D17111 gc30 sg1

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D17111 gc30 sg1

  1. 1. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibited. Copyright© 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. SQL Star International Limited a ) has c om ฺ ailฺ uide gm 10g: Oracle Database nt G SQL @ rale tude Fundamentals II a hlk his S (r Guide A OStudente t • Volume 1 s N KR to u I e L MA icens A HU ble l L E R nsfera RA -tra KA non D17111GC30 Edition 3.0 January 2009 D57873
  2. 2. SQL Star International Limited Authors Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved. Disclaimer Salome Clement Chaitanya Koratamaddi This document contains proprietary information and is protected by copyright and Priya Vennapusa other intellectual property laws. You may copy and print this document solely for your own use in an Oracle training course. The document may not be modified or altered in any way. Except where your use constitutes "fair use" under copyright law, you may Technical Contributors not use, share, download, upload, copy, print, display, perform, reproduce, publish,Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibited. Copyright© 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. license, post, transmit, or distribute this document in whole or in part without the and Reviewers express authorization of Oracle. Claire Bennett The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. If you find any problems in the document, please report them in writing to: Oracle University, Brian Boxx 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, California 94065 USA. This document is not Zarko Cesljas warranted to be error-free. Laurent Dereac Restricted Rights Notice Nancy Greenberg Yash Jain If this documentation is delivered to the United States Government or anyone using the documentation on behalf of the United States Government, the following notice is Angelika Krupp applicable: a has Malika Marghadi Priya Nathan U.S. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS ) Narayanan Radhakrishnan c om ฺ The U.S. Government’s rights to use, modify, reproduce, release, perform, display, or ailฺ uide disclose these training materials are restricted by the terms of the applicable Oracle Bryan Roberts license agreement and/or the applicable U.S. Government contract. Lata Shivaprasad Trademark Notice gm t G @ n rale tude Naoko Susuki a Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. Other hlk his S names may be trademarks of their respective owners. r Editors A O ( se t Nita Pavitran I KR to u Atanu Raychaudhuri AN nse U L M lice AH rable Graphic Designer R L Sharmansfe SanjeevE A AR on-tra K n Publishers Jobi Varghese Giri Venugopal
  3. 3. SQL Star International Limited ContentsUnauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibited. Copyright© 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. Preface I Introduction Objectives I-2 Course Objectives I-3 Course Overview I-4 Course Application I-5 a Summary I-6 ) has c om ฺ 1 Controlling User Access ailฺ uide Objectives 1-2 gm t G @ n Controlling User Access 1-3 a rale tude Privileges 1-4 r hlk his S System Privileges 1-5 A O ( se t Creating Users 1-6 I KR to u AN ns User System Privileges 1-7 e L M lice Granting System Privileges 1-8 U What Is a Role? le R AHandrab 1-9 Privileges to a Role 1-10 LE ansfe Granting 1-11 Creating A Changing Your Password AR on-tr Privileges 1-12 K n Object Granting Object Privileges 1-14 Passing On Your Privileges 1-15 Confirming Privileges Granted 1-16 Revoking Object Privileges 1-17 Summary 1-19 Practice 1: Overview 1-20 2 Managing Schema Objects Objectives 2-2 ALTER TABLE Statement 2-3 Adding a Column 2-5 Modifying a Column 2-6 Dropping a Column 2-7 SET UNUSED Option 2-8 iii
