Stout ricestinkbugmanagement2011

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Stout presentation on Rice Stink Bug Management. Advanced rice entomology training at rice research station in Crowley, La on March 2, 2011

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  • Note that the following correction should be made to slide 3: Parasitized eggs turn black as they age. Non-parasitized eggs turn red as they mature.
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Stout ricestinkbugmanagement2011

  1. 1. Rice Stink Bug Management : A program in transition Michael Stout, Bryce Blackman, Jason Hamm & Natalie Hummel
  2. 2. Life Cycle and Biology <ul><li>Adults begin overwintering in October and emerge from overwintering in March/April </li></ul><ul><li>Populations in spring and early summer build up on alternate grass hosts </li></ul>Barnyard grass Sprangletop Signalgrass Crabgrass
  3. 3. Life Cycle and Biology <ul><li>Females lay rows of 20-30 eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Laid over 900 in lab tests </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs turn black as they age </li></ul>
  4. 4. Life Cycle and Biology <ul><li>Nymphs hatch in 4-11 days </li></ul><ul><li>Five instars before adulthood </li></ul>
  5. 5. Life Cycle and Biology <ul><li>Adults and nymphs suck fluid from developing grains </li></ul>
  6. 6. Economic Importance <ul><li>Potential for yield losses </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding introduces fungi that causes peck </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to discoloration and broken kernels </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces grade and overall value of grain </li></ul>
  7. 7. Current Research Information System Item No. 1 of 1 ACCESSION NO: 0219171 SUBFILE: CRIS PROJ NO: LAB03993 AGENCY: NIFA LA.B PROJ TYPE: SPECIAL GRANT PROJ STATUS: NEW CONTRACT/GRANT/AGREEMENT NO: 2009-34103-20018 PROPOSAL NO: 2009-00835 START: 01 SEP 2009 TERM: 31 AUG 2012 FY: 2009 GRANT YR: 2009 GRANT AMT: $60,898 INVESTIGATOR: Stout, M.; Hummel, N.; Groth, D.; Machtmes, K.; Bernhardt, J.; Tindall, K.; Way, M. PERFORMING INSTITUTION: Entomology LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY BATON ROUGE, LOUISIANA 70893 REVISING MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS FOR THE RICE STINK BUG IN SOUTHERN RICE
  8. 8. Survey work – Dr. Hummel
  9. 9. Insecticide used to control rice stink bug in 2009 in Louisiana and Texas Percentage (%) LA Percentage (%) TX Malathion57% EC 29 8 Sevin 80S 0 0 Sevin 4F 0 0 Methyl 4 EC 19 36 KarateZ 67 48 Mustang Max 38 56 Prolex 3 0 Proaxis 0 0 Tenchu 20SG 1 40 Other 0 12
  10. 10. Components of a RSB management program <ul><li>Scouting and population monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Thresholds for insecticide applications </li></ul><ul><li>Insecticide applications </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative management tactics </li></ul>
  11. 11. For each component of the RSB management program… <ul><li>What is the current practice? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the weaknesses of the current practice? </li></ul><ul><li>What are we doing about it? </li></ul><ul><li>What should we be doing about it? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Components of a RSB Management Program <ul><li>Scouting: </li></ul><ul><li>Thresholds: </li></ul><ul><li>Insecticides: </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives to insecticides: </li></ul>
  13. 13. Scouting / population monitoring <ul><li>Begin at 50 – 75% heading </li></ul><ul><li>Sweep net -- 15 inch diameter </li></ul><ul><li>180˚ every step, at least 10 sweeps at 10 locations </li></ul>
  14. 14. What are the weaknesses of this scouting method? <ul><li>Standardization / consistency among samplers </li></ul><ul><li>Labor intensive </li></ul><ul><li>How efficient? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Using a Sweep Net for Insect Scouting Description: Dr. Roger Leonard demonstrates how to effectively use a sweep net in a soybean field for insect scouting. Primary Audience: General Resource Updated: 5/4/2010 8:52:14 AM File Type Using a Sweep Net-Dial-Up WMV Using a Sweep Net-Broadband WMVTo save, right click on file and select &quot;Save Target As...&quot;
  16. 16. Number of RSB “seeded” in 20 ft plot Number of RSB recaptured
  17. 19. % Response 0 100 100 50 50 75 75 25 25 Methyl Salicylate Caryophyllene Linalool Limonene Control * P < 0.05 Control Control Control * Odor Source 60 40 52 48 44 56 67 33
  18. 20. Prospective Technology <ul><li>Electronic nose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handheld volatile analysis computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tested on stink bugs in cotton </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Components of a RSB Management Program <ul><li>Scouting: Extension efforts to standardize sampling methods; research on attractants </li></ul><ul><li>Thresholds: </li></ul><ul><li>Insecticides: </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives to insecticides: </li></ul>
  20. 22. Components of a RSB Management Program <ul><li>Scouting: Extension efforts to standardize sampling methods; research on attractants </li></ul><ul><li>Thresholds: </li></ul><ul><li>Insecticides: </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives to insecticides: </li></ul>
  21. 24. Current Thresholds <ul><li>First two weeks of heading: 3 bugs per 10 sweeps (30 per 100) </li></ul><ul><li>After first two weeks: 10 bugs per 10 sweeps (100 per 100) </li></ul>
  22. 25. Potential weaknesses of these thresholds <ul><li>Origin of thresholds unknown; has not been updated for 25+ years to account for new varieties, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Thresholds in TX recently increased </li></ul><ul><li>Growers satisfied with thresholds, but are we spraying too much? </li></ul><ul><li>Thresholds for different varieties, ratoon? </li></ul>
