Scientific Research

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Scientific Research

  1. 1. LOGO Scientific Research An Najah National University Author:O. Tamimi
  2. 2. ContentsMeaning of Scientific Research Examples of Scientific ResearchWho is a Researcher, What Does a Researcher Do What is the difference between Scientist and Researcher?Choosing a Research Topic by a ScientistClassification of Scientific Research Pure Research: Applied Research:Additional Classifications Qualitative research Quantitative researchCharacteristics of ResearchResearch Process (Fundamental Steps)Step-1 Make an Observation, Find a Problem & Ask a Question Observation Find a Problem Scientific QuestionExamples of Observations & Scientific QuestionsPage-1 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  3. 3. ContentsStep-2 Literature Review (Background-Research)Sources of Literature Review Primary Sources Secondary SourcesStep-3Testable HypothesisStep-4 Design an Experiment (Procedure)Step-5 Collecting & Analyzing Data Primary Data Secondary DataStep-6 What to do if Hypothesis is wrongStep-7 Writing Report & Publish Findings Research Title Scientific Question Testable HypothesisProcedureData Collection, Data Analysis & DiscussionConclusionFurther Reading & ReferencesPage-2 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  4. 4. Meaning of Scientific Research  The systematic process of collecting and analyzing information to increase our understanding of an issue  Systematic observation of phenomena for the purpose of learning new facts or testing the application of theories to known facts  Its an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge  The research aims at seeking answers to problems through the application of scientific mythology , which guarantees that the information is reliable and unbiasedExamples of Scientific Research (current research) Effect of GPS satellite on health Electrical properties of silicon material or the semiconductor diodes Effect of genetically modified food on health Contaminated water and cancer Studying the effect of global warming on see levels & wild-lifePage-3 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  5. 5. The word "research" can be confusing because it is frequently used inconversation to describe a non-scientific searching process. For example, youmight say that you conducted "research" to find the best price for a computer, ormaybe you "researched" the internet for the best deal of Ford car. In bothinstances you clearly did not follow a rigorous, scientific method of solvingproblems.Page-4 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  6. 6. Who is a Researcher, What Does He Do A researcher is a knowledgeable person who has a good background in science with a good written and communication skills A researcher should be able to carry out a range of professional assignments 1.Define research subject 2.Gather information, techniques, studies from various literatures 3.Carries out experiments 4.Analyze & interpret research results 5.Prepare research reports 6.Takes part in seminars and workshopsWhat is the difference between Scientist and Researcher?  A scientist is highly specialized professional who has a significant knowledge and expertise in one or many disciplines  A scientist is a researcher but not vice-versaPage-5 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  7. 7. Choosing a Research Topic by a Researcher Depends on the researcher’s subject of interest or specialty area e.g. Chemical Engineering The interest of a researcher in exploring ideas or issues e.g. Plastic Recycling (Dissolving the Plastics ) Problems detected and needing a solution in practical or theoretical terms e.g. Studying the effectiveness of acetone extraction C3H6O in dissolving plastic Questions arising from experience or reading the literature e.g. Studying how safe the x-rays on pregnant womenPage-6 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  8. 8. Classification of Scientific ResearchPure Research: it is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intentionto apply it in practice (Natural/Physics research) e.g. Newton LawsPure research tends to investigate answers like the following questions  How did the universe begin ?  What the protons, neutrons & electrons composed of ?  Why are there 7 colors in a rainbow ?Applied Research: aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facinga society or an industrial/business organizationApplied research may investigate ways to:  Treat or cure a specific disease  Improve the energy efficiency of offices or homes  Discovery of x-rayPage-7 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  9. 9. Additional ClassificationsQuantitative vs. Qualitative Research Qualitative Research  Designed to explore and understand peoples beliefs, experiences, attitudes, behavior and interactions  Used in social science Quantitative Research  Relies primarily on the collection and analysis of numerical data  Lab research and engineering research falls under the quantitative research termsPage-8 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  10. 