WebSphere 6.1 Admin Course 1


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WebSphere 6.1 Admin Course 1

  1. 1. WebSphere Administration Course Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  2. 2. Agenda • • • • • • • • WebSphere Overview JEE Overview WebSphere Architecture Installing WebSphere The Admin Console Managing Applications JEE Technologies Summary Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  3. 3. WebSphere Product Overview Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  4. 4. What is WebSphere ? • WebSphere is not a product but an IBM brand, powered by Java and JEE. • WebSphere is infrastructure software for delivery of e-business applications. • The WebSphere product family is divided into three categories: – Foundation and Tools – Business portals – Business Integration Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  5. 5. WebSphere Product Family Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  6. 6. WebSphere Product Family • Foundation and Tools - represents the heart of the WebSphere product line; the WAS, the RAD product line, and the WebSphere tools for host integration. • Business Portals - include WebSphere Portal Server WebSphere Commerce etc. • Business Integration - includes the WebSphere MQ family of products for enterprise messaging, workflow, systems integration, WebSphere Business Integration. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  7. 7. Additional Product Families • The Tivoli family of products for systems management and security provide additional capabilities for WebSphere. • The Rational family of products for application development, such as Rational Application Developer, Rational Modeler for UML modeling, Rational Clear Case for SCM. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  8. 8. WebSphere Application Server (WAS) • A JEE compliant application server. • Provides the core technologies used by other WebSphere products. • Provides an environment to run web based multi-tier e-business applications. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  9. 9. WebSphere Application Server (WAS) Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  10. 10. WAS Packaging • WAS Express V 6.0 – A lightweight edition of WAS without an EJB container. • WAS Base V6.1 – A fully compliant JEE server supporting the JEE 1.4 spec. • WAS Network Deployment V6.1 – extends WAS Base to include clustering capabilities, edge components and distributed configuration management. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  11. 11. WAS Packaging Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  12. 12. Resources • Info center for WAS 6.1 http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/wasi • IBM Redbooks http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/ Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  13. 13. JEE Overview Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  14. 14. What is JEE ? • A set of technologies for developing enterprise applications in Java • Specified by Sun and the Java Community Process (JCP). • Implemented by JEE vendors. • Implementations of JEE technologies are provided within Application Servers. • Previously named J2EE (until version 1.4) current version is JEE 5. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  15. 15. What is JEE ? • Relation between JEE vendors and developers. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  16. 16. What is JEE ? • The Java Platform Java Technology Enabled Devices Java Technology Enabled Desktop Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009 Workgroup Server High-End Server
  17. 17. The Java Platform Java Platform Micro Edition (JavaMETM) Optional Packages Optional Packages Java Enterprise Edition (JEE) Java Standard Edition (JavaSE) Personal Basis Profile Personal Profile Foundation Profile CDC JVM MIDP CLDC KVM Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009 * Under development in JCP Java Card APIs CardVM
  18. 18. Why do we need JEE ? • • • • • • • • Standard API Portable Tool Support Distribution Transactions Security Scalability Persistence Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  19. 19. The JEE Architecture • N-tier architecture • Comprised of technologies for the business tier the presentation tier and other system services. • Runs within the application server and within specific containers (web container, EJB container) within the Application server. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  20. 20. The JEE Architecture • Uses the "component and container" model in which container provides system services in a well-defined and as industry standard • JEE is a standard that also provides portability of code because it is based on Java technology and standard-based Java programming APIs Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  21. 21. About N-Tier Architecture • Single Tier – a simple desktop application. • Two Tier – A thin or a fat client and a server. • Three Tier – A presentation tier a business tier and a Data tier. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  22. 22. Three-Tier architecture Web Tier EJB Tier Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  23. 23. JEE Tier Architecture Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  24. 24. JEE Application Servers • JEE vendors provide their implementation of JEE technologies within an Application Server. • Each application server has its own implementation of JEE standards as well as some proprietary features. • Comprised of a Web Container,EJB Container and other server services. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  25. 25. The App server and JEE containers. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  26. 26. JEE Development Roles • Component provider – Bean provider • Application assembler • Deployer • Platform provider – Container provider • Tools provider • System administrator Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  27. 27. The JEE Life Cycle Creation Assembly Deployment Created by JEE Modules Component Developer Assembled and Augmented JEE APP by Application Assembler Processed by Deployer Deploy JEE Container Enterprise Components Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  28. 28. System Administrator Role • • • • Manage servers Install and manage applications. Manage and maintain configurations. Create and maintain server topologies: network deployment, cluster etc. • Monitor and troubleshoot production and test deployments. • Implement a security policy. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  29. 