experience. Within an isolated environment, the ability to put ones mood and feelings into proper context or perspective is difficult. Feelings of being totally cut off from the world and fear that depressive feelings will be harshly judged can prevent a new mother from seeking appropriate support. Most important, perhaps, is the esteem in which a woman holds herself. Self-esteem and sexuality may be severely damaged by abuse, especially sexual abuse, which must be inquired about, as shame and pain may hinder spontaneous revelation.
  • Factors that were not found to increase risk include age beyond 18, how educated a woman was, how many previous children she had, how long she had been with her current partner and the sex of the newborn. The implications are that postpartum depression can occur to women of all age, that low education is not a risk factor but neither is high education protective, and that postpartum depression can occur unrelated to the length of the relationship to the partner. In addition, postpartum depression can occur for the first time in any pregnancy and further, that a history of no depression following previous births does not necessarily protect a woman from having a depression following a future pregnancy.
  • When examining the potential effects of postpartum mood disorders, we can identify three areas of concern: Effects on The Mother/Infant Relationship Effects on Child Development Effects on the Partner Relationship
  • The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale has been developed to assist primary care health professionals to detect mothers suffering from postnatal depression; a distressing disorder more prolonged than the "blues" (which occur in the first week after delivery) but less severe than puerperal psychosis. Previous studies have shown that postnatal depression affects at least 10% of women and that many depressed mothers remain untreated. These mothers may cope with their baby and with household tasks, but their enjoyment of life is seriously affected and it is possible that there are long-term effects on the family. The EPDS was developed at health centers in Livingston and Edinburgh. It consists of ten short statements. The mother underlines which of the four possible responses is closest to how she has been feeling during the past week. Most mothers complete the scale without difficulty in less than 5 minutes. The validation study showed that mothers who scored above threshold 92.3% were likely to be suffering from a depressive illness of varying severity. Nevertheless, the EPDS score should not override clinical judgment. A careful clinical assessment should be carried out to confirm the diagnosis. The scale indicates how the mother has felt during the previous week and in doubtful cases, it may be usefully repeated after 2 weeks. The scale will not detect mothers with anxiety neuroses, phobias or personality disorder.
  • The Edinburgh was developed specifically to identify significant depressive symptoms among and new mothers. The Edinburgh is widely used, easy to use, and has cross cultural validity. As you can see, it is short (only 10 items) and can be filled out by the mother. The tool’s self-administered nature helps ensure that the results are accurate, as the mother may be more honest filling out the tool by herself rather than having someone asking her the questions. If that were the case, she may just continue to say that she is “fine.” This may also occur if partners or family members accompany the mother to the visit and therefore it is important to have her fill out the screen alone whenever possible. This may mean staff will need to engage family members out of the room briefly. It also has good sensitivity (93-100%) and specificity (78-90%). So this means it can correctly identify over 90% of the mothers who may be experiencing depression, and do nearly as well at excluding those patients who don’t need referral or follow-up. In addition, the tool is available in many languages.
  • To interpret the results, you will look at the total score, the maximum of which is 30. Possible depression would be indicated by a score of 10 or greater. It is important to not just look at the total score, however. Rather, make sure you look at each question and see if there is one (or more) which may indicate an area of concern. Even if the total score does not indicate possible depression, you will want to ask the mother about the specific item in which there was a high score. Use this as a way to talk to the mother. For example, you may say, “I noticed that you marked that you have been crying most of the time. Sometimes people cry for because they feel alone or unsupported. Sometimes they cry because they are feeling overwhelmed by the process of being a new parent. Sometimes people cry because things aren’t going the way they expected them to. What is this like for you?”
  • This is not a diagnostic tool, but rather a screening tool. Refer the patient should a score of more than 1 be identified. A positive answer to question 10 on the Edinburgh means that the woman is at risk for PPD. Implications of score on question 10, self harm. Health professionals without mental health qualifications who administer the scale often worry about positive scores on item 10 of the EPDS. The majority of women with a small infant are unlikely to act on suicidal feelings. There is little published evidence linking suicidal ideation and risk with response to item 10 on the EPDS. However, there is a strong correlation regarding thoughts of self harm and might be more difficult for a health professional to recognize. A positive score on item 10 should be taken seriously and action should be taken immediately. If the mother answers positively to question 10, you need to assess the severity of the situation and ask the following questions: Severity How often and how severe is the feeling? Has she made any previous attempts to harm herself or her baby? What is she looking forward to? Does she have a good support system who can help her see the positive factors in her life? Plan Has she thought about how she will go about it? (Does she have a plan?) Has she got the means? (And are these likely to be effective?) Support System What support does she have at home? If she has a partner, has she told him how she is feeling? Can she count on him to understand and give her emotional support? If she hasn’t told him, would she like someone at the office or her doctor to help her to explain how she is feeling? If she doesn’t have a partner or feels that she really can’t tell him, is there anyone else who would be understanding (and not judgmental) and whose support she could realistically call on? Has she told this person or anyone else about her feelings? Could she phone this person and would they come if she feels bad? Do her parents know? (Is she close to them?) The questions should be asked in a supportive way encouraging the mother to tell her own story in her way. If mother has a plan to hurt self or baby or is unable to answer questions satisfactorily she must not be left alone and should be accompanied to the nearest ER or Mental Health practitioner’s office.
