Social Network Analysis in Two Parts

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Part 1: Concepts and Cases (the language of networks, networks in organizations, case studies and key concepts)

Part 2: (Starts on #44) Mapping Organizational, Personal, and Enterprise Networks: Tools

An update to last year's Social Network Analysis Introduction and Tools...

Published in: Business, Technology

Social Network Analysis in Two Parts

  1. 1. Network Analysis in Two Parts Patti Anklam Columbia IKNS Unit 3 April 2014
  2. 2. I’ve become convinced that understanding how networks work is an essential 21st century literacy. Howard Rheingold
  3. 3. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Agenda ―The language of networks ―Networks in organizations 3 Social Network Analysis: Concepts and Cases Mapping Organizational, Personal and Enterprise Networks: Tools
  4. 4. Social Network Analysis: Concepts and Cases http://www.dftdigest.com/images/Spyglass.jpg
  5. 5. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Networks Matter • We live in networks all the time: communities, organizations, teams • The complexity of work in today’s world is such that no one can understand – let alone complete – a task alone – Individual-individual – Team-team – Company-company – Eco-system to eco-system • Strong networks are correlated with health: – People with stronger personal networks are more productive, happier, and better performers – Companies who know how to manage alliances are more flexible, adaptive and resilient – Our personal health and well-being is often tied to our social networks 5
  6. 6. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Structure Matters 6 • There is science to support the understanding of network structure • The structure of a network provides insights into how the network “works” • Once you understand the structure, you can make decisions about how to manage the network’s context • Network analysis tools help you understand the structure
  7. 7. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 The Importance of Understanding Networks 7 Burt, Ronald S. and Don Ronchi, Teaching executives to see social capital: Results from a field experiment http://faculty.chicagobooth.edu/ronald.burt/research/files/TESSC.pdf
  8. 8. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 The new science of networks • Beginning in the 1990’s computer science made it possible to map and analyze large social networks. 2002 2002 2002 2003 2004 2004 2009 • By 2009, network science and analysis are accepted practice in science and management • Insights became accessible to the public. 8 2005 2007
  9. 9. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Meanwhile… by 2014 9 Big Data! • People are mining the our public personas in the internet to understand networks • Concepts from social network analysis are creeping into contact and relationship management applications
  10. 10. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 But it still all comes down to 0s and 1s 10 • A network is a collection of entities linked by a type of relationship • So we can applying network concepts in many contexts: – People-groups-organizations – Use of information artifacts – Ideas & issues Node Tie
  11. 11. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Rob Cross’s Classic Case 11 From: The OrganizationalNetwork Fieldbook,Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bass 2010
  12. 12. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 A Classic Case 12 From: The OrganizationalNetwork Fieldbook,Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bass 2010
  13. 13. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 A Classic Case From: The Hidden Power of SocialNetworks, Rob Cross and Andrew Parker, Harvard Business School Press, 2004 13 From: The OrganizationalNetwork Fieldbook,Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bass 2010
  14. 14. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 A Classic Case 14 From: The OrganizationalNetwork Fieldbook,Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bass 2010
  15. 15. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 A Classic Case 15 From: The OrganizationalNetwork Fieldbook,Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bass 2010
  16. 16. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 It’s all about Questions 16 Patterns provide insights that provoke good questions. Full stop.
  17. 17. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Network Analysis in Organizations 17 Management Practice Examples (Short List) Leadership Development Personal Leadership Succession Planning Innovation Identify energy sources Bridge boundaries Knowledge management Expertise location Communities of practice Improving information flow Organizational Change and Development Change management Mergers and acquisition Talent Management Positioning people in roles Professional network development Organizational Performance Team building How has it been applied?
  18. 18. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 A Recent Example from Friends at Optimice 18
  19. 19. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 The Crux of the Analysis: The Questions • Improve collaboration • Finding connectors and influencers in organizations and communities • Leadership development • Performance benchmarking • Integration of units following merger/acquisition Problem (Examples) Relationships of Interest • Access to expertise • Innovative capacity • Collaborative capacity • Ease of knowledge flow • Decision-making and task flow • Innovation potential • Energy Shares new ideas with Seeks help for problem-solvingWorks closely with Knows expertise of 19
  20. 20. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 The Unit of Analysis: The Relationship 20
  21. 21. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 …and the filters we want to use to view the relationships • We collect as much information about the attributes of the people in the network* – Organizational unit – Job title/role – Location – Expertise – Job level – Age – Gender 21 *within the bounds of what is legal and appropriate