29. JEE Development Tools • Provided by Application Server vendors or open source projects. • Usually provided as plugins to popular IDEs such as Eclipse or NetBeans. • The tools help developers create JEE resources, debug and deploy them. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  30. 30. JEE Development Tools • IBM – provides the RAD product (based on Eclipse) for developing for WebSphere. • RAD 7.0 is compatible with WAS 6.1 • The Eclipse project provides open source plugins for most application servers. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  31. 31. The JEE Application Structure Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  32. 32. JEE Application Structure • A JEE application is packaged into an EAR file. • The EAR file contains Web modules, EJB modules and utility jars. • The Web application is packaged into a WAR file, and the WAR file is packaged into the EAR. • The EJB’s are packaged into a special jar file which is the EJB module, which is packaged into the EAR file. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  33. 33. JEE Application Structure Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  34. 34. The EAR File Structure Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  35. 35. JEE projects in RAD Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  36. 36. Packaging JEE Applications • In order to deploy applications to WebSphere application code must be packaged into JEE modules (EAR WAR JAR etc.) • Packaging applications can be done using: – RAD export options. – Ant scripts. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  37. 37. WebSphere Architecture Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  38. 38. The WebSphere Architecture • Base or Single Server environment features a standalone single server. • Network Deployment or Multi Server environment, features multi servers managed centrally by a deployment management process. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  39. 39. The WebSphere Architecture • A server is the smallest configuration unit and represents a WAS instance. • A Node is a configuration unit that can include several servers, usually a node represents a physical machine running WAS. • A Cell is a configuration unit that can include several nodes. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  40. 40. The WebSphere Architecture • In a Base environment a single node manages a single server. • In a Network Deployment environment we have a cell managing several nodes each containing one or more servers. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  41. 41. Base Environment Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  42. 42. Network Deployment Environment Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  43. 43. Java Management Extensions (JMX) • The system management functionality of WebSphere Application Server is based on the use of Java Management Extensions (JMX). JMX is a framework that provides a standard way of exposing Java esources, for example application servers, to a system management infrastructure. • The JMX framework allows a provider to implement functions, such as listing the configuration settings, and allows users to edit the settings. It also includes a notification layer that can be used by management applications to monitor events. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  44. 44. JMX Architecture • The JMX architecture is structured into three layers: • Instrumentation layer The instrumentation layer dictates how resources can be wrapped within special Java beans called Management Beans (MBeans). • The agent layer consists of the MBean server and agents, which provide a management infrastructure. • Management layer The management layer defines how external management applications can interact with the underlying layers in terms of protocols, APIs, and so on. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  45. 45. JMX Architecture Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  46. 46. JMX Distributed Administration Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  47. 47. Distributed Administration • Administration in a distributed server environment is by necessity more complex than administration in a stand-alone server environment. • In a distributed server environment, multiple WebSphere Application Server nodes are managed from a single central location. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  48. 48. Distributed Administration • Administration is performed by three layers. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  49. 49. Distributed Administration Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  50. 50. Distributed Process Discovery • When a managed server begins its startup, it sends a discovery request message that allows other processes to discover its existence and establishcommunication channels with the process. • Each node agent and deployment manager maintains status and configuration information by using discovery addresses, or ports. On startup, processes discover other running components, and create communication channels Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  51. 51. Distributed Process Discovery Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  52. 52. Configuration Management • In a distributed server environment, the master repository of configuration and application data for the cell is managed by the deployment manager. • Each node contains a separate copy of the repository containing only the required files. • When an administrator makes changes to the configuration using an administration tool and saves these changes to the master repository, they are available for use. The next step is to synchronize the changes out to the nodes of the cell. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  53. 53. Configuration Synchronization • Responsible for synchronizing the master configuration to all nodes in the cell. • During the synchronization operation, the node agent checks with the deployment manager to see if any files that apply to the node have been updated in the master repository. New or updated files are sent to the node, while any deleted files are also deleted from the node. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  54. 54. Repository Directory Structure Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  55. 55. WAS Installation Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  56. 