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Network Analysis Methods forAssessment & Measurement              January 14, 2012              Patti Anklam              ...
Webinar GoalsShare current thinking about how network analysis is used in designing and evaluating nonprofit programsPro...
Network Thinking & Non-Profits
The Evolution of Network Thinking                                    4
What is Network Analysis?• Social network analysis (SNA) is a collection  of techniques, tools, and methods to map  and me...
Network Analysis: The Method in a Nutshell Step                       Activities/Tools Design                     Identif...
Survey Example                 7
Survey Example – Demographic Component                                         8
Survey Example – Affiliation Component                                         9
Survey Example – Network Questions                                     10
Network Questions Probe Relationships                                        11
Analyses Outputs: Map PatternsMulti-Hub              Hub and SpokeStove-piped (Siloed)   Core/Periphery                   ...
Quick View: What an Analysis Can Tell• Overall very well connected• One region distinctly  clustered with few  connects to...
Reasons for a Network Analysis: Examples1. Assessment, Planning, &   Weaving2. Measure changes over time3. Sense-making & ...
Assessment, Planning, & WeavingStrategic Purpose• Assess the network’s capacity for collaboration, information  transfer, ...
Assessment: Capacity for Collaboration    Current Funder Interaction Network                                              ...
Assessment: Affiliation NetworkStrategic Purpose• Identify potential  relationships among  people based on  shared events,...
Drill Down Into Affiliation Network• Identify people with  common interest –  basis for building  communities of  practice...
Measuring Changes Over Time                                                                                               ...
Analyses Outputs: MetricsOverall network metrics        Individual position metrics• Look at the whole network    • Look a...
How the Metrics Enhance the Maps                                                          2011Year   #     Density    Avg ...
Sense-Making & Emergence       • Barr Foundation Fellows Program            – See changes over time, but really to see how...
Sense-Making: New School Development in Boston       • An intentional network may                                         ...
Positioning: The Individual View                                   Node   Betweenness   Indegree   OutDegree              ...
Tracking Individuals’ ChangesI learned something from this person that made me a better leader. – 2009                    ...
Tracking Individuals’ ChangesI learned something from this person that made me a better leader. – 2011                    ...
Network Analysis & Measuring Outcomes
Summary – What We KnowWhat We Can Measure and Show in an Analysis:• Measure the cohesion of the network overall:  – High-l...
Things We Can Do With What We KnowWays to change patterns in               Practices from the KM/OD Repertoire   networksW...
Measurement Challenges• Maps area snapshot in time• Targets and thresholds  – How much cohesion is “enough?”    Is there a...
Questions?             31
• patti@pattianklam.com                       http://www.pattianklam.com             •claire@leadershiplearning.org       ...
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Network analysis methods for assessment & measurement

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Presentation slides for a webinar produced by the Leadership Learning Community. Full audio is available on their site, at http://www.leadershiplearning.org/blog/eleanor-cooney/2012-12-17/2013-webinar-network-analysis-snaona-methods-assessment-measurement

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Network analysis methods for assessment & measurement

