Homogeneous SAP Systems
Where Database server & Application server are running on the same
O.S. Like Win NT & Unix , presentation are running on windows
Heterogeneous SAP Systems
Database server running on one O.S. (Unix) & Application server
running on different O.S (Win NT) ,& presentation server running on
SAP R/3 Architecture
R/3 Basis R/3 Application 1
Kernel & Basis Services
Database Management System
R/3 Application n
SAP R/3 Communication Protocol
Communication among the three tiers server is accomplished with the use of
standard protocol services,such as one provided by TCP/IP or CPIC .
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol /Internet Protocol
At the OS level TCP/IP protocol used , Mainly to communicate with database,
application & presentation layer
CPIC Common Programming Interface Communication
AT the programming level ,R/3 system uses the CPIC protocol for program to
program communication and also includes support for Remote Function Calls
Installation of SAP R/3
INSTALL DATABASE SOFTWARE ON DATABASE SERVER
INSTALL SAP SOFTWARE ON APPLICATION SERVER
UPLOAD DATA TO SAP SYSTEM (Main database creation)
SUPPORT PACKAGE (PATCH) LOADING
POST INSTALLATION Steps
READY FOR USING
SAP R/3 Supported Platforms(1)
The key of SAP R/3 success was the strategy of making open solutions ,
in which the applications can run on multiple operating systems ,
databases ,and communication technologies.
OPERATING SYSTEM LEVEL :
WINDOWS SERVER 32-BIT
DATABASE LEVEL :
SAP R/3 Supported Platforms(2)
NT 4.0 Intel
NT 4.0 Alpha
SAP support period
Please Upgrade SAP before the mention date
SAP R/3 CORE BUSINESS MODULES
•SAP R/3 applications usually categorized in three core functional areas
Financial Accounting (FI)
Asset Management (AM)
Enterprise Controlling (EC)
Capital Investment Management (IM)
Plant Maintenance (PM)
Quality Management (QM)
Production Planning (PP)
Materials Management (MM)
Sales and Distribution (SD)
Project System (PS)
•Human Resources (HR)
INDUSTRY SOLUTIONs (ADD-ON s)
Additionally,SAP actively develops special software packages on top of R/3
,targeted to specialized vertical industries.These packages are known as
INDUSTRY SOLUTIONs (IS) .These packages are fully integrated with the
rest of R/3 applications.SAP has the following IS packages like
•IS-B: Sap Industry solution for Banks
•IS-H: Sap Industry solution for Hospitals
•IS-IS: Sap Industry solution for Insurance,Money,Foreign Exchange
•IS-OIL: Sap Industry solution for Oil companies
•IS-P: Sap Industry solution for Publishing sector
•IS-PS: Sap Industry solution for Public sector
•IS-Retail: Sap Industry solution for Retail
•IS-T: Sap Industry solution for Telecommunication Sector
These IS-Packages are a collection of specific business processes,set of
transactions,programs,screens,documentation's Which fully integrated
with the R/3 applications.
Other solutions like CRM , SCM , BIW , PUBLIC-SECTOR etc.
can integrate With the sap system .
R/3 BASIS Software is the set of programs & tools which interfaces
with the computer operating system ,database ,Application server &
and the presentation interfaces .
Basis software mainly R/3 common Kernel or R/3 Middle ware
which is the nucleus of a system known as the SAP KERNEL .
The main kernel directory in application server is
R/3 WORK PROCESS or SERVICES
In SAP naming convention , a service is a process or a group of work
Computing system i e running the particular Services known as a
server or Application server .
Standard Work processes
The SAP dispatcher is the control program which manages
the resources of the R/3 applications.
The main tasks of the dispatcher are as follows:
Balanced assignment of the transaction load to the
appropriate work process
Buffer management in the main memory.
Connection with the presentation level.
Organization of the communication process.
Dialog work processes(1)
A dialog step is a sap r/3 screen,which is represented by a dynamic
program(dynpro) .A dynamic program consists of a screen and all the
associated processing logic .
When users are entered something on the screen & press enter ,they are
actually making one dialog step .
The dialog work processes are in charge of interactive
task of the R/3 System . A dialog process performs the
dialog steps corresponding to the user interactive
The SAP profile parameter that controls the number of
interactive Dialog Work Process per instance is
Update work Process
The update process is in charge of executing
database changes when requested by dialog or
background work Processes.
Enqueue work Process
The enqueue work process is in charge of lock
Management system. It allows multiple application
Services to synchronize the access to the database
and maintain data consistency.
Background work Process
The background work processes are in charge of
executing ABAP/4 programs submitted for
The SAP profile parameter that controls the
number of background work processes per
instance is rdisp/wp_no_btc
Message work Server
The message server is a service used by the
different Application servers to exchange data
and internal messages. The message server
routes the messages between application servers.