  22. 22. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 California Computer 22 From “Informal Networks: The Company” David Krackhardt and Jeffrey R. Hanson HBR, 1993 CEO Leers must choose someone to lead a strategic task force. Bair Stewart Ruiz O'Hara S/W Applications Harris Benson Fleming Church Martin Lee Wilson Swinney Huberman Fiola Calder Field Design Muller Jules Baker Daven Thomas Zanados Lang ICT Huttle Atkins Kibler Stern Data Control Leers CEO
  23. 23. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 California Computer 23 From “Informal Networks: The Company” David Krackhardt and Jeffrey R. Hanson HBR, 1993 CEO Leers must choose someone to lead a strategic task force. Bair Stewart Ruiz O'Hara S/W Applications Harris Benson Fleming Church Martin Lee Wilson Swinney Huberman Fiola Calder Field Design Muller Jules Baker Daven Thomas Zanados Lang ICT Huttle Atkins Kibler Stern Data Control Leers CEO
  24. 24. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Was Harris a Good Choice? 24 Whom do you go to for help or advice? Field Design Data Control Systems Software Applications CEO ICT
  25. 25. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Was Harris a Good Choice? 25 Whom do you go to for help or advice? Field Design Data Control Systems Software Applications CEO ICT
  26. 26. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 The Question of Trust 26 Whom would you trust to keep in confidence your concerns about a work- related issue?
  27. 27. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 The Question of Trust 27 Whom would you trust to keep in confidence your concerns about a work- related issue?
  28. 28. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 The Question of Trust 28 Whom would you trust to keep in confidence your concerns about a work- related issue?
  29. 29. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 • Look at the whole network and its components Network Analysis Also Provides Metrics • Look at positions of individuals in the network Centrality Metrics Structural Metrics 29
  30. 30. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Structural Metrics 30 • Common measures: –Density of interactions –Average degree of separation –Cross-group or cross-organization connectivity • Good for comparing questions, groups within networks or for comparing changes in a network over time Look at the whole network and its components
  31. 31. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Interpreting Results 31 “I interact with this person twice a month or more” I understand this person’s knowledge and skills (Agree or Strongly Agree) Density: 11% Distance: 2.7 Density: 28% Distance: 1.8
  32. 32. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 How the Metrics Enhance the Maps 2010 2011 Year # Density Avg # ties 2009 55 2.2% 1.2 2010 90 2.7% 2.4 2011 85 5.3% 4.5 2012 82 8% 6.88 2009 2012 32
  33. 33. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Centrality Metrics 33https://plus.google.com/+DaveGray/posts/CQRVeKEsUvF The people with the most connections are not necessarily the most influential!  Look at positions of individuals in the network
  34. 34. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Which Technology Scout is Most Successful? 34 It's Whom You Know Not What You Know: A Social Network Analysis Approach to Talent Management, Eoin Whelan, SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1694453
  35. 35. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Quick Case: Positional Sleuthing in ONA • Based on this data: • Who should Jerry appoint as his successor? • Who do you think Jerry actually appointed as his successor? Why? 35
  36. 36. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 The Importance of Diversity People who live in the intersection of social worlds are at higher risk of having good ideas. – Ron Burt 36
  37. 37. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 AB DG KF KS MK NM NS PM PP RC RR SK The Diversity Metric: External/Internal Ratio • Organization • Expertise • Age, Tenure 37 AB AL BG DC GP MB PM SA AB’s E/I index: .308 DC’s E/I index: -.714 Can be derived from any demographic: • Social Ties • Geographic location • Hierarchical position
  38. 38. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Detecting Diversity • Who is more likely to have access to new ideas? – Tom – Marion • Why? 38
  39. 39. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Strong vs Weak Ties 39 Dunbar’s number: 150 • Strong ties: – Close, frequent – Reciprocal – May be embedded in a strong “local network” • Weak ties – Infrequent interaction – Likely embedded in other (diverse) networks – Accessible as needed
  40. 40. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Which Networks Reveal Strong & Weak Ties? 40 “I interact with this person twice a month or more” I understand this person’s knowledge and skills (Agree or Strongly Agree)
  41. 41. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Mapping Expertise • Network maps can also reveal potential connections & collaborations • A community mapper tool offers participants the ability to see people who “are most like them” or who are most interested in a specific conversation. 41
  42. 42. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Organizational Networks Summary 42 • The science of networks has brought insights into the structure of organizational networks • Organizational network analysis lets us map relationships to: • Identify patterns of connection, disconnection, and flows of knowledge and ideas • Understand the roles that individuals play and their potential for enhancing organizational effectiveness • Developing and sharing maps and metrics helps organizations to ask good questions and design targeted interventions
  43. 43. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 KM Interventions Ways to change patterns in networks Practices from the KM Repertoire Create more connections Make introductions through meetings and webinars, face-to-face events (like knowledge fairs); implement social software or social network referral software; social network stimulation Increase the flow of knowledge Establish collaborative workspaces, install instant messaging systems, make existing knowledge bases more accessible and usable Discover connections Implement expertise location and/or; discovery systems; social software; social networking applications Decentralize Social software; blogs, wikis; shift knowledge to the edge Connect disconnected clusters Establish knowledge brokering roles; expand communication channels Create more trusted relationships Assign people to work on projects together Alter the behavior of individual nodes Create awareness of the impact of an individual’s place in a network; educate employees on personal knowledge networking Increase diversity Add nodes; connect and create networks; encourage people to bring knowledge in from their networks in the world 43