  23. 27. RSB Cage Study <ul><li>2010- Four replications </li></ul><ul><li>Cages infested with RSB at 50-75% heading </li></ul><ul><li>Cages removed after 11 days </li></ul><ul><li>Plots sprayed biweekly thereafter until grain hardening </li></ul>
  24. 28. RSB Cage Study <ul><li>Treatments: 0, 1, 2, 5, or 10 stink bugs per 6.67 sq ft cage </li></ul><ul><li>Corresponds (roughly) to 0.8, 1.6, 4, and 8 x threshold </li></ul>
  25. 29. RSB Cage Study <ul><li>2010-Cage Study Yield (grams) </li></ul>Rep 1 Rep 2 Rep 3 0 358.14 606.61 446.15 1 392.55 422.85 461.26 2 444.67 555.22 397.53 5 451.06 537.82 437.50 10 472.83 581.68 468.79
  26. 30. Components of a RSB Management Program <ul><li>Scouting: Extension efforts to standardize sampling methods; research on attractants </li></ul><ul><li>Thresholds: Revise thresholds </li></ul><ul><li>Insecticides: </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives to insecticides: </li></ul>
  27. 31. Components of a RSB Management Program <ul><li>Scouting: Extension efforts to standardize sampling methods; research on attractants </li></ul><ul><li>Thresholds: Revise thresholds </li></ul><ul><li>Insecticides: </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives to insecticides: </li></ul>
  28. 32. Currently registered insecticides <ul><li>Pyrethroids (Karate, Mustang Max, Declare, Prolex) </li></ul><ul><li>Organophosphates (malathion, methyl parathion) </li></ul><ul><li>Sevin (carbaryl) </li></ul><ul><li>Neonicotinoids (dinotefuran – Section 18 in Texas) </li></ul>
  29. 33. What are the shortcomings of our current arsenal of insecticides? <ul><li>Some options ineffective </li></ul><ul><li>Short residual activities </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of methyl parathion </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns about resistance </li></ul>
  30. 34. EPA has received requests from the registrants to voluntarily cancel all product registrations containing methyl parathion, a restricted use organophosphate insecticide and acaricide used primarily on cotton, corn, and rice, as well as on other agricultural crops. These requests would terminate the last methyl parathion products registered for use in the U.S., effective December 31, 2012. End-use products will not be sold after August 31, 2013 , and end-use products cannot legally be used after December 31, 2013.
  31. 35. Location LC50 ( μ g) 95% CI LA 2001-2002 0.63 0.47-0.84 TX 2009 1.41 0.09-98.61 Round Mott 3.51 Ganado 2.80 East Bernard 1.05 Beaumont 0.67 AR 2009 0.53 0.27-0.99 LA 2009 0.86 0.61-1.23 MO 2009 0.65 0.34-1.34
  32. 36. Location LC50 ( μ g) 95% CI LA 2001-2002 0.63 0.47-0.84 Arkansas 2010 0.44 0.19-0.96 Amagon 0.20 0.01-1.29 Gus – 1 st collection 0.19 0.00-0.45 John Bernhardt 0.96 0.15-20.09 Mississippi 2010 0.16 0.10-0.21 Location 1 0.19 0.09-0.27 Location 2 0.14 0.06-0.21 Missouri 2010 0.54 0.20-1.73 Wardell 0.43 0.03-2.60 Lee Farm 0.56 0.43-0.69 Marsh Farm 0.35 0.26-0.44 Louisiana 2010 0.17 0.09-0.29 Texas 2010 0.44 0.15-0.81 Beaumont 0.16 0.10-0.22 Gandado 1.55 0.93-2.25 Kendelton 0.50 N/A Round Mott 1.79 1.24-2.57
  33. 37. New alternatives <ul><li>Declare, generic pyrethroids </li></ul><ul><li>Tenchu (dinotefuran), Section 18 submitted for Louisiana 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Other neonicotinoids and pyrethroid/neonic mixes </li></ul><ul><li>Some of these new products expected to have longer residual activities, but no evidence for this yet </li></ul><ul><li>Tank mixes with fungicides? </li></ul>
  34. 39. Components of a RSB Management Program <ul><li>Scouting: Extension efforts to standardize sampling methods; research on attractants </li></ul><ul><li>Thresholds: Revise thresholds </li></ul><ul><li>Insecticides: Evaluate new insecticides and cooperate in registration efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives to insecticides: </li></ul>
  35. 40. Components of a RSB Management Program <ul><li>Scouting: Extension efforts to standardize sampling methods; research on attractants </li></ul><ul><li>Thresholds: Revise thresholds </li></ul><ul><li>Insecticides: Evaluate new insecticides and cooperate in registration efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives to insecticides: </li></ul>
  36. 41. RSB vs Weed Density
  37. 42. RSB Variety Tolerance Trials <ul><li>2010- four experiments planted at different times, each with 4 reps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 CL 151, 2 CL161, 3 Cocodrie, 4 CL 131 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top 4 long grain varieties in 2009 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 Neptune, 6 Jupiter (replaced w/ Bengal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medium grain varieties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 CLXL723 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 Kaybonnet and 9 Lagrue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Displayed tolerance in previous tests </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 43. RSB Variety Tolerance Trials
  39. 44. Components of a RSB Management Program <ul><li>Scouting: Extension efforts to standardize sampling methods; research on attractants </li></ul><ul><li>Thresholds: Revise thresholds </li></ul><ul><li>Insecticides: Evaluate new insecticides and cooperate in registration efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives to insecticides: Host-plant resistance and cultural practices </li></ul>
  40. 45. Questions and comments: What should we be doing? <ul><li>Scouting video? New sampling approaches? </li></ul><ul><li>Revise thresholds? </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of insecticides? </li></ul><ul><li>Host-plant resistance research? Cultural practices? </li></ul>
  41. 46. Author <ul><li>Michael Stout </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>

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