56. Hardware Requirements • For Windows (32 bit WebSphere Application Server) – – – – – • Intel® Pentium processor at 500 MHz or faster Intel EM64T or AMD Opteron 1030 MB disk space Minimum 512 MB physical memory; 1 GB recommended CD-ROM drive For Windows (64 bit WebSphere Application Server) – – – – AMD Opteron or Intel EM64T 1030 MB disk space Minimum 1 GB of physical memory recommended CD-ROM drive Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  57. 57. Software Requirements - OS • • • • • • • Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Microsoft Windows XP Professional with SP2 Microsoft Vista Business Microsoft Vista Enterprise Microsoft Vista Ultimate Microsoft Windows 2000 Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  58. 58. Software Requirements - Java • IBM 32-bit SDK for Windows, Java 2 Technology Edition, V5.0 SR2 • IBM 64-bit SDK for Windows on AMD64/EM64T architecture, Java 2 Technology Edition, V5.0 SR2 • The Java VM supplied with WebSphere must be used to run WAS and application clients. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  59. 59. Software Requirements – Web Servers • • • • • IBM HTTP Server V7.0 V6.1 V6.0 Apache HTTP Server V2.2 V2.0.54 Microsoft IIS V7.0 V6.0 V5.0 Lotus Domino Enterprise Server 6.5.4 or 7.0 More specific details at: – http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?rs=180 Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  60. 60. WAS Installation Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  61. 61. WAS Installation Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  62. 62. WAS Installation Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  63. 63. WAS Installation Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  64. 64. WAS Installation Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  65. 65. WAS Installation Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  66. 66. WAS Installation Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  67. 67. WAS Installation Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  68. 68. WAS Installation Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  69. 69. First Steps • First Steps is a post installation tool that is started automatically at the end of installation. • Can be started from the windows menu or command line. • Used to verify the installation. Run the installation verification utility. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  70. 70. First Steps Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  71. 71. Installing WebSphere • Install WAS on your machine, according to the options specified in the previous slides. • Verify the installation by running the installation verification from the FirstSteps console. • Run the administrative console from the First Steps console. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  72. 72. Installing Silently • Installing WebSphere Application Server using silent installation refers to using a file to supply installation options without user interaction. • To configure the installation, change the options in the response file before you issue the installation command. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  73. 73. Customizing the Response file • Locate the sample options response file. The file is named responsefile.base.txt in the WAS directory on the product CD-ROM or DVD. • Copy the file to preserve it in its original form. For example, copy it as myoptions.txt on your disc drive. • Edit the copy in your flat file editor of choice, on the target operating system. Read the directions within the response file to choose appropriate values. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  74. 74. Installing Silently • Run the installer with the response file as a parameter: – "disc_drive_D:WASinstall" -options "C:tempWASmyoptionsfile.txt" -silent Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  75. 75. WAS Directory Structure Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  76. 76. WAS Directory Structure • • • • • • • bin – contains command line tools _uninst – uninstaller for products. config – XML configuration files InstalledApps – installed applications java – the JRE installed with WAS logs – WAS log files properties – property files for WAS configuration. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  77. 77. WAS Directory Structure • profiles – contains WAS profiles. (A profile defines a WAS configuration). • lib – WAS java libraries • derby – a lightweight relational DB. • samples – sample applications with source and jacl scripts. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  78. 78. Command Line Tools • • • • • startServer – starts the server stopServer – stops the server serverStatus – displays server status wasProfile – manage WAS profiles. versionInfo – displays installed product versions. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  79. 79. Log files in the logs directory • SystemOut.log – the JVM output log, contains all WAS and application messages logged to the standard output. • SystemErr.log – contains all WAS and application messages logged to standard error. • startServer.log and stopServer.log – log messages related to server startup and shutdown. • Native_stderr.log and native_stdout.log – contains log messages from native libraries logged to standard output and standard error. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  80. 80. The Admin Console Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  81. 81. The WAS Admin Console • A web based application for administrating the server. • Configuration is read and saved into XML files in the config directory. • The admin console itself is a JEE application installed on WebSphere. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  82. 82. Starting the admin console • The admin console can be started using a browser by pointing to the URL: http://localhost:9060/ibm/console • In the login screen we can optionally enter a username • If security is enabled we must enter a username and password. Authentication is performed using a JAAS module. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  83. 83. The WAS Admin Console Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  84. 84. Admin Console Navigation Menu • Servers – management and administration of application servers, web servers and MQ servers. • Applications – installation, removal and management of JEE applications. • Resources – creation and configuration of JEE resources such as JDBC Datasources, JMS queues and messaging engines, JCA Connectors and more. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  85. 