MUHAMMAD MAHBUB HUSSAIN
                   MARCH, 2008
SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008   1
Contents
•   What is an ERP System?
•   Introduction to SAP
•   SAP R/3
•   Functional Modules
•   R/3 System Conceptual A...
What is an ERP System?
•   Enterprise Resource Planning systems (ERPs) are MISs that integrate and
    automate many of th...
Introduction to SAP
• As the world's leading provider of business software, SAP
  delivers products and services that help...
SAP R/3
• R/3 is an integrated suit of applications developed by
  SAP, designed to handle the data processing for large
 ...
SAP R/3 (ctn.)
• Logical view of SAP R/3 systems:




   – Applications are all written in ABAP/4, which is interpreted by...
Functional Modules of SAP R/3
• The standard set of applications (functional modules)
  delivered with each R/3 system as ...
R/2 System Conceptual Area

• From the UI, user can go to three conceptual
  areas in the R/3 system:

  – The Application...
Understanding BASIS
•   Basis is like an operating system for R/3, which sits between ABAP/4 and
    OS.
•   Known as “Mid...
Understanding BASIS (ctn.)
• SAP provides a suit of tools for administering the Basis
  system. The tools perform tasks su...
Understanding Client/Server
                  Architecture
•   Client/Server is two programs talking to each other as show...
R/3 System Architecture
• SAP based the architecture of R/3 on a three-tier client/server
  model.
• The R/3 system archit...
R/3 System Architecture (ctn.)
• The presentation server is actually a program named
  sapgui.exe, which is usually instal...
Configuring the Servers
•   During installation, the servers can be configured in four ways as follows:




              ...
Configuring the Servers (ctn.)
• When all servers (presentation, application and database are
  combined onto a single mac...
Application Server Architecture
• The components of an application server are shown below:




              SAP – A Bird’...
Application Server Architecture
• Application Server consists of – (1) a dispatcher, and (2)
  multiple work processes.
• ...
SAP’s Open SQL
•   To access the database in an ABAP/4 program, the programmers will have to code
    SAP’s Open SQL. Open...
SAP’s Open SQL (ctn.)
• The ABAP/4 interpreter passes all Open SQL statements to
  the data interface part of the work pro...
Overview: SAP Natweaver
•   It provides a complete infrastructure to develop, deploy and run platform-
    independent, ro...
Overview: SAP Web Application
           Server (WebAS)
•   SAP Web Application Server (SAP Web AS) is the application pla...
Overview: SAP WebAS (ctn.)
•   The following is SAP Web Application Server’s architecture diagram:




                   ...
Overview: SAP WebAS (ctn.)
•   SAP Web Application Server minimizes the effort required for change
    management, adminis...
Summary
• SAP software supports widest possible range of hardware
  platforms, development platforms, operating systems an...
SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008   25
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  • Sap – A Birds Eye View Mahbub