  • We often see young women who have had life long mood disorders who come into treatment because those mood disorders have become unmanageable usually because of increased stressors. These women have been functional, even highly competent throughout their life. Self report instruments can yield inaccurate results when masking symptoms has become a part of their overall functioning. Such patients can slip through the cracks. When administering a self-report, it may be prudent to have a staff member conduct the interview or review the findings with the person, as some encouragement may be needed to express a level of discomfort that a person has either learned to live with or is hesitant to admit. In addition, if a pregnant woman has had previous experience post partum illness necessitating the involvement of community agencies, she may be loathe to repeat that experience for fear she may have her case reopened, lose the baby or have other children taken away, Such a woman may not be forthcoming in self-report or at interview. Lastly, we are all familiar with the motherhood myth that joyous expectation should be the prevailing mood. This discrepant assumption can isolate a woman who is not feeling this maternal joy and make her unwilling or unavailable to disclose her symptoms of depression.
  • Symposium slide presentation

    1. 1. Postpartum Depression: A Brief Overview
    2. 2. Objectives: <ul><li>Recognize the signs and symptoms of Perinatal Mood Disorders, especially PPD </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the effects of PPD on the mother, infant, family, and friends </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and access appropriate referral sources </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Postpartum Depression screening legislation in New Jersey, N.J.S.A. 26: 2-175 et seq., <ul><li>The legislation took effect on October 10, 2006 . </li></ul><ul><li>The act requires that : </li></ul><ul><li>health care professionals providing prenatal care will educate women and their families about Postpartum Depression (PPD) </li></ul><ul><li>all birthing facilities provide information and screening for PPD to departing new mothers and other family members </li></ul><ul><li>obstetricians, pediatricians, nurse midwives and nurses from private practices and clinics screen women within the first few postnatal check-up visits </li></ul>(Source: NJ Dept. of Health and Senior Services)
    4. 4. Postpartum Mood Disorders Maternity blues Adjustment Disorder Postpartum Depression Postpartum Psychosis/ Mania Disorder 26 to 85% About 20% 10 to 20% 0.2% Incidence Support and reassurance Support/reassurance psychotherapy Antidepressants, mood stabilizers & psychotherapy Hospitalization; antipsychotics; mood stabilizers; benzodiazepines; antidepressants; ECT Treatment 80% resolve by week 2; 20% evolve to PPD Excessive difficulties adjusting to motherhood Onset within 1 year Agitated Major depression often with obsessions. Onset after PP day 3. Mixed/rapid cycling. Risk of infanticide. Presentation
    5. 5. Could you have postpartum depression (PPD)? <ul><li>Have you recently been pregnant or had a baby? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you feel sad, anxious, or like you can’t handle things? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you thought about hurting yourself, your baby, or others? </li></ul>
    6. 6. If you answered yes, you are not alone… <ul><li>PPD affects between 11,000 and 16,000 women in New Jersey each year. </li></ul><ul><li>PPD is REAL. And there is REAL help for you. </li></ul><ul><li>PPD will not last forever and it can be treated. </li></ul>
    7. 7. What you need to know about PPD: <ul><li>Is pregnant </li></ul><ul><li>Recently had a baby </li></ul><ul><li>Had a miscarriage </li></ul><ul><li>Ended a pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Stopped breastfeeding </li></ul>PPD can affect any woman who:
    8. 8. Postpartum Depression Risk Factors <ul><li>Prenatal depression / history of depression </li></ul><ul><li>Prenatal anxiety / history of anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Experiencing stress in life </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden changes in home or work routines </li></ul><ul><li>Teen pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of social support </li></ul><ul><li>Socioeconomic factors </li></ul><ul><li>Complications during or after pregnancy </li></ul>
    9. 9. Social Isolation, Contributing Factor <ul><li>Woman perceives herself as not supported; has low self esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Family lives at a distance, physically unavailable or culturally in conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Cut off from friends </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship discord, including emotional or physical abuse; desertion of spouse or significant other </li></ul><ul><li>History of childhood sexual abuse </li></ul>Bulst & Janson, 2001 Crockenberg & Leerkes, 2003
    10. 10. Not Risk Factors <ul><li>Maternal age (beyond 18) </li></ul><ul><li>Level of education </li></ul><ul><li>Number of children </li></ul><ul><li>Length of relationship with partner </li></ul><ul><li>Gender of child </li></ul>Robertson, Grace, et al GenHospPsych 26(2004)289-295
    11. 11. Know the warning signs: <ul><li>Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling irritable, angry, nervous, or exhausted </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of interest in baby, friends and family </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling guilty, worthless, or hopeless </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings of being a bad mother </li></ul><ul><li>Low energy or trouble concentrating </li></ul><ul><li>Thoughts of hurting the baby, yourself, or others. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Postpartum Psychosis or Mania Common Symptoms <ul><li>Psychosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hallucinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorganized speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorganized behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms are typically related to the infant, often with a religious flavor </li></ul><ul><li>Marked lability of moods </li></ul><ul><li>Mania </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Euphoria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased need for sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More talkative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racing thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distractibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased involvement in activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive involvement in pleasurable but risky activities </li></ul></ul>Adapted from DSM IV-TR, Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.