  1. 1. Network Analysis Methods forAssessment & Measurement January 14, 2012 Patti Anklam With June Holley and Claire Reinelt
  2. 2. Webinar GoalsShare current thinking about how network analysis is used in designing and evaluating nonprofit programsProvide examples of network analysis used in assessment and measurement contextsStimulate thinking about correlating network analysis with measurement and evaluation outputs and outcomes 2
  3. 3. Network Thinking & Non-Profits
  4. 4. The Evolution of Network Thinking 4
  5. 5. What is Network Analysis?• Social network analysis (SNA) is a collection of techniques, tools, and methods to map and measure the relationships among people and organizations• Organizational network analysis (ONA) often refers to the use of SNA methods in the context of organization dynamics and development• In practice, we use these tools to map connections among people and ideas, issues, and other entities as well as the social and organizational connections 5
  6. 6. Network Analysis: The Method in a Nutshell Step Activities/Tools Design Identify boundaries Clarify and design questions Collect Data Surveys Interviews Facebook, LinkedIn Email logs Analyze data to generate (Netdraw/UCINET, NodeXL, Gephi … maps and metrics many others) Review data Validate; look for questions Prepare evaluation Match network results with context and stories Move into action Weaving & other interventions 6
  7. 7. Survey Example 7
  8. 8. Survey Example – Demographic Component 8
  9. 9. Survey Example – Affiliation Component 9
  10. 10. Survey Example – Network Questions 10
  11. 11. Network Questions Probe Relationships 11
  12. 12. Analyses Outputs: Map PatternsMulti-Hub Hub and SpokeStove-piped (Siloed) Core/Periphery 12
  13. 13. Quick View: What an Analysis Can Tell• Overall very well connected• One region distinctly clustered with few connects to other regions• Staff are highly central• Identification of key connectors 13
  14. 14. Reasons for a Network Analysis: Examples1. Assessment, Planning, & Weaving2. Measure changes over time3. Sense-making & story- finding4. Positioning and working with individuals in the network 14
  15. 15. Assessment, Planning, & WeavingStrategic Purpose• Assess the network’s capacity for collaboration, information transfer, innovation• Identify key individuals• Establish goals for enhancing connectivity• Create an action plan 15
  16. 16. Assessment: Capacity for Collaboration Current Funder Interaction Network Future Funder Interaction Network When funders indicate with whom they would like to work in the near future, the network becomes more robust. Funders are saying they want to work more together.Source: Transcending Boundaries: Strengthening Impact. The Full Potential of a Justice Network (Research & Network-Building Project Report,April 2011, Criminal Justice Funders Network). Courtesy of June Holley. 16
  17. 17. Assessment: Affiliation NetworkStrategic Purpose• Identify potential relationships among people based on shared events, meetings, ideas, or areas of expertise• Nonprofits use this to see which organizations “attach” to different ideas• Forms the basis for network weaving 17
  18. 18. Drill Down Into Affiliation Network• Identify people with common interest – basis for building communities of practice• See which people share interest in multiple issues or topics• A way for the network to reveal itself and have rich conversations 18
  19. 19. Measuring Changes Over Time Very Well Boston Green & Healthy Building Network Well Somewhat 2005 2007 24 9 32 1 24 9 32 1 31 3 31 18 7 3 18 6 7 6 25 25 33 28 4 33 28 4 26 26 8 29 17 8 29 2 17 2 11 12 11 12 23 16 27 23 16 27 10 19 10 19 21 21 15 15 13 13 34 14 34 14 30 30 5 20 22 5 20 22Source: Boston Green & Healthy Building Network, Beth Tener and Al Nierenberg, January 2008 Maps copyright © 2012 New Directions Collaborative 19
  20. 20. Analyses Outputs: MetricsOverall network metrics Individual position metrics• Look at the whole network • Look at positions of and its components: individuals in the network: – Overall cohesion – # of connections – Degrees of separation – Favorability of position• Good for comparing • Good for identifying groups within networks or people who are well for comparing changes in a positioned to influence the network over time network or to move information around 20
  21. 21. How the Metrics Enhance the Maps 2011Year # Density Avg # ties2009 55 2.2% 1.22010 90 2.7% 2.42011 85 5.3% 4.52012 82 8% 6.88 2010 2009 2012 21
  22. 22. Sense-Making & Emergence • Barr Foundation Fellows Program – See changes over time, but really to see how the network has supported emergence – Work to shift Barr staff from the center Pat BrandesSource: Networking a City, Marianne Hughes & Didi Goldenhar, Stanford Social Innovation Review, Summer 2012 22
  23. 23. Sense-Making: New School Development in Boston • An intentional network may “This person has helped me accomplish work-related tasks.” have no other purpose than to enable emergence • Maps that show the evolving relationships within a network help to identify powerful network storiesSource: Networking a City, Stanford Social Innovation Review, Summer 2012 23
  24. 24. Positioning: The Individual View Node Betweenness Indegree OutDegree 62 792.67 26 30 80 660.48 17 32• Centrality metrics 64 23 530.61 333.36 20 20 33 14 identify people with 71 321.42 21 20 56 316.42 20 18 the most ties (in- degree and out- degree)• Those positioned to move information around in the network or be in the know (betweenness)• Can identify people to lead task teams, to provide resources to, or to train as weavers 24
  25. 25. Tracking Individuals’ ChangesI learned something from this person that made me a better leader. – 2009 2005 2007 2008 2009 2010 25
  26. 26. Tracking Individuals’ ChangesI learned something from this person that made me a better leader. – 2011 26
  27. 27. Network Analysis & Measuring Outcomes
  28. 28. Summary – What We KnowWhat We Can Measure and Show in an Analysis:• Measure the cohesion of the network overall: – High-level structure (stove-piped, core/periphery, highly clustered) – Average degree of separation – Average number of connections each person has• Identify individuals by their centrality to the network: – Core or periphery? How do you bring people in from the outside? – Broker? Connector? Facilitator? Bottleneck? – Number and diversity of connections• See changes over time 28
  29. 29. Things We Can Do With What We KnowWays to change patterns in Practices from the KM/OD Repertoire networksWeaving. Create intentional Convene. Make introductions through meetings and webinars, face-to- connections face eventsIncrease the flow of knowledge Establish collaborative workspaces, install instant messaging systems, make existing knowledge bases more accessible and usable; implement social software or social network softwareCreate awareness Provide expertise directoriesConnect disconnected clusters Weave: establish knowledge brokering roles; expand communication channelsCreate more trusted relationships Assign people to work on projects togetherAlter the behavior of individual nodes Create awareness of the impact of an individual’s place in a network; foster network literacyIncrease diversity Add nodes; connect and create networks; encourage people to bring knowledge in from their networks in the world 29
  30. 30. Measurement Challenges• Maps area snapshot in time• Targets and thresholds – How much cohesion is “enough?” Is there a point at which increasing the number of ties makes the network less efficient? – Is it reasonable to set a target for the cohesion metric?• Tying Network Metrics to Outcomes – We have to think of the metrics as indicators and as correlates of Source: Dave Snowden, Cynefin Advanced Practitioner’s Course December 2012 other survey questions 30
  31. 31. Questions? 31
  32. 32. • patti@pattianklam.com http://www.pattianklam.com •claire@leadershiplearning.org http://www.leadershiplearning.org/ •June@networkweaving.com http://www.networkweaving.comThank you.Question

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