85. Admin Console Navigation Menu • Security – security management and configuration for servers and applications. • Environment – configuration of virtual hosts, web server plugin generation, environment variables, JNDI naming and more. • System Administration – saving the master configuration and console prefrences. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  86. 86. Admin Console Navigation Menu • Users and Groups – configuration and management of users, groups and roles. Relevant only if administrative security is enabled. • Monitoring and Tuning – configuration of performance monitoring. • Troubleshooting – logging and tracing configuration. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  87. 87. Admin Console Navigation Menu • Service Integration – configuration of message buses and web services (handlers, security etc.) • UDDI – management of UDDI nodes, UDDI is a web services registry. • Guided Activities – wizards for connecting a web server to an application server and connecting to a database. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  88. 88. Customizing the Admin Console • The console navigation provides a hierarchical view of all of the tasks available in the console. A task is a page in the work area consisting of one or more console modules. • Use the view menu at the top of the navigation to filter the list of tasks by product. Or, you can create a customized list by selecting My tasks from the View menu. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  89. 89. Saving Changes • Until you save changes to the master repository, the administrative console uses a local workspace to track your changes. • You can update the master repository with your administrative console changes, discard your administrative console changes and continue working with the master repository, or continue working with your administrative console changes that are not saved to the master repository. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  90. 90. Console Preferences • Turn on workspace automatic refresh - Specifies whether you want the administrative console workspace to redraw automatically after the administrative configuration changes. • No confirmation on workspace discard - Specifies whether the confirmation dialog is displayed after a request is received to discard the workspace. The default is to display confirmation dialogs. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  91. 91. Console Preferences • Use default scope - Specifies whether the default scope is the administrative console node. • Show the help portlet - Specifies whether the help portlet on the right of the console displays. • Synchronize changes with nodes - Specifies whether to synchronize changes that are saved to the deployment manager profile with all the nodes that are running. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  92. 92. Console Preferences • Enable command assistance notifications Specifies whether to send Java Management Extensions (JMX) notifications that contain command assistance data from the administrative console. • Log command assistance commands Specifies whether to log all the command assistance wsadmin data to a file. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  93. 93. Application Server Settings Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  94. 94. Application Server Settings • Use this page to view or change the settings of an application server instance. An application server is a server which provides services required to run enterprise applications. • To view this administrative console page, click Servers > Application Servers > server_name. • On the Configuration tab, you can edit fields. On the Runtime tab, you can look at read-only information. The Runtime tab is available only when the server is running. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  95. 95. Configuration Tab – General Properties • Name - Specifies a logical name for the server. Server names must be unique within a node. Read only. • Node Name – the Websphere node. • Run in development mode - Enabling this option may reduce the startup time of an application server. • Parallel Start - Specifies that you want the server components, services, and applications to start in parallel rather than sequentially. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  96. 96. Configuration Tab – General Properties • Class loading mode - Specifies whether the class loader should search in the parent class loader or in the application class loader first to load a class. • Access to internal server classes - Specifies whether the applications can access many of the server implementation classes. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  97. 97. Runtime Tab • Process Id – the process id of the server process in the OS. • Cell Name • Node Name • State – the server’s state Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  98. 98. Container Settings • Web Container – settings related to the web container. • EJB Container – settings related to the EJB container. • Container services – ORB service settings, profiling settings, transaction settings and more. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  99. 99. Server Infrastructure • Java and process management – JVM settings, JVM system properties, process parameters etc. • Administration – configuration of administration services, JMX connection type etc. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  100. 100. Communication • Ports – the communication ports used by WebSphere, here we can change the ports. • Messaging – the JMS messaging listener service used by MDBs. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  101. 101. In General • The configuration tab contains shortcuts to categories that can be reached using the navigator. • Use the console’s online help by pressing the help link in the upper right corner of the screen, in order to get help about the various configuration options. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  102. 102. Administration with Scripting • WebSphere can also be configured using a scripting language. • WebSphere provides a scripting interface base on the Bean Scripting Framework(BSF) called wsadmin. • Wsadmin acts as an interface to Java objects accessed by scripts. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  103. 103. Administration with Scripting • Wsadmin uses JMX beans for configuration. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  104. 