  4. 4. SQL Star International Limited Adding a Constraint Syntax 2-10 Adding a Constraint 2-11 ON DELETE CASCADE 2-12 Deferring Constraints 2-13Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibited. Copyright© 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. Dropping a Constraint 2-14 Disabling Constraints 2-15 Enabling Constraints 2-16 Cascading Constraints 2-18 Overview of Indexes 2-20 CREATE INDEX with the CREATE TABLE Statement 2-21 Function-Based Indexes 2-23 Removing an Index 2-24 a DROP TABLE … PURGE 2-25 ) has FLASHBACK TABLE Statement 2-26 c om ฺ External Tables 2-28 ailฺ uide Creating a Directory for the External Table 2-30 gm t G Creating an External Table 2-32 le@ n ra2-34 tude a hlk his S Creating an External Table by Using ORACLE_LOADER r Querying External Tables 2-36 A O ( se t Summary 2-37 Practice 2: Overview 2-38 N I KR to u A nse U L M lice 3 Manipulating Large Datae AH rabl Sets R Objectives 3-2 fe LE ans to Manipulate Data 3-3 A tr AR onSubqueries Another Table 3-4 Using - K Copying Rows from nInserting Using a Subquery as a Target 3-5 Retrieving Data with a Subquery as Source 3-7 Updating Two Columns with a Subquery 3-8 Updating Rows Based on Another Table 3-9 Deleting Rows Based on Another Table 3-10 Using the WITH CHECK OPTION Keyword on DML Statements 3-11 Overview of the Explicit Default Feature 3-12 Using Explicit Default Values 3-13 Overview of Multitable INSERT Statements 3-14 Types of Multitable INSERT Statements 3-16 Multitable INSERT Statements 3-17 Unconditional INSERT ALL 3-19 Conditional INSERT ALL 3-20 Conditional INSERT FIRST 3-22 iv
  5. 5. SQL Star International Limited Pivoting INSERT 3-24 MERGE Statement 3-27 MERGE Statement Syntax 3-28 Merging Rows 3-29Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibited. Copyright© 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. Tracking Changes in Data 3-31 Example of the Flashback Version Query 3-32 VERSIONS BETWEEN Clause 3-34 Summary 3-35 Practice 3: Overview 3-36 4 Generating Reports by Grouping Related Data Objectives 4-2 a Review of Group Functions 4-3 ) has Review of the GROUP BY Clause 4-4 c om ฺ Review of the HAVING Clause 4-5 ailฺ uide GROUP BY with ROLLUP and CUBE Operators 4-6 gm t G @ n ROLLUP Operator 4-7 a rale tude ROLLUP Operator: Example 4-8 r hlk his S CUBE Operator 4-9 O ( se t A u CUBE Operator: ExampleKR NI se to 4-10 A GROUPING Function 4-11 n L M Example 4-12 U le e GROUPING Function: lic H RA ferab GROUPING SETS 4-13 E ns AL GROUPING SETS: Example 4-15 ra R Composite Columns 4-17 KA non-t Composite Columns: Example 4-19 Concatenated Groupings 4-21 Concatenated Groupings: Example 4-22 Summary 4-23 Practice 4: Overview 4-24 5 Managing Data in Different Time Zones Objectives 5-2 Time Zones 5-3 TIME_ZONE Session Parameter 5-4 CURRENT_DATE, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, and LOCALTIMESTAMP 5-5 CURRENT_DATE 5-6 CURRENT_TIMESTAMP 5-7 LOCALTIMESTAMP 5-8 v
  6. 6. SQL Star International Limited DBTIMEZONE and SESSIONTIMEZONE 5-9 TIMESTAMP Data Type 5-10 TIMESTAMP Data Types 5-11 TIMESTAMP Fields 5-12Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibited. Copyright© 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. Difference Between DATE and TIMESTAMP 5-13 TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE Data Type 5-14 TIMESTAMP WITH TIMEZONE: Example 5-15 TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIMEZONE 5-16 TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIMEZONE: Example 5-17 INTERVAL Data Types 5-18 INTERVAL Fields 5-20 a has INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH Data Type 5-21 INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH: Example 5-22 ) c om ฺ ailฺ uide INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND Data Type 5-23 INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND Data Type: Example 5-24 gm t G @ n rale tude EXTRACT 5-25 TZ_OFFSET 5-26 a r hlk his S O ( se t TO_TIMESTAMP_TZ 5-29 TIMESTAMP Conversion Using FROM_TZ 5-28 A KR to u 5-30 Converting to TIMESTAMP Using TO_TIMESTAMP and I e AN n5-31 Time Interval Conversion with TO_YMINTERVAL s L M lice Using TO_DSINTERVAL: Example U AH rable Daylight Saving Time 5-32 SummaryR A LE 5:ansfe 5-35 5-34 AR on-tr Practice Overview K n 6 Retrieving Data Using Subqueries Objectives 6-2 Multiple-Column Subqueries 6-3 Column Comparisons 6-4 Pairwise Comparison Subquery 6-5 Nonpairwise Comparison Subquery 6-6 Scalar Subquery Expressions 6-7 Scalar Subqueries: Examples 6-8 Correlated Subqueries 6-10 Using Correlated Subqueries 6-12 Using the EXISTS Operator 6-14 Find Employees Who Have At Least One Person Reporting to Them 6-15 Find All Departments That Do Not Have Any Employees 6-16 Correlated UPDATE 6-17 vi