  44. 44. Mapping Organizational, Personal and Enterprise Networks: Tools http://quilting.about.com/od/picturesofquilts/ig/Alzheimer-s-Quilts/The-Ties-that-Bind.htm
  45. 45. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 What the Tools Can Tell You: Patterns Core Periphery Isolates Structural Hole Cluster
  46. 46. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 What the Tools Can Tell You: Metrics 46 http://blog.optimice.com.au/?p=360
  47. 47. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 More Patterns Multi-Hub Hub and Spoke Stove-piped (Siloed) Clustered 47
  48. 48. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 What Sorts of Tools Are There? 48 • Range in complexity of function & cost • Let you access and map your own network Social Media Graphing apps Mapping & Analysis Tools Personal network assessment tools Enterprise Analytics • High-end measurement & dashboards • From introspection to exploration
  49. 49. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Mapping and Analysis Tools
  50. 50. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Tool Basics – the Dataset (0s and 1s) 50 Information about the nodes (vertices) and the ties (edges)
  51. 51. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Load and Draw…1 51
  52. 52. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Load and Draw…2 52
  53. 53. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Load and Draw…3 53
  54. 54. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Short List of Resources for SNA/ONA Tools 54 http://tinyurl.com/SNA-ONA-Tools
  55. 55. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Network Insights Don’t Require Fancy Software • If it’s a network, you can draw it. 55
  56. 56. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 On the Internet, What’s in a Tie? • Social network platforms: – A Facebook Friend – A LinkedIn Connection – A Twitter Following • Social media content platforms: – Likes, posts, replies, shares, and uploads – Mentions or “retweet” #hashtags 56
  57. 57. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Networks in Social Media 1. Krugman tweets a link to an article 2. There are a number of Tweeters who publish links to the article but these are not connected to other Tweeters 3. There are two densely interconnected groups of people who share the link and discuss it 57 Analyzing Twitter networks with NodeXL: Broadcast Networks http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/02/20/mapping-twitter-topic-networks-from-polarized-crowds-to-community-clusters/
  58. 58. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Enterprise Networks 58 Syndio Social Uses SNA to Build Management Dashboards
  59. 59. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Enterprise Networks 59 …by combining social network platform data with surveys Highest social capital Most favorable to change
  60. 60. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 A Personal Network Perspective 60 Focus Purpose How to Develop Operational Getting work done efficiently Identify people who can block or support a project Personal Develop and maintain professional skills and reputation Participate in professional associations, clubs, and physical and online communities Strategic Figure out and obtain support for future priorities and challenges Identify lateral and vertical relationships outside your immediate control Source: “How Leaders Create and Use Networks,” Herminia Ibarra and Mark Hunter, Harvard Business Review January 2007
  61. 61. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Personal Networks: Introspection 61
  62. 62. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 The PNA (Personal Network Assessment) 62
  63. 63. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Personal Network: Cyber Exploration 63 http://inmaps.linkedinlabs.com/ http://www.pattianklam.com/2014/03/changing-the-world-of-work-it-takes-a-network/ http://smartpei.typepad.com/robert_patersons_weblog/2012/10/my-network-revealed-now-what-can-you-learn-about-yours.html
  64. 64. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Where’s Kate? 64
  65. 65. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Facebook 65 https://apps.facebook.com/namegenweb/
  66. 66. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Facebook from NodeXL 66
  67. 67. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 From Managing Contacts to Leveraging Connections • What we have learned from the language of networks: – Filters matter because they give us different views of our network – Diversity, weak ties, and structure matter – We have agency; we cannot manage networks, but we can take actions that will alter relationships in them and our ability to leverage them 67 http://www.forbes.com/sites/michaelsimmons/2014/01/14/the-one-thing-you-should-do-after-meeting-anyone-new/ RelateIQ focuses on leveraging sales contacts. Filters are market, industry, company, gross sales Broad.li focuses on how you can get work done
  68. 68. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 Summary 68 • Social network analysis tools and methods are available to map organizational as well as your individual, personal network • The tools matter less than the network mindset – and the understanding that the structure of a network matters
  69. 69. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2014 http://about.me/pattianklam • 30 years in software engineering • 10 years in professional services knowledge management & methodology (Digital, Compaq, Nortel) • Independent consultant 13 years; thought leader in knowledge management and social network analysis • Charter member of Change Agents Worldwide 69

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