10. Characteristics of Research The following represents the mains characteristics of a scientific research Purpose: the purpose of research is clearly stated Solution: it is solution oriented and directed towards the solution of a problem Relation: Determines the relation between two or more problems Skills: Research require a careful skill in recording and reporting the data Knowledge: Research requires that researcher have full knowledge of the problem under the study Replication: research is replicable. The design, procedures and result of scientific research should be replicable so that any person other than the researcher assess the validity of researchPage-9 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  11. 11. Research Process(Fundamental steps)Research process consists of series ofActions or steps necessary to effectivelycarry out researchPage-10 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  12. 12. Step-1 Make an Observation, Find a Problem & Ask a QuestionThe first step of a scientific research is divided into three main steps1- Observe a specific situation2- Identify the problem in the situation3- Formulate a questionObservation Observation ”means“ looking at something without influencing it and simultaneously recording it for later analysis, or facts you have discovered using your five senses Scientific observations can be made directly with our own senses or may be made indirectly through the use of toolsScientific Question Any question related to an observation and answered through scientific investigation Often comes from the thought “what we have right now is not good enough, we can do better…” Scientific question usually starts with: How, What, When & WhoPage-11 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  13. 13.  Examples of Scientific Questions Why the sky turns red when the sun goes down? Why the color of an apple-slice turns to brown after few hours?Research Problem It is a clear and a stand‐alone statement which explains what are you aiming or trying to achieve To formulate a research problem, Firstly select your research topic and describe the problem at the beginning of research Research problem is not a problem in the normal sense (is actually the unknown part of a research) Problem statement shall have an outcome based verb identify define analyze review justify formulate explain apply suggest clarify create design evaluate purpose suggestPage-12 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  14. 14.  ExamplesAnalyze the readiness of Palestinian cities to a massive earthquakeIdentify the risks of plastic enclosures for reservoir food on healthPage-13 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  15. 15. Observations & Scientific Questions Examples “Observation” Discovery of water in the form of water-ice on mars planet “Scientific question” Is there any life forms on the planet? (being investigated) “ Marie Curie’s observation” Uranium causes air ionization (electrically conductive). “Scientific question” Is the Uranium a radioactive element ? “Observation” The compass needle aligns itself when an electric current flows through a nearby wire “Scientific question” What makes the needle of a compass to align. This has led to the discovery of electromagnetism which revolutionized our world Note: Good observations lead to scientific discoveriesPage-14 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  16. 16. Step-2 Reviewing Literature (Background Research)Why Reviewing Literatures ? It’s a regular rule that research projects begins with conducting literature review, which means to identify related research projects Literature review aim to get an insight and to get a view work of others Literature review helps you anticipate common problems in your research context you should look at conclusions, theories, arguments that underline the work and look for similarities and differences with closely related workBy Studying of Literature we Would Like to Find the Answers to FollowingQuestions: Did anybody else formulate the same research problem in the past? Did anybody else solve the same or similar problem in the past? Are the results of the previous solving acceptable for us or not?Writing a Good Literature Review Requires You have to have an ability to show why your research should be carried out why did you choose certain theories to work with And how your work already adds to research carried out.Page-15 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  17. 17. Step-2 Literature Review (Background Research)Sources of Literature ReviewThe term sources refer to print, electronic or visual materials necessary for yourresearch. Sources are classified into primary and secondary sources Primary Sources (Highly Reliable, Up to Date Knowledge)  Scientific Journals  Seminar papers  Academic Thesis  Academic Dissertation  Patents Secondary Sources  Lab Reports  Text-Books  eBook  Documentaries  Web-Links (Google scholar, company websites or Forums)Page-16 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  18. 