Gateway work Server
The gateway server allows the communication
between the R/3, R/2 and external applications.
This service is a CPIC handler which implements
the CPIC protocol for Communication. This is
commonly known as a gateway.
The function of the SAP gateway is to exchange
larger Amounts of data between application
Spool work Process
The spool work process is in charge of formatting
the data for printing and passing it to the host
The SAP profile parameter that controls the
number of background work processes per
instance is rdisp/wp_no_spo
Setting of R/3 WORK PROCESS
Name of the Services
Enqueue (Lock management) (E)
0 or 1
Message Server process
0 or 1
Taken care by
Logical flow of a execution of a user request SAPGUI
User enter data using
SAPGUI convert data to sap format & sent to dispatcher
Dispatcher keeps the requests in queues & process one by one
Dispatcher allocates user request to free work process
Real execution takes place inside work processes
End of execution, result goes back to Dispatcher
Dispatcher sends data to user using SAPGUI
Time is taken from step1 to step 7 is known as RESPONSE TIME .
Basis Terminology (1)
A R/3 System consists of combination of database server and the application servers .
SAP System Identification
The SAP System Identification, often referred to as the SAPSID, or SID, is a unique
three-character code that identifies the R/3 System. SAP System Identification codes
used are DEV for the development system, QAS for the quality assurance system, and
PRD for the production system.
A client is a legal and organizational entity in the R/3 System whose business
management data is protected against unlawful access.
In addition, a client:
Has its own set of user data
Is a logical system with separate master records
Has its own set of table data on common table .
The landscape consists of all R/3 Systems (Instances) involved in the implementation
project and client architectures that access (or share) a common transport directory.
Basis Terminology (2)
Customizing is the process of configuring the SAP R/3 System such that the R/3
functionality fits the company’s needs.
This is where the database resides. Main data stores in this server .
This is where R/3 application runs. On a 2 tiered system, this would be combined with the
An installation of R/3 on a application server .
Graphical User Interface. The SAPgui is the software on users computer or local
server that allows to connect to one or more of the SAP environments.
Disk Space Requirements
To configure a R/3 Release 4.X System, each database will require approximately 20
GB of disk space.
An application server will require approximately 2 GB of disk space .
A client with pure customizing data will require between 700 to 1500 MB.
If the client also contains application data, such as a production system, the storage
requirements can increase to several GB.
The disk space requirements can also be affected by the:
Relational database management system (RDBMS) selected
Number of clients in the system
Number of master data records
Number of transaction data records
Amount of historical data retained
Server Requirement for sap installation (Case study)
Intel 80686 (Mod 8 Step 3)
Intel 80686 (Mod 10 Step 1)
X86 Family 6 Model 8 Stepping 3 Genuine Intel ~789 Mhz
X86 Family 6 Model 10 Stepping 1 Genuine Intel ~700 Mhz
HP Net Server LC2000
HP Net Server LH6000
Windows 2000 , service pack 2
SAP R/3 Directory structure (1)
The physical parent directory of the whole sap application is /usr/sap
Transport directory is /usr/sap/trans
SAP system parent directory <sapsid> , which is /usr/sap/SCM
If more than one sap system will installed on the same machine then additional
directory will be created under /usr/sap/….. ..
SAP R/3 Directory structure (2)
Sap mount directory is /sapmnt useful for sharing the common files with all
system belonging to the same group .
Mainly /sapmnt/scm indicates the directory /usr/sap/scm
Directory /sapmnt/scm/sys/exe/run it contains all sap runtime programs
this directory also called sap kernel directory.Most of the program files in this
directory are directly used by sap processes
Directory /sapmnt/scm/sys/profile which contains sap profile files like
startup-profile ,default-profile & instance-profile.
Directory /sapmnt/scm/sys/global which contains global or common data
managed by the SAP application & shared by all instances ,all types of logs.
R/3 ClientSap installed it comes with
3 default clients with default
users and default password.
CLIENT Independent customizing
An R/3 System is subdivided into clients .
In R/3 most of Customer business data in sub groups divided by
clients ,these type of data is client dependent data
When the SAP objects are just accessed by only one client, we
define them as client dependant data.
Some data in R/3 which is shared by all client like R/3
repository data.This type of data is client independent data.
R/3R/3 database can be divided into two logical components:
• R/3 repository object
• R/3 customer data
R/3 repository : central part of this is ABAP dictionary i.e. programs,screens,
reports provided by sap or created or modified by sap user .
Customer data : customer data consists of any kind of data entered into r/3
by the customer in time of sap implementation or day to day
business processing .
This data generated when r/3 is configured to meet the particular needs of the
customer through customizing.Most customizing data is client-dependent some
is independent .