  7. 7. SQL Star International Limited Using Correlated UPDATE 6-18 Correlated DELETE 6-20 Using Correlated DELETE 6-21 WITH Clause 6-22Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibited. Copyright© 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. WITH Clause: Example 6-23 Summary 6-25 Practice 6: Overview 6-27 7 Hierarchical Retrieval Objectives 7-2 Sample Data from the EMPLOYEES Table 7-3 Natural Tree Structure 7-4 a Hierarchical Queries 7-5 ) has Walking the Tree 7-6 c om ฺ Walking the Tree: From the Bottom Up 7-8 ailฺ uide Walking the Tree: From the Top Down 7-9 @ ngm t G rale tude Ranking Rows with the LEVEL Pseudocolumn 7-10 a hlk his S Formatting Hierarchical Reports Using LEVEL and LPAD 7-11 r Pruning Branches 7-13 A O ( se t Summary 7-14 I KR to u Practice 7: Overview N A 7-15nse U L M lice AH rable 8 Regular Expression Support R LE ansfe 8-2 Objectives A Regular Expression: Overview 8-3 AR on-tr Characters 8-4 K n Meta Using Meta Characters 8-5 Regular Expression Functions 8-7 REGEXP Function Syntax 8-8 Performing Basic Searches 8-9 Checking the Presence of a Pattern 8-10 Example of Extracting Substrings 8-11 Replacing Patterns 8-12 Regular Expressions and Check Constraints 8-13 Summary 8-14 Practice 8: Overview 8-15 Appendix A: Practice Solutions Appendix B: Table Descriptions and Data vii
  8. 8. SQL Star International Limited Appendix C: Writing Advanced Scripts Objectives C-2 Using SQL to Generate SQL C-3 Creating a Basic Script C-4Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibited. Copyright© 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. Controlling the Environment C-5 The Complete Picture C-6 Dumping the Contents of a Table to a File C-7 Generating a Dynamic Predicate C-9 Summary C-11 Appendix D: Oracle Architectural Components Objectives D-2 a Oracle Database Architecture: Overview D-3 Database Physical Architecture D-4 ) has c om ฺ Control Files D-5 ailฺ uide Redo Log Files D-6 gm t G @ n rale tude Tablespaces and Data Files D-7 a Segments, Extents, and Blocks D-8 r hlk his S O ( se t Oracle Instance Management D-9 A Oracle Memory Structures D-10 I KR to u AN nse Oracle Processes D-12 L M lice Other Key Physical Structures D-13 U AH rable Processing a SQL Statement D-14 R Connecting to an Instance D-15 A LE ansfe Processing a Query D-17 AR on-tr K nShared Pool D-18 Database Buffer Cache D-20 Program Global Area (PGA) D-21 Processing a DML Statement D-22 Redo Log Buffer D-24 Rollback Segment D-25 COMMIT Processing D-26 Summary D-28 Appendix E: Using SQL Developer Objectives E-2 What Is Oracle SQL Developer? E-3 Key Features E-4 Installing SQL Developer E-5 Menus for SQL Developer E-6 Creating a Database Connection E-7 viii
  9. 9. SQL Star International Limited Browsing Database Objects E-9 Creating a Schema Object E-10 Creating a New Table: Example E-11 Using SQL Worksheet E-12Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibited. Copyright© 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. Executing SQL Statements E-14 Viewing the Execution Plan E-15 Formatting the SQL Code E-16 Using Snippets E-17 Using Snippets: Example E-18 Using SQL*Plus E-19 Database Reporting E-20 Creating a User Defined Report E-21 a Summary E-22 ) has c om ฺ Index ailฺ uide gm t G @ n rale tude Additional Practices a r hlk his S O ( se t Additional Practice Solutions A I KR to u AN nse U L M lice R AH rable A LE ansfe AR on-tr K n ix
  10. 10. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibited. Copyright© 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. SQL Star International Limited a ) has c om ฺ ailฺ uide gm t G @ n a rale tude r hlk his S A O ( se t I KR to u AN nse U L M lice R AH rable A LE ansfe AR on-tr K n x
  11. 11. SQL Star International Limited PrefaceUnauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibited. Copyright© 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. a ) has c om ฺ ailฺ uide gm t G @ n a rale tude r hlk his S A O ( se t I KR to u AN nse U L M lice R AH rable A LE ansfe AR on-tr K n
  12. 12. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibited. Copyright© 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. SQL Star International Limited a ) has c om ฺ ailฺ uide gm t G @ n a rale tude r hlk his S A O ( se t I KR to u AN nse U L M lice R AH rable A LE ansfe AR on-tr K n