    1. 1. MUHAMMAD MAHBUB HUSSAIN MARCH, 2008 SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008 1
    2. 2. Contents • What is an ERP System? • Introduction to SAP • SAP R/3 • Functional Modules • R/3 System Conceptual Area • Understanding BASIS • Understanding Client-Server Architecture • R/3 System Architecture • Configuring the Servers • Application Server Architecture • SAP’s Open SQL • Overview of SAP’s Web Application Server/SAP Natweaver SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008 2
    3. 3. What is an ERP System? • Enterprise Resource Planning systems (ERPs) are MISs that integrate and automate many of the business practices associated with the operations or production and distribution aspects of a company engaged in manufacturing products or services. • ERPs are often called back office systems indicating that customers and the general public are not directly involved. • ERPs are cross-functional and enterprise wide. • All functional departments that are involved in operations or production are integrated in one system. • All functional departments that are involved in operations or production are integrated in one system. • Consulting in ERP involves two levels, namely business consulting and technical consulting. • Today there are also web-based ERP systems. • Companies would deploy web-based ERP because it requires no client side installation, and is cross-platform and maintained centrally. SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008 3
    4. 4. Introduction to SAP • As the world's leading provider of business software, SAP delivers products and services that help accelerate business innovation. • Founded in 1972, this German-based company has a rich history of innovation and growth that has made it a true industry leader. • More than 46,100 industrial clients in more than 120 countries run SAP applications. • With world-class software, value-added services, and unparalleled expertise addressing the unique demands of organizations in more than 35 industries, SAP continues to grow its market share as the world's leading provider of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software solutions. SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad 4 Mahbub Hussain. 2008
    5. 5. SAP R/3 • R/3 is an integrated suit of applications developed by SAP, designed to handle the data processing for large corporations. • The sole purpose of an R/3 system is to provide a suite of tightly integrated, large-scale business applications. • R/3 consists of – a runtime environment (BASIS), and – an integrated suit of application programs written in SAP’s 4GL – ABAP/4 • R/3 is a system in which the ABAP/4 programs run. • These application programs are designed to meet data processing needs of very large businesses. SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008 5
    6. 6. SAP R/3 (ctn.) • Logical view of SAP R/3 systems: – Applications are all written in ABAP/4, which is interpreted by BASIS executables, which in turn, run on the Operating System. SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008 6
    7. 7. Functional Modules of SAP R/3 • The standard set of applications (functional modules) delivered with each R/3 system as the following: • PP (Production Planning) • MM (Material Management) • SD (Sales and Distribution) • FI (Financial Accounting) • CO (Controlling) • AM (Fixed Assets Management) • PS (Project System) • WF (Workflow) • IS (Industry Solutions) • HR (Human Resources) • PM (Plant Maintenance) • QM (Quality Management) SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008 7
    8. 8. R/2 System Conceptual Area • From the UI, user can go to three conceptual areas in the R/3 system: – The Applications area – The BASIS Area – The development SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008 8
    9. 9. Understanding BASIS • Basis is like an operating system for R/3, which sits between ABAP/4 and OS. • Known as “Middleware”. • Basis is a set of programs to load, interpret, and buffer inputs and outputs of programs written in ABAP/4. • Basis, in some respect, is like Windows environment. Windows starts up, and while running it provides an environment in which Windows programs can run. • ABAP/4 programs run within protective Basis environment; they are not executables that run on the operating system. Instead, Basis reads ABAP/ 4 code and interprets it into operating system instructions. • ABAP/4 programs do not directly use OS functions. Instead, they use Basis functions to perform file I/O and display data in Windows. This level of isolation from the OS enables ABAP/4 programs to be ported without modifications to any system that supports R/3. • Basis is an interface, using which, the user can start ABAP/4 programs. SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008 9
    10. 10. Understanding BASIS (ctn.) • SAP provides a suit of tools for administering the Basis system. The tools perform tasks such as – – System performance monitoring – Configurations (Transport, change, spool, authorizations etc.) – System Maintenance – SW Installation and maintenance – Flow control and optimization – Management of disk spaces – Database backups and restoration of data in the event of errors – Re-organization of data pools (table spaces, tables and so on) – Client and user administration etc. SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008 10
    11. 11. Understanding Client/Server Architecture • Client/Server is two programs talking to each other as shown below: • A program can function as both a client and a server if it both requests information and relies to requests. • One-, two- and three-tiered client server configurations: SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008 11
    12. 12. R/3 System Architecture • SAP based the architecture of R/3 on a three-tier client/server model. • The R/3 system architecture appears as follows: SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008 12
    13. 13. R/3 System Architecture (ctn.) • The presentation server is actually a program named sapgui.exe, which is usually installed on a workstation. • When started, the presentation server displays the R/3 menus within a window. This window is commonly known as SAPGUI or the user interface. • SAPGUI accepts input from the user, and sends these requests to the application server(s) to be processed. • The application server contacts the database(s) eventually through the database server(s), and sends the results back to SAPGUI which then formats the output for display to the user. SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad 13 Mahbub Hussain. 2008
    14. 14. Configuring the Servers • During installation, the servers can be configured in four ways as follows: SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008 14