104. The wsadmin Tool • Wsadmin supports two different scripting language syntaxes: JACL and jython. • JACL is on its way out, jython will be the only scripting language used in WebSphere 7. • Most existing scripts today are written in JACL. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  105. 105. The wsadmin Tool • Wsadmin supports two different scripting language syntaxes: JACL and jython. • JACL is on its way out, jython will be the only scripting language used in WebSphere 7. • Most existing scripts today are written in JACL. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  106. 106. The wsadmin Tool • Wsadmin can be launched from <WAS_HOME>/profiles/<profile name>/bin/wsadmin.bat • Three ways to launch: – Command option wsadmin –c <command> – Script file: wsadmin –f <script file> – Interactively: wsadmin Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  107. 107. The wsadmin Tool • There are five Java objects that perform different operations: – AdminConfig – create or change the configuration. – AdminApp – install modify or manage applications. – AdminControl – work with running objects, perform traces and data type conversion. – AdminTask – access a set of task oriented administration commands. – Help – display information and details about which Mbeans are running. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  108. 108. JACL Script Example set temp [catch {$AdminApp list} appList] puts "List of application will be uninstalled are $appList" foreach app $appList { set temp [catch {$AdminApp uninstall $app} uninstallResult] puts "Uninstall result $uninstallResult" set temp [catch {$AdminConfig save} saveResult] puts "Save result $saveResult" } Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  109. 109. Managing Applications Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  110. 110. Managing Applications • Use the console to manage existing applications. (start, stop remove etc.) • Use the console to install new JEE applications packaged in an EAR file. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  111. 111. Enterprise Applications Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  112. 112. Enterprise Applications • • • • • Start – start the selected application. Stop – stop the selected application. Install – install a new application. Uninstall – remove an existing application. Update – update an existing application with a new EAR file. • Remove file – remove a single file from an application. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  113. 113. Enterprise Applications • Export – export the application as an EAR file. • Export DDL – export DDL files found in the application. • The application status shows the current status of the application (started, stopped). Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  114. 114. Installing an application • We can install an application in WebSphere in 3 different ways: – Using the Admin Console. – Using wsadmin scripting files. (we will discuss later). – Programmatically using JMX beans. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  115. 115. Installing an Application (step 1) • Choose the EAR file to install Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  116. 116. Installing an Application (step 1) • Browse the file system and choose the EAR file to install. • Context root – change the context root for web applications. In case we are installing a WAR file and not an EAR file. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  117. 117. Installing an Application (step 2) Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  118. 118. Installing an Application (step 2) • Precompile JavaServer Pages files - Specify whether to precompile JavaServer Pages (JSP) files as a part of installation. • Directory to install application – install the application is a specific directory. • Deploy enterprise beans – deploy EJBs if they have not been deployed. • Press the next button without overriding default values. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  119. 119. Installing an Application (step 3) Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  120. 120. Installing an Application (step 3) • Use this panel to specify deployment targets where you want to install the modules contained in your application. Modules can be installed on the same deployment target or dispersed among several deployment targets. A deployment target can be an application server, cluster of application servers or Web server. • Press the next button Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  121. 121. Installing an Application (step 4) Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  122. 122. Installing an Application (step 4) • Review your settings and press finish to complete the installation. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  123. 123. Installing an Application (step 5) Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  124. 124. Installing an Application (step 5) • WebSphere displays application deployment messages. Installation problems will be displayed here. • Chose save to master configuration to complete the application installation. • We can now start the application by choosing the manage applications link. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  125. 125. JEE Technologies Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  126. 126. JEE 1.4 Technologies • Presentation tier technologies – Servlets 2.4 – Java Server Pages (JSP) 2.0 – Java Standard Tag Library – Web Services These technologies enable the implementation of a presentation tier in the JEE framework. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  127. 127. JEE 1.4 Technologies • Enterprise Application Technologies – Enterprise Java Beans (EJB) 2.1 – Java Connector Architecture (JCA) 1.5 – Java Messaging Services (JMS) 1.1 – Java Transaction API (JTA) 1.1 These technologies enable the implementation of the business tier in the JEE framework. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  128. 128. Enterprise Java Beans (EJB) • What is EJB ? – EJB is a standard JEE technology developed by Sun and the Java community – A component architecture for building distributed applications. – A server side technology. – Usually used to implement the application’s business logic. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  129. 129. Benefits of EJB • • • • • • Distributed components Transaction management support Security Scalability and fail-over Asynchronous Persistence – object relational mapping. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  130. 