18. Step-3 Testable HypothesisHypothesisA hypothesis is a special kind of prediction that forecasts (predicts) howchanging one part of an experiment will affect the results. It is NOT a guess. It isan informed and well-thought out prediction that requires backgroundinformation. You can also think of it as a cause-effect statement.A hypothesis is best written in the “If ______________, then _____________.”Examples of a Hypothesis (Using If, Then Statement)If the temperature of sea water increases, then the amount of salt thatdissolves in the water increases.Scientific Question: How does the amount of daylight affect plant growth ?Hypothesis: If the amount of daylight increases, then the growth of a plant increasesScientific Question: How does the color of a surface affect its temperature?Hypothesis: if the color of a surface is black then the temperature absorption is highPage-17 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  19. 19. Step-3 Testable HypothesisExampleIf color change in leaves is related to temperature, then exposing leaves todirect sunlight will make them to burnAny hypothesis statement has two variables: Independent variable &Dependent variableDependent variable → (Leaves)Independent variable → (Temperature)More Hypothesis Examples (Using May Statement) Chocolate may cause pimples Salt soil may affect plant growth Plant growth may be affected by the color of light Bacterial growth may be affect by temperature Ultra violet light may cause a skin cancerPage-18 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  20. 20. Step- 4 Design an Experiment (Procedure)Designing an Experiment is Influenced by Many FactorsDetermine place, time, budget for the experiment Means of obtaining the information (Data collection method) Resources available for the research Skills of the research personnelThe Procedure is an Integral Part of the Experimental Design, the FollowingRepresents the Fundamental Steps of Writing a ProcedureIncludes a list of steps that the scientist takes to complete the experiment Very detailed list that is numbered 1,2,3.. order (its not a paragraph) The procedure should allow others to repeat it. (reproducible) Your procedure is considered a Good one if someone do it and achieve the same results as you didPage-19 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  21. 21. Step- 5 Collecting / Analyzing Data Data collection is an important aspect of any scientific research, there aredifferent approaches for data Data Quantitative research is usually expressed in numerical form andpresented in tables and figures  Primary Data (Not published yet): Collected by the researcher himself either through experiments (e.g. Lab or Field experiments) or through surveys Survey Data is collected using one of the following ways:  Observation  Personal interview  Telephone interview  Questionnaires  Secondary Data (Readily available data): is a data found in published sources such as (Journal, Internet & Books)Page-20 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  22. 22. Step- 5 Collecting / Analyzing DataAfter the research data has been obtained, Data analysis shall be carried outusing a closely related operations, such as: Presenting data in Tables & Figures Study the relationship between variables (direct, indirect, proportional, etc…) Percentage, average & coefficient computations using statistical formulasPage-21 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  23. 23. Step-6: (Decision) Hypothesis TestingAfter analyzing the data, the researcher is in a position to test the hypotheses,to see if the facts support hypothesis or they happen to be contraryHypothesis testing involves stating the hypothesis by converting the researchquestion into null and alternative hypothesisNull Hypothesis: (Denoted H0)  Attempts to show that there is no-relationship between hypothesis variables (Doesn’t relate hypothesis variables in anyway)  statement that is capable of being proven false (It is simple to disprove)  Examples (Chocolate may not cause pimples) ( Fertilizers have no effects on plant growth)Alternative Hypothesis: (Denoted H1)  It means that there is a relationship between variables (opposite to Null- Hypothesis)  Example (Chocolate may cause pimples)Page-22 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  24. 24. Step-6: (Decision) Hypothesis TestingThe experiment is to be carried out in an attempt to prove or reject the null-hypothesisThere are two possible decisions: Conclude that there is enough evidence to support the alternative hypothesis. Reject the null. (Chocolate may cause pimples) Conclude that there is not enough evidence to support the alternative hypothesis. Fail to reject the null. (Chocolate may not cause pimples)What to do if Hypothesis (Alternative) is Wrong Amend the hypothesis and do the experiment again Stop the researchPage-23 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  25. 