  13. 13. SQL Star International Limited Profile Before You Begin This Course Before you begin this course, you should have working experience with SQL. Prerequisites Oracle Database 10g: SQL Fundamentals IUnauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibited. Copyright© 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. How This Course Is Organized Oracle Database 10g: SQL Fundamentals II is an instructor-led course featuring lectures and hands-on exercises. Online demonstrations and written practice sessions reinforce the concepts and skills that are introduced. a ) has c om ฺ ailฺ uide gm t G @ n a rale tude r hlk his S A O ( se t I KR to u AN nse U L M lice R AH rable A LE ansfe AR on-tr K n Preface - 3
  14. 14. SQL Star International Limited Related Publications Oracle Publications Title Part Number Oracle® Database Reference 10g Release 2 (10.2) B14237-02 Oracle® Database SQL Reference 10g Release 2 (10.2) B14200-02Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibited. Copyright© 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. Oracle® Database Concepts 10g Release 2 (10.2) B14220-02 Oracle® Database Application Developers Guide - Fundamentals 10g Release 2 (10.2) B14251-01 SQL*Plus® Users Guide and Reference B14357-01 Additional Publications • System release bulletins a • Installation and user’s guides ) has c om ฺ ailฺ uide • read.me files • International Oracle User’s Group (IOUG) articles gm t G @ n • Oracle Magazine a rale tude r hlk his S A O ( se t I KR to u AN nse U L M lice R AH rable A LE ansfe AR on-tr K n Preface - 4
  15. 15. SQL Star International Limited Typographic Conventions The following two lists explain Oracle University typographical conventions for words that appear within regular text or within code samples. 1. Typographic Conventions for Words Within Regular TextUnauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibited. Copyright© 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. Convention Object or Term Example Courier New User input; Use the SELECT command to view commands; information stored in the LAST_NAME column, table, and column of the EMPLOYEES table. schema names; functions; Enter 300. PL/SQL objects; paths Log in as scott a ) has Assign a When-Validate-Itemc om to ฺ ailฺ uide Initial cap Triggers; trigger user interface object the ORD block. names, such as @ n gm t G button names a rale tud Click the Cancel button.e r hlk his S O ( se t A For Italic Titles of coursesNI KR to umore information on the subject see e Oracle SQL Reference MA icens Manual and ULemphasized manuals; A H ble l L aE R nsfera or phrases; Do not save changes to the database. words RA -tr placeholders or KA non variables Enter hostname, where hostname is the host on which the password is to be changed. Quotation marks Lesson or module This subject is covered in Lesson 3, titles referenced “Working with Objects.” within a course Preface - 5
  16. 16. SQL Star International Limited Typographic Conventions (continued) 2. Typographic Conventions for Words Within Code Samples Convention Object or Term Example Uppercase Commands, SELECT employee_idUnauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibited. Copyright© 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. functions FROM employees; Lowercase, Syntax variables CREATE ROLE role; italic Initial cap Forms triggers Form module: ORD Trigger level: S_ITEM.QUANTITY item Trigger name: When-Validate-Item a . . . h as Lowercase Column names, . . . o m) OG_ACTIVATE_LAYER ilฺc table names, a uideฺ filenames, gm t G (OG_GET_LAYER (prod_pie_layer)) @ n rale tude PL/SQL objects . . . SELECT a rhlk employees; S last_name ( FROM t his Text that must R AO use USER scott NIK se to Bold CREATE MA icen be entered by a IDENTIFIED BY tiger; L user A HU ble l L E R nsfera RA -tra KA non Preface - 6
  17. 17. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibited. Copyright© 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. SQL Star International Limited Introduction a ) has c om ฺ ailฺ uide @ n gm t G a rale tude r hlk his S A O ( se t I KR to u AN nse L M Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved. U le lice H E RA ferab R AL trans KA non-

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