Solar Energy-DSSC technology


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Dye sensitised solar cell-how it works & its comparison with other types of solar cell

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Solar Energy-DSSC technology

  1. 1. Clean Solar Energy DSSC Technology PRUTHIRAJ SWAIN 12PS21F
  2. 2. Outline Introduction(Present Scenario in India) Background on Solar Light Types of Solar cell How a Silicon-Based Solar Cell Works How a Dye-Sensitized Cell Works Comparison Summary
  3. 3. Introduction : Energy-starved India is becoming a vibrant market for renewable energy. This bodes well for a country that has often seen its industrial and economic growth inhibited by a truncated supply of conventional power. Currently faces energy shortage of 8 % & a peak demand shortage of 11.6 %. In order to sustain a growth rate of 8 %, it is estimated that the power generation capacity in India would have to increase to 306 GW in the next 10 years which is 1.7 times current levels. Grid-connected renewable power accounts for as much as 20.2 GW – or 11% – of Indias 182.3 GW of installed power capacity. ◦ The majority share (55% or 99.8 GW ) – by coal-based thermal power. ◦ Gas-fired thermal power, (10% or 17.7 GW), ◦ Hydropower (21% or 38.7 GW) and nuclear 2.6% with 4780 MW. ◦ India just had 2.12 megawatts of grid-connected solar generation capacity
  4. 4.  Under the 11th Five Year Plan (ended March 2012), Only 52 GW of the 78.6 GW originally envisaged has been added,. The 10th Plan (2002-07) only saw a meagre 21.2 GW capacity added, against a target of 41.1 GW. The 12th Plan (2012-17) now aims for a capacity addition of 103.3 GW which includes commensurate transmission and distribution capacities. Clean energy investments in India reached a record US$10.3bn in 2011, up 52% from the US$6.8bn invested in 2010 .This was the highest growth figure of any significant economy in the world, with the country accounting for 4% of global investments in clean energy. The large growth was driven by a 7-fold increase in funding for grid-connected solar projects. Solar photovoltaic (PV) power plants totalling over 180 MW were set up in the country and off-grid installations of over 50 MW were completed as well.
  5. 5. What is Solar Energy? Energy produced by the Sun Conversion of Sunlight into usable energy such as electricity and heat. ◦ Clean(No green house gases), ◦ renewable source of energy, ◦ Decentralization of power Photovoltaic (solar) panel ◦ Saving eco-systems and livelihoods. Harnessed by solar collection methods such as solar cells & Concentrators Conversion of Sunlight into usable energy such as electricity and heat. Set of solar panels
  6. 6. Energy from the Sun is Abundant Solar power systems installed in the areas defined by the darkdisks could meet the worlds current Total energy demand
  7. 7. Solar Panel Use Today Solar panels being tested on WalMart store Solar panels on Microsoft building
  8. 8. Photovoltaic Solar Cells Generate electricity directly from sunlight 2 Main types:– Single-crystal silicon Silicon Based Solar Cell (traditional) Widespread Expensive to manufacture– Dye-sensitized (“nano”) Newer, less proven Inexpensive to manufacture Flexible Dye Sensitized Solar Cell
  9. 9. PV Technology Classification 1st Generation 2nd GenerationSilicon Crystalline Technology Thin Film Technology Mono Crystalline PV Cells Amorphous Silicon PV Cells Multi Crystalline PV Cells Poly Crystalline PV Cells ( Non-Silicon based)-CIS,CdTe
  10. 10. Solar Cells are Converters ofEnergy  Solar cells are devices that take light energy as input and convert it into electrical energy
  11. 11. A Little Background on LightDifferent colours of light have different wavelengths and different energies
  12. 12. Absorption of Light by Atoms Absorption occurs only when the energy of the light equals the energy of transition of an electronSingleelectrontransition inan isolatedatom
  13. 13. Absorption of Light by IonicCompounds  Electrons can jump between “bands”  Incident light with energy >= than the “band gap” energy can be used to excite the electrons
  14. 14. So What Does this Mean for SolarCells ? In dye-sensitized solar cells– Talk about highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital(LUMO) In single-crystal silicon solar cells– Talk about “conduction band” (excited states) and “valence band”(ground states)
  15. 15. How a Silicon-Based Solar CellWorks  Light with energy greater than the band gap energy of Si is absorbed  Energy is given to an electron in the crystal lattice.  The energy excites the electron; it is free to move.  A positive “hole" is left in the electron’s place.  This separation of electrons and holes creates a voltage and a current.
  16. 16. Silicon-Based Solar CellAttributes Expensive – Made in high vacuum at high heat – High manufacturing costs Need TLC – Fragile, rigid, thick Long return on investment – Takes 4 years to produce energy savings equivalent to cost of production
  17. 17. How a Dye-Sensitized Cell Works Light with high enough energy excites electrons in dye molecules Excited electrons infused into semiconducting TiO2, transported out of cell Positive “holes” left in dye molecules Separation of excited electrons and “holes” creates a voltage and hence current.
  18. 18. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Relatively inexpensive – Made in non-vacuum setting mainly at room temperature – Relatively simple manufacturing process Need little TLC – Thin, lightweight, flexible Short return on investment – Takes approx 3 months to produce energy savings equivalent to cost of production
  19. 19. Dye-Sensitized and Silicon-basedSolar Cells Compared  Dye-Sensitized  Traditional  Relatively  Expensive inexpensive – Need little TLC – Need TLC – Short return on – Long return on investment investment
  20. 20. Summary The DSSC has a number of attractive features. Although its conversion efficiency is less than the best thin-film cells, in theory its price/performance ratio should be good enough to allow them to compete with fossil fuel electrical generation by achieving grid parity. North-western University researchers announced a solution to a primary problem of DSSCs, short useful life of the device.. The current efficiency is about half that of silicon cells, but the cells are lightweight and potentially of much lower cost to produce.
  21. 21. Further ReadingKonarka Technologies (Graetzel cells) Power Resource Site DOE Photovoltaics Center for Photovoltaic Engineering Center for Photovoltaics
  22. 22.  Thank You!!!(for patient hearing)