IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)


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By Rajesh Barnabas

For Social Foundations of Education
Edts Hybrid Program
Nazareth College
School of Education

Sandra Mancuso

November 25, 2008

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
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IDEA 1986 (P.L. 99-457)

  1. 1. the Education of the Handicapped Amendments of 1986 Public Law 99-457* <ul><li>Also referred to as: Part H prior to 1994 IDEA reauthorization, and Part C post 1994. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Summary <ul><li>Congress enacted and President Reagan signed into law on October 8, 1986, P.L. 99-457, the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments. These amendments reauthorize the Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA) and include a rigorous national agenda pertaining to more and better services to young special needs children and their families. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Table of Contents <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>The Population To Be Served </li></ul><ul><li>Who Diagnoses a Disability? </li></ul><ul><li>Controversy Over Defining a Disability </li></ul><ul><li>Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation Obstacles </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  4. 4. Background <ul><li>Benefits of early intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses gaps in EAHCA of 1975. </li></ul><ul><li>Congressional response and goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul>
  5. 5. Research and Benefits of Early Intervention <ul><li>The mental, physical and emotional health of the very young child is the foundation for all further development. </li></ul><ul><li>Research, along with programs such as Head Start, have proven that early intervention is effective. </li></ul><ul><li>Research indicates that support and services to disabled children and families will have the following effect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The child’s development will not be as delayed as it would be if left unattended until age 6 or older. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The stress for the family of having a handicapped child is lessened and they are able to function more productively. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of these results, children and families are more able to contribute to their community. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Because of these results, early intervention can prevent the need for many costly services later in life. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Addressing Gaps in P.L. 94-142 <ul><li>P.L. 94-12, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, created a “right to education” for handicapped children between ages six and eighteen. </li></ul><ul><li>Along with that Act, Congress created the Preschool Incentive Grant, which instead of mandating that states serve children below the ages of six, it provided a money incentive. </li></ul><ul><li>P.L. 99-457 included a new Preschool Grant Program which was a mandate rather than an incentive and provided three times the funding for 3-5 year-olds. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Congressional Response and Goals <ul><li>P.L. 99-457 states: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Congress finds that there is an urgent and substantial need: </li></ul><ul><li>To enhance the development of handicapped infants and toddlers and to minimize their potential for development delay. </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce educational costs to our society, including our nation’s schools, by minimizing the need for special education and related services after [they] reach school age. </li></ul><ul><li>To minimize the likelihood of institutionalization of handicapped individuals and maximize the potential for their independent living in society. </li></ul><ul><li>To enhance the capacity of families to meet the special needs of their infants and toddlers with handicaps. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Funding
  9. 9. The Population To Be Served <ul><li>P.L. 99-457 states that “handicapped infants and toddlers” are individuals from birth to age 2, inclusive, who need early intervention services because they: </li></ul><ul><li>are experiencing developmental delays, as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments in one or more of the following areas: </li></ul><ul><li>cognitive development </li></ul><ul><li>physical development </li></ul><ul><li>language and speech development </li></ul><ul><li>psychosocial development </li></ul><ul><li>self-help skills </li></ul><ul><li>b) Have a diagnosed physical or mental condition which has a high probability of resulting in developmental delay. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Who Diagnoses a Disability? <ul><li>It is a multidisciplinary evaluation that will be taken by either a; </li></ul><ul><li>a) psychiatrist </li></ul><ul><li>b) school psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>c) other mental health professional </li></ul><ul><li>The evaluation will vary from one situation, school to another and from urban to suburb to rural systems. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Controversy of Defining a Disability <ul><li>The science of diagnosing mental and emotional disorders in children under three is at its developing stages. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Labeling” young children is often viewed as discriminatory. </li></ul>
  12. 12. P.L. 99-457 Programs <ul><li>Preschool Grant Program (3-5 year-olds) </li></ul><ul><li>Handicapped Infant and Toddlers Program </li></ul><ul><li>Individualized Family Service Plan(IFSP)* </li></ul><ul><li>- These plans require that families participate in defining the child's intervention program. </li></ul><ul><li>* This is the centerpiece of Part C of IDEA. </li></ul><ul><li>Early intervention services may include: </li></ul><ul><li>-family training -case management services </li></ul><ul><li>-counseling -medical(diagnostic/evaluative) </li></ul><ul><li>-home visits -health services </li></ul><ul><li>-speech pathology -social work services </li></ul><ul><li>-occupational therapy -vision services </li></ul><ul><li>-physical therapy -assistive technology devices </li></ul><ul><li>-psychological services -transportation </li></ul>
  13. 13. Implementation <ul><li>Public awareness campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Federal funding </li></ul><ul><li>States determine eligibility definitions and standards for program. </li></ul><ul><li>Mandates participating states to develop statewide interagency programs of early intervention services for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families. </li></ul><ul><li>Calls for Identifying an agency in each State responsible for implementing P.L 99-457 . </li></ul>
  14. 14. Implementation Obstacles <ul><li>Fragmentation of services. </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate resources for referral and coordination. </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of common vocabulary among personnel of different disciplines and agencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery inflexibility to accommodate the schedules of working families. </li></ul>
  15. 15. References <ul><li>Schrag, Emily. Sensitivities, Skills, and Services: Mental Health Roles in the Implementation of Part H PL 99-457 the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1986. An Issue Paper. (1988) </li></ul><ul><li>http: //eric .ed. gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet ? accno=ED300990 </li></ul><ul><li>Martin, EW., Martin, R., & Terman, DL. The Legislative and Litigation History of Special Education, The Future of Children, (1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Katsiyannis, Antonis, Yell, Mitchell L., & Bradle, Renee. Reflections on the 25th anniversary of the individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Remedial and Special Education; Nov/Dec 2001; 22, 6; Research Library, pg. 324. </li></ul><ul><li>Photo references </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. flickr .com/photos/shutterhack/2328014257/sizes/o/ </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  16. 16. Created by Rajesh Barnabas [email_address]