Also known as business data ,which generated day by day business processing.
Mainly master data , transaction data .
User master data
Records of R/3 users password & authorization
System strategies(1) setup the question we
•In time of system
have to face
How many R/3 systems will be needed ?
What function will be performed by each R/3 system in a
system landscape ?
How many clients will be needed by each R/3 system ?
What role will each client play in the system Landscape ?
Three types of Environment needed for a system strategies
Development environment (DEV)
For development activities .
Quality Assurance environment (QA)
For extensive testing the developed or customized object .Mainly for
integration testing purpose.
Production environment (PRD)
For actual company business transaction.
Combination of all the system is called SYSTEM LANDSCAPE .
Three types of system landscape are
Development client , Testing client , Production Client on a same server .
•For this type of system , hardware cost & administrative cost is lower .
•Changes to client-independent or repository objects will affect the whole
•The performance of the system affect all clients
•Production data is a accessible from development & testing environment
•Problems during the implementation of other applications , when some
production is going on .
•Problems when modifying standard programs
•If the system crashes the all three R/3 systems will be affected .
Most of the disadvantages with a one-system landscape are
associated with client independent changes, repository
changes, & upgrades , that immediately impact the production
environment. These disadvantages are a much greater problem
once the R/3 System is in a productive state.
For this case development & QA testing done on same system .
But production on different system .
•The production system (PRD) containing only the finalized production
After completing the preparation phase (test, verification, and release), the
parameters and programs can be transported from the development system
(DEV) to the production system (PRD) .
(DEV client QA client PRD System).
Minimal amount of hardware investment.
Minimal system administration and change request management required
•Recommended only for projects with a limited amount of ongoing development
•No separate quality assurance system (QAS) for isolated testing
•Client-independent customizing activity must be carefully planned so that, it
does not affect other customizing/development activities
In this case development ,QA , production take place on different system.
The most recommended system in SAP .
•New development can start without affecting the production environment.
•QA system allows for integration testing of developments before promoted
•Production data is secure, security will prevent access to sensitive data &
client settings will prevent the unauthorized changing of data .
•Production performance is not affected by other clients, there is only one
production client .
•The general sandbox client (SAND) in the development system (DEV) makes it
easier to become familiar with the new application functions and conduct
•Client-independent customizing testing can occur without conflicts
•Requires increased system administration and change management activities
•Increase hardware cost
Transport management system
Within the R/3 System Landscape customizing & development changes performed,
in a development client ,has to transfer to QAS client & PRD client .
SAP R/3 enables user to record changes to a CHANGE REQUEST ,which is
distributed to other client or other R/3 system .
When changes to either customizing or repository objects are made,the changed
objects are recorded to a TASK in a Change Request corresponding to a specific
After completion the development ,user release the Change Request & transport
to QAS & PRD system .
Transport Directory usrsaptrans
SAP consultants divide themselves into 3 categories
FUNCTIONAL consultant: Experienced people in some business areas
who knows how to customize those modules
to meet the customers need.
Technical consultants who taken care installation
sap administration , database administration.
ABAP programmer: Technical consultant who writes sap programs
& reports for any new requirements in sap by
using ABAP/4 programming language.
Customizing : Once customer buy one sap-kit,it contains all the modules
with all the business processes.the next step is to customize
to suit business needs & practices.
ABAP/4 Advanced Business Application Programming (4GL)
ABAP/4 is a SAP programming language used in the development of all standard
applications included with R/3 .SAP has designed a full purpose development
environment known as ABAP/4 development workbench.
SAP Screen Features(1)
screen has seven main areas: Screen Header, Menu Bar,
Standard Toolbar, Title Bar, either a Navigation Toolbar or
Application Toolbar, Screen Body, and Status Bar..
SAP Screen Features(2)
The Command field is used to enter transaction codes
Standard Toolbar Buttons
The SAP buttons displayed on the Toolbar provide quick access to commonly used
If a Toolbar button is gray, it is not available for use on that particular screen.
OPENNING A SAP SESSION using saplogon-pad
• Navigation to opening a SAP session
1. Start Programs SAP Fronted SAPLogon
2. Choose any one of the icon ‘SAPlogon’ or ‘SAPlogon-pad’ from the desktop .
Choose any server name e.g. ‘SCMA SERVER’ .
Then the Sap screen will open & connect to the Application server defined on SAPlogon pad
Creating one new entry on SAP-logon
Enter IP address of
server & the system
• Creation of new SAPLogon on logon-pad .
We create giving the IP address & the system number which is the
identification of the instance.`
OPENNING A SAP SESSION using sap-session-manager front-end can be
server first .
Language to open
the sap session .
FIRST SCREEN ON SAP
Enter Proper Client id ,
User id , Password &
Language to open the
sap session .