    15. 15. Configuring the Servers (ctn.) • When all servers (presentation, application and database are combined onto a single machine, it is known as a central configuration. • In the two-tier client/server configuration, the presentation and application servers are combined, and the database server is separate. This configuration is used in conjunctions with other application servers. • In the distribution presentation configuration, application and database servers are combined on one computer, and the presentation servers run separately. This is used for smaller systems, and is often seen on a development system. • In three-tier client/server configuration, the presentation servers, application servers and database server all run on separate machines. This is the most common configuration for large systems, and is common in production. 15 SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008
    16. 16. Application Server Architecture • The components of an application server are shown below: SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008 16
    17. 17. Application Server Architecture • Application Server consists of – (1) a dispatcher, and (2) multiple work processes. • All requests that come in from the presentation servers are directed first to the dispatcher. The dispatcher writes then first to the dispatcher FIFO queue. • From the queue, each request is allocated to the first available work process. A work process handles one request at a time. • To perform any processing for a user’s request, a work process needs to address two special memory areas: (1) the user context, and (2) the program roll area. • The user context area is a memory area that contains information about the user. • The program roll area is a memory area that contains information about the programs execution. SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008 17
    18. 18. SAP’s Open SQL • To access the database in an ABAP/4 program, the programmers will have to code SAP’s Open SQL. Open SQL is a subset and variation of ANSI SQL. • The following shows the database interface component of the work process: SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008 18
    19. 19. SAP’s Open SQL (ctn.) • The ABAP/4 interpreter passes all Open SQL statements to the data interface part of the work process. • There, the Open SQL statements are converted to SQL that is native to the installed RDBMS. • Using Open SQL has three main advantages as follows: • Portability: SQL statement s are portable between databases. For example, if for some reason, a company wants to switch from an Oracle to a DB2 database, it could change the database, and the old ABAP/4 code would continue to run without any modifications. • Buffering data in the Application Server: Database interface buffers information from the database on the application server. This buffering technique reduces the load on the database servers, and can speed up database access time by a factor of 10 to 100 times. • Automatic client handling: With Open SQL, the client field is automatically populated by the database interface, which provides the development and testing team many advantages, such as, ability to perform multiple simultaneous testing on a single database etc. SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008 19
    20. 20. Overview: SAP Natweaver • It provides a complete infrastructure to develop, deploy and run platform- independent, robust and scalable Web Services and business applications. • To allow this flexibility, different technologies have been established/integrated, such as, (1) ABAP, (2) Java/J2EE, (2) DB and OS Abstraction etc. SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008 20
    21. 21. Overview: SAP Web Application Server (WebAS) • SAP Web Application Server (SAP Web AS) is the application platform of SAP NetWeaver, i.e. it provides the complete infrastructure to develop, deploy and run all SAP NetWeaver applications. The major key capability of SAP Web AS is the full support for both the proven ABAP technology and the innovative open source internet-driven technologies Java, Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) and Web Services. • Integrates the ABAP and Java personalities in one application server – a homogeneous infrastructure for J2EE-based and ABAP-based applications – supporting the existing ABAP applications - ABAP-based, Java-based and Web-based application development – OS and DB portability for both ABAP-based and Java-based applications - high performing internal ABAP- Java communication. • SAP Web Application Server embraces native web technologies while providing all the benefits of SAP’s knowledge and experience through an evolutionary, standards-based approach. SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008 21
    22. 22. Overview: SAP WebAS (ctn.) • The following is SAP Web Application Server’s architecture diagram: SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008 22
    23. 23. Overview: SAP WebAS (ctn.) • SAP Web Application Server minimizes the effort required for change management, administration, and monitoring, thus reducing the cost of ownership. • SAP Web Application Server contains three separate layers:  the presentation layer: In the presentation layer, the user interface of a Web application can be developed directly with JavaServer Pages (JSP) or Business Server Pages (BSP) and the corresponding JSP tag library; or with the high- level Web Dynpro technology; or with a mixture of both, if necessary.  the business layer: The business logic layer is based on SAP’s professional and proven application server environment, and  the integration layer: The integration engine provides messaging services that exchange messages between the components that are connected in SAP Exchange Infrastructure. In SAP Exchange Infrastructure, shared knowledge is maintained centrally, whereas the physical communication model allows communications through the central integration engine and also peer-to-peer communication directly from component to component. • The technical architecture of SAP Web Application Server consists of two shared facilities for high scalability, reliability, and platform independence:  the Internet Communication Manager (ICM) : which provides a single framework for connectivity using a variety of communication protocols, and  the persistence level: which supports database independence and scalable transaction handling. SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008 23
    24. 24. Summary • SAP software supports widest possible range of hardware platforms, development platforms, operating systems and databases. • SAP R/3 is a research driven, highly flexible, secure, and most comprehensive architecture. • Basis is like an operating system for R/3, which sits between ABAP/ 4 and OS. • In addition to allowing native SQL, ABAP/4 provides Open SQL, which provides portable codes, faster and automatic client handling. • Brings together the benefits of a proven, scalable and reliable infrastructure with the interoperability and flexibility of Web Services technology – SAP Web AS can act as both the Web Services client and - server for easily integrating existing and new enterprise applications behind a firewall as well as driving collaborative scenarios that cross company boundaries. SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008 24
    25. 25. SAP – A Bird’s Eye View. Muhammad Mahbub Hussain. 2008 25

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