25. Step- 7 Writing Report & Publish FindingsWriting and publishing a research report is necessary in order to Circulate the ideas, facts and findings to the others To make a good contribution to the existing stock of knowledge To get the ideas protectedResearch report shall be carefully written keeping in view the followingelements: Title page Abstract Background research (Introduction). Experimental procedure Data analysis and discussion (includes data table and graph(s)) ConclusionsResearch report has many different styles such as:■ Lab Report■ Scientific Literature (published in Journal, Conference & patent, Books)■ Project Thesis (For educational purposes)■ Project Dissertation (For educational purposes)Page-24 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  26. 26. Sample Scientific ResearchResearch Title: Light effects on colored surfacesScientific Question: How does the color of a surface affect its temperature?Testable Hypothesis: If a dark-colored object is exposed to light, then it isexpected to get worm MaterialPage-25 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  27. 27. Procedure1) Place the two containers on a level surface and allow the air inside the containers to equalize with air in the room. This should take no more than about 10 minutes.2) Cut a strip of dark paper to fit one container and tape this paper around the outside of the container covering its surface.3) Cut a strip of light paper to fit the other container and tape this paper around the outside of the container covering its surface.4) Cut two pieces of foam to firmly fit like caps inside the top of each of the containers.5) Cut slots in each of the foam caps for inserting the thermometers, insert one thermometer inside the slot of each of the foam caps.6) Place the caps with the thermometers inserted firmly on each container, making sure that the liquid in the thermometer is visible. Record the temperature of each thermo-meter.7) Put the two containers side by side and place the heat lamp about 6 inches from the containers. Plug the light into an electrical outlet and turn it on.Page-26 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  28. 28. Data Collection, Data Analysis & Discussion8) Record the temperature of both thermometers at 5-minute intervals, 5 different times.Data Collection Temp. (C°) Temp. (C°) Time (Minutes) Dark Container Light Container 0 13 13 5 16 15 10 21 19 15 27 24 20 31 27 25 35 30 Experimental Results Experimental SetupPage-27 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  29. 29. Data AnalysisCalculating the average temp. Tmax (Light-Container) = 30 Cº Tmax (Dark-Container) = 35 CºPage-28 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  30. 30. The figure demonstrates the temp rise for both; light container and dark containerDiscussionas expected, the drawing indicates that there was a temperature rise in bothcontainers, but based on the data analysis (average and max temperatures) itcan be noticed that the dark colored container reached a higher temperaturethan the light-colored one.Page-29 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  31. 31. ConclusionNote: Because the assumed hypothesis at the beginning of the experiment isproven correct, it is possible to carry on and write down a conclusion thatsummaries the outcomesIt can be concluded that the light and dark surfaces show a difference inincrease of temperature over a 25-minute period, with the dark-coloredcontainer reaching the highest temperature reading. Dark surfaces becomewarmer because they absorb more of the incident radiation. Light-coloredsurfaces reflect more of the incident radiation, hence absorbing less radiation.The higher the absorption, the warmer the temperature.Page-30 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  32. 32. Further Reading & ReferencesEdgar Bright Wilson (1990), Introduction to scientific research. 3rd ed. NY. 367Steve Chapman (2005), Research Methods. 3rd ed. NY. 207C. R. Kothari (2006), Research Methodology: Methods & Techniques. 2nd ed.New-Delhi. 398http://undsci.berkeley.edu/index.phphttp://www.null-hypothesis.co.uk/science//item/what_is_a_null_hypothesisPage-31 An Najah National University O. Tamimi
  33. 33. Further Reading & Referenceshttp://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/scientific-papers-13815490http://www.bms.bc.ca/resources/library/pdf/GuidelinesScientificPapers.pdfhttp://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=148http://www.researchproposalsforhealthprofessionals.com/dissemination_of_findings.htmhttp://www.b2binternational.com/b2b-blog/ebook/10-market-research-ch10.pdfhttp://nursingplanet.com/Nursing_Research/e-book/reporting_communicating.htmlhttp://www.slideshare.net/ytaki/introduction-to-academic-publishinghttp://www.fppsm.utm.my/download/doc_view/183-introduction-to-scientificresearch.htmlhttp://www.medicine.ox.ac.uk/bandolier/booth/glossary/qualres.htmlhttp://wilderdom.com/research/QualitativeVersusQuantitativeResearch.htmlhttp://www.writing.engr.psu.edu/workbooks/laboratory.htmlhttp://www.pages.drexel.edu/~pyo22/students/hypothesis.html.http://mattforte.hubpages.com/hub/Scientific-Methods-of-Researchhttp://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/0_0_0/howscienceworks_18http://www.sciencemadesimple.com/scientific_method.html#PREDICTIONhttp://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/researchcourse/Page-32 An Najah National University O. Tamimi

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