130. EJB Types • Stateless Session beans • Stateful Session beans • Message driven beans – asynchronous, based on JMS. • Entities – Java Persistence architecture (JPA). Object-relational mapping. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  131. 131. EJB Example Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  132. 132. Java Messaging Services (JMS) • Messaging systems (MOM) provide – De-coupled communication – Asynchronous communication – Plays a role of centralized post office • Benefits of Messaging systems – Flexible, Reliable, Scalable communication systems • Point-to-Point, Publish and Subscribe • JMS defines standard Java APIs to messaging systems Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  133. 133. Java Connector Architecture (JCA) • Defines standard API for integrating J2EE technology with EIS systems – CICS, SAP, PeopleSoft, etc. • Before Connector architecture, each App server has to provide an proprietary adaptor for each EIS system – m (# of App servers) x n (# of EIS's) Adaptors • With Connector architecture, same adaptor works with all JEE compliant containers – 1 (common to all App servers) x n (# of EIS's) Adaptors Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  134. 134. Java Transaction API • The Java™ Transaction API (JTA) allows applications to perform distributed transactions, that is, transactions that access and update data on two or more networked computer resources. • The JTA specifies standard Java interfaces between a transaction manager and the parties involved in a distributed transaction system: the application, the application server, and the resource manager that controls access to the shared resources affected by the transactions. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  135. 135. Java Transaction API (JTA) • A JTA transaction is controlled by the Java EE transaction manager. • JEE support declarative transactions, called Container Managed Transactions. • The JTA API can also be used directly by the developer. • JTA supports XA transactions. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  136. 136. Servlets • Java™ objects which extend the functionality of a HTTP server • Dynamic contents generation • Better alternative to CGI, NSAPI, ISAPI, etc. – Efficient – Platform and server independent – Session management – Java-based Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  137. 137. Servlet Example A Servlet receives an HTTP request performs an action and generate output, Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  138. 138. Java Server Pages (JSP) • Enables separation of business logic from presentation – Presentation is in the form of HTML or XML/XSLT – Business logic is implemented as Java Beans or custom tags – Better maintainability, reusability • Extensible via custom tags • Builds on Servlet technology (JSP is compiled into a Servlet). Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  139. 139. JSP Example <%@ page import="java.util.*" %> <HTML> <BODY> <% System.out.println( "Evaluating date now" ); Date date = new Date(); %> Hello! The time is now <%= date %> </BODY> </HTML> Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  140. 140. Web Services • What is a Web Service ? – A web service is a software system identified by a URI, whose public interfaces and bindings are defined and described using XML. Its definition can be discovered by other software systems. These systems may then interact with the Web service in a manner prescribed by its definition, using XML-based messages conveyed by Internet protocols. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  141. 141. Web Services • Provide a way to connect heterogonous systems in a Language neutral, platform neutral manner. • Use the HTTP protocol to pass messages in the SOAP protocol. • Described by a Web Services Description language (WSDL) document. • Vendors provide tools to generate web service clients from a WSDL. • Web services can be registered and looked up in a UDDI directory. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  142. 142. Web Services Architecture Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  143. 143. Web Services in JEE • Web services are a platform neutral standard, JEE provides its own platform implementation. • JEE provide tools for exposing JEE components such as EJBs as web services. • JEE also provides tools for generating web service clients from existing WSDL documents and an API for accessing the services. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  144. 144. Java Authentication and Authorizations Service (JAAS) • Pluggable authentication framework – – – – Userid/password Smartcard Kerberos Biometric • Application portability regardless of authentication schemes underneath – JAAS provides authentication scheme independent API – Authentication schemes are specified Login configuration file, which will be read by JAAS Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  145. 145. JAAS Pluggable Authentication Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  146. 146. JNDI • Java Naming and Directory Interface • Utilized by J2EE applications to locate resources and objects in portable fashion – Applications use symbolic names to find object references to resources via JNDI – The symbolic names and object references have to be configured by system administrator when the application is deployed. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  147. 147. Java management Extensions (JMX) • JMX technology provides a simple, standard way of managing resources such as applications, devices, and services. • JMX is used to monitor and manage the JVM itself (the jconsole application is an example). • In JEE JMX is used to manage server configuration and resources. • All applications server vendors provide JMX beans, which manage their servers. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  148. 148. Java management Extensions (JMX) Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  149. 149. Putting it All Together Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  150. 150. The App server and JEE containers. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  151. 151. Resources • Info center for WAS 6.1 http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo • IBM Redbook – sg247304 WAS 6.1 System Management and configuration. • Admin Console context sensitive online help. Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009
  152. 152. Summary • • • • • • • WebSphere Overview JEE Overview WebSphere Architecture Installing WebSphere The Admin Console Managing Applications JEE Technologies Copyright © Oded Nissan 2009