Insecticide Toxicology Ottea

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Dr. Jim Ottea, LSU AgCenter Department of Entomology

* Insect toxicology – insecticide mode of action

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Insecticide Toxicology Ottea

  1. 1. Insect toxicology - insecticide mode of action Dr. Jim Ottea, LSU AgCenter Department of Entomology 10:30 to 11:15
  2. 2. Why Understand Mode of Action? <ul><li>Optimize insecticide use </li></ul><ul><li>Increase safety </li></ul>
  3. 3. Insecticides Are Nerve Poisons <ul><li>Nervous system is a rich source of target sites </li></ul><ul><li>Effects are rapid </li></ul><ul><li>Actions are lethal </li></ul>
  4. 4. In the beginning…
  5. 5. Eventually…
  6. 6. Avoid Resistance by… <ul><li>Limiting insecticide applications </li></ul><ul><li>Select insecticides that preserve beneficial insects </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the instructions on the label </li></ul><ul><li>If application fails, use an insecticide from a different chemical class </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.irac-online.org </li></ul>
  7. 7. Naming Insecticides I <ul><li>Trade Names : capitalized, with ® </li></ul><ul><li>Each insecticide may have many </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Karate® </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demand® </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Warrior® </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Rice Insecticides: Trade Names <ul><li>Proaxis®, Prolex®, Trebon®, Karate®, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mustang Max® </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Orthene®, Malathion 57EC®, Cheminova Methyl 4EC®, Sevin® </li></ul><ul><li>Cruiser® </li></ul><ul><li>Dermacor®, Rynaxypyr®, </li></ul><ul><li>Dimilin® </li></ul>
  9. 9. Naming Insecticides II <ul><li>Common names : not capitalized </li></ul><ul><li>Each insecticide has only one </li></ul><ul><li>Example: lamda- cyhalothrin </li></ul>
  10. 10. Rice Insecticides: Common Names <ul><li> - cyhalothrin, etofenprox, </li></ul><ul><li> - cyhalothrin, zeta-cypermethrin </li></ul><ul><li>acephate, malathion, methyl parathion </li></ul><ul><li>carbaryl </li></ul><ul><li>thiamethoxam </li></ul><ul><li>chlorantraniliprole </li></ul><ul><li>diflubenzuron </li></ul>
  11. 11. Naming Insecticides III <ul><li>Chemical class : insecticides with common structural features </li></ul><ul><li>Not absolute, but almost </li></ul><ul><li>Example: lambda- cyhalothrin is a pyrethroid </li></ul>
  12. 12. Rice Insecticides: Classes <ul><li>Pyrethroids (e.g., cyhalothrin) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogs of pyrethrins from pyrethrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Names end with “cyclopropanecarboxylate” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organophosphates (e.g., acephate) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogs from WWII German companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Names end with “phosph(on)ate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carbamates (carbaryl) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogs of eserine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Names end with “carbamate” </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Rice Insecticides: Classes <ul><li>Neonicotinoids (e.g., thiomethoxam) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Act like nicotine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Names end in different ways… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diamides (e.g., Rynaxypyr®) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completely novel mode of action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Names end with “carboxamide” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benzoylphenylureas (Dimilin®) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Target Sites <ul><li>Organophosphates/carbamates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group 1 (Acetylcholinesterase) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pyrethroids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group 3 (Sodium Channel) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neonicotinoids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group 4 (Nicotine receptor) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diamides- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group 28 (Ryanodine receptor) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Insecticide Safety <ul><li>Nerve poisons </li></ul><ul><li>Read and follow the label </li></ul><ul><li>Spray less toxic insecticides </li></ul>
  16. 16. Insecticide Toxicities <ul><li>Insecticide Chem Class (Group) Toxicity (LD5O ) </li></ul><ul><li>acephate organophosphate (1) 866 </li></ul><ul><li>malathion organophosphate (1) 1000 </li></ul><ul><li>methyl parathion organophosphate (1) 24 </li></ul><ul><li>carbaryl carbamate (1) 500 </li></ul><ul><li> - cyhalothrin pyrethroid (3) 80 </li></ul><ul><li> - cyhalothrin pyrethroid (3) 3200 </li></ul><ul><li>etofenprox pyrethroid (3) 42000 </li></ul><ul><li>zeta-cypermethrin pyrethroid (3) 90 </li></ul><ul><li>thiamethoxam neonicotinoid (4) 1563 </li></ul><ul><li>chlorantraniliprole diamide (28) >5000 </li></ul><ul><li>diflubenzuron benzoylurea (15) 4640 </li></ul>
  17. 17. Contact Info Dr. Jim Ottea [email_address] 225/578-1841

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