Start work on Basis
SAP menu Tools Administration
Start Basis Adminstration
• Basis Administration
• User Administration
• Client Administration
• Transport Management
Navigation Using Transaction Codes
SAP provides a unique multi-character identifier for each system task. This
name is called a transaction code which is a navigation alternative to using a
path to get to a system task
Transaction code may contain letters only, or a combination of letters and
Used in conjunction with a prefix such as /n or /o .
e.g . SPAM , SU01 .
/n ends the current transaction and switches to the new one without saving
in the current transaction .
/o opens a new SAP session and accesses the new transaction without ending
current one (which will remain open in the background session)
Transaction Code(1) operation that lets a user make changes to a database .
Transaction is an
In SAP transaction is a sequence of related steps ,are screens in which data
is introduced causing the generation of other events.
The final task of a transaction is to modify the information which ultimately
goes into the database. The database is not updated until a transaction has
All the transactions in the R/3 system have an associated transaction code.
All available transaction are held in table TSTC .To see the table data we can
use the transaction codes SE16 / SE11 .
We can create user defined transaction code by using SE93 .
The Used transaction code by the user can be monitored using the transaction
code SE93 to
TC start with Y
code STAT to
code used by
Navigation : Menu System Status
Client Maintenance using the transaction code SCC4
Create or maintain User
using the transaction code
Maintain User Authorization using transaction code PFCG
Configure & Maintain Transport Management using transaction
Maintain Transport management system System
code STMS .
Maintain Transport request
Maintain Transport Request using transaction code SE01
Maintain RFC RFC connection using the transaction code SM59.
Maintain SAP SAP Profile using the transaction code RZ10.
Maintain SAP SAP table using the transaction code SE11.
Maintain table data
To Can Monitor any user with R/3 or not using TC SM04.
monitoring Logon user working
ToCreate customizing setting by the transaction code SPRO
maintain the customizing setting within R/3
ToUploadsupport package to R/3 using transaction code SPAM
upload the support packages
ToMonitor log of thelog messages transaction code SM21
monitoring system system using
Database backup scheduling database backup using TC DB13
Scheduling and monitoring
Sending System Message to the sap users using TC SM02.
Send system message
SAP SYSTEM STARTUP or SHUTDOWN(1)
Double click on the
icon ‘SAP SYSTEM
CONSOLE’ to START
to start &
SAP SYSTEM STARTUP or SHUTDOWN(2)
Right click the
name (scma here)
option will come
the right one
When the sap
will green &
status will show
SAP SYSTEM STARTUP or SHUTDOWN(3)
SAPDBA tool can be invoke from operating system (dos prompt for WinNT) using the
command C:> sapdba
also can be done by
using SAPDBA tool.
STARTUP/ SHUTDOWN can be done from operating system (dos prompt for WinNT)
using the commands
C:> startsap (Starting sap & db )
C:> stopsap (Stoping sap & db )
C:> startsap r3 (Starting sap server only ,when db is running )
C:> stopsap r3 (Stoping sap server only, but db will running )
C:> startsap db (Starting db only ,but sap will not start )
C:> stopsap db (Stoping db ,when sap already stopped )
Roles of an Basis Admin(1)
Within R/3 :
Set up and maintain user accounts
New user setup
Reset a password
Lock or unlock a user
Create and maintain SAP security profiles
Monitor and manage security access and violations
Create a system message
Start or stop the system
Maintain the health of the system
Monitor system performance and logs
Transport changes from one system to another
Manage change requests
Roles of R/3 Basis Admin(2)
Create and manage the scheduling of batch jobs
Schedule, run, and monitor backup jobs of the SAP database and any required
operating system level files
Disaster recovery technical manager
Create, test, and execute the SAP disaster recovery plan
Apply Online Service System note fixes to programs
Data Dictionary (DDIC) manager
Change the Data Dictionary (when applicable)
Roles of an Basis Admin(3)
Outside R/3 :
DBA for the specific database on which the system is running
Manage database specific tasks
Maintain the database’s health and integrity
Operating system administrator
Manage the operating system access and user IDs
Manage operating system specific tasks
Supports the user’s desktop PC
Changing system profile parameters
Applying hot packages or legal change patches
Upgrading the kernel
Client copy (create, copy, and delete)
Transporting objects from system to system
4th largest software vendor in the world
30+ years of business experience
7,500+ customers in 90+ countries
13,000+ R/3 installations
1,400+ R/2 installations
Worldwide presence in over 50 countries outside Germany
SAP WORLWIDE HEADQUARTER ADDRESS :
SAP AG Germany
Neurottstrass 16, D –69190 Walldorf ,Germany
Phone : 06227 –34 –0
Web site : www.sap.com