    13. 13. Potential Effects Of Postpartum Mood Disorders <ul><li>Negative Mother/Infant Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed Child Development </li></ul><ul><li>Altered Partner Relationship </li></ul>
    14. 14. PPD affects the whole family… <ul><li>As a family member or friend, you may: </li></ul><ul><li>Feel confused or worried by mood changes in a woman who has had a baby or been pregnant. </li></ul><ul><li>You may even notice a change in behavior before she does. </li></ul><ul><li>You can help. Lend your patience and support to your loved ones in this difficult time. </li></ul><ul><li>However, if symptoms persist BEYOND TWO WEEKS, seek help… </li></ul>
    15. 15. Postpartum Depression Screening <ul><li>Postpartum Depression Screening is taking place, “prior to discharge from the birthing facility and at the first few postnatal checkup visits.” </li></ul><ul><li>A specific screening tool called the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale is the state recommended tool of choice. </li></ul><ul><li>This screening tool is to be administered by qualified healthcare professionals. </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Taken from the British Journal of Psychiatry </li></ul><ul><li>June, 1987, Vol. 150 by J.L. Cox, J.M. Holden, R. Sagovsky </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions </li></ul><ul><li>The mother is asked to underline the response that comes closest to how she has been feeling in the previous 7 days. </li></ul><ul><li>All ten items must be completed. </li></ul><ul><li>Care should be taken to avoid the possibility of the mother discussing her answers with others. </li></ul><ul><li>The mother should complete the scale herself, unless she has limited English or has difficulty with reading. </li></ul>Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale
    17. 17. Using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)
    18. 18. Guidelines for Evaluation: <ul><li>Response categories are scored 0, 1, 2, and 3 according to increased severity of the symptom. Questions 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 are reverse scored (i.e., 3, 2, 1, 0). </li></ul><ul><li>Individual items are totaled to give an overall score. A score of 10+ indicates the likelihood of depression, but not its severity. The EPDS Score is designed to assist, not replace, clinical judgment. Women should be further assessed before deciding on treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>This scale may be reproduced by users without further permission providing they respect copyright by quoting the names of the authors, the title and the source of the paper in all reproduced copies. </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>The thought of harming myself has occurred to me. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, quite often </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes </li></ul><ul><li>Hardly ever </li></ul><ul><li>Never </li></ul>Question 10
    20. 20. <ul><li>Inaccurate self-report </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Undiagnosed mood disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denial of illness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fear of involvement of child protection agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to mask symptoms especially if highly functional </li></ul><ul><li>Motherhood myth </li></ul>False Negatives Despite Screening
    21. 21. Family & Friends: How you can help… <ul><li>Help with daily activities before she asks </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage her to be open about her feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Be alert to signs of depression </li></ul><ul><li>Be patient and supportive </li></ul><ul><li>Help care for the baby </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage the mother to visit a doctor </li></ul><ul><li>Create a safe, loving, and accepting environment </li></ul>
    22. 22. How You Can Help: <ul><li>Learn more, visit the website: www.njspeakup.gov </li></ul><ul><li>Use the 1-800 # line: 1-800-328-3838 </li></ul><ul><li>Provide educational brochures to moms & family members </li></ul><ul><li>Provide info about resources available in NJ as well as in Monmouth & Ocean Counties </li></ul><ul><li>Refer mom to a self-help support group </li></ul><ul><li>Consider establishing a support group through your organization </li></ul>
    23. 23. 1-800-328-3838……. How It Works <ul><li>The 1-800-328-3838 is available for anyone to call who wants information or who wants to speak to a clinician </li></ul><ul><li>The potential benefit of a referral through the NJDHSS 800#/UBHC(University Behavioral Health Care) process: </li></ul><ul><li>Will be referred for emergent clinical response to the Screening Center in the county where the client resides. </li></ul><ul><li>The client will potentially be seen in 5 business days </li></ul><ul><li>A client who is uninsured or underinsured can be covered up to 12 visits under this PPD clinical services program </li></ul><ul><li>A client’s primary health insurance will be taken into account when clinical services are being arranged </li></ul>
    24. 24. The Medication Question: To nurse or not to nurse? <ul><li>Nursing is a totally personal choice; one that should be respected regardless if the mother chooses to nurse or not. </li></ul><ul><li>Should medication be needed to treat PPD, one should understand that it is NOT 100% necessary to stop nursing one’s baby if mom is medicated. There are acceptable medications that can be used and practices that can be modified. </li></ul><ul><li>However, should the mother decide that she wants to stop nursing, she needs to be supported with this decision and not be made to feel guilty. </li></ul>
    25. 25. You can feel better! <ul><li>PPD is no one’s fault and will not last forever. </li></ul><ul><li>No matter how bad you feel today, there is hope for a brighter tomorrow. </li></ul><ul><li>You can beat the symptoms of PPD. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment can help…But you have to speak up when you’re down! </li></ul>

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