05. sap architecture final and os concepts (1)


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05. sap architecture final and os concepts (1)

  1. 1. SAP Architecture of R/3
  2. 2. Homogeneous SAP Systems Where Database server & Application server are running on the same O.S. Like Win NT & Unix , presentation are running on windows workstation. Heterogeneous SAP Systems Database server running on one O.S. (Unix) & Application server running on different O.S (Win NT) ,& presentation server running on Windows-based workstations.
  3. 3. SAP R/3 Architecture R/3 User R/3 User Presentation Components ABAP Workbench R/3 Basis R/3 Application 1 System Kernel & Basis Services Database Management System Database R/3 Application n
  4. 4. SAP R/3 Communication Protocol Communication among the three tiers server is accomplished with the use of standard protocol services,such as one provided by TCP/IP or CPIC . TCP/IP  Transmission Control Protocol /Internet Protocol At the OS level TCP/IP protocol used , Mainly to communicate with database, application & presentation layer CPIC  Common Programming Interface Communication AT the programming level ,R/3 system uses the CPIC protocol for program to program communication and also includes support for Remote Function Calls (RFC).
  6. 6. SAP R/3 Supported Platforms(1) The key of SAP R/3 success was the strategy of making open solutions , in which the applications can run on multiple operating systems , databases ,and communication technologies. OPERATING SYSTEM LEVEL : AIX COMPAQ TRU64 DG-UX DYNIX/PTX HP-UX NCR UNIX SNI DC/OSX WINDOWS SERVER 32-BIT RELIANT SOLARIS/SPARC LINUX/INTEL OS/400 DATABASE LEVEL : ORACLE SQL SERVER DB2 ADABAS INFORMIX
  7. 7. SAP R/3 Supported Platforms(2) Oracle Informix DB2 SQL SERVER Adabase D HP-UX X X X AIX X X Reliant/UNIX X X X Digital unix X X X Solaris X X X NT 4.0 Intel X X NT 4.0 Alpha X X X X X X X OS/390 X OS/400 X X
  8. 8. SAP support period Please Upgrade SAP before the mention date
  9. 9. SAP R/3 CORE BUSINESS MODULES •SAP R/3 applications usually categorized in three core functional areas Financial Logistics Human Resource
  10. 10. Application Modules •Financials Financial Accounting (FI) Controlling (CO) Asset Management (AM) Enterprise Controlling (EC) Capital Investment Management (IM) Treasury (TR) •Logistics Plant Maintenance (PM) Quality Management (QM) Production Planning (PP) Materials Management (MM) Sales and Distribution (SD) Project System (PS) •Human Resources (HR) Personal Administration Personal Development
  11. 11. INDUSTRY SOLUTIONs (ADD-ON s) Additionally,SAP actively develops special software packages on top of R/3 ,targeted to specialized vertical industries.These packages are known as INDUSTRY SOLUTIONs (IS) .These packages are fully integrated with the rest of R/3 applications.SAP has the following IS packages like •IS-B: Sap Industry solution for Banks •IS-H: Sap Industry solution for Hospitals •IS-IS: Sap Industry solution for Insurance,Money,Foreign Exchange •IS-OIL: Sap Industry solution for Oil companies •IS-P: Sap Industry solution for Publishing sector •IS-PS: Sap Industry solution for Public sector •IS-Retail: Sap Industry solution for Retail •IS-T: Sap Industry solution for Telecommunication Sector These IS-Packages are a collection of specific business processes,set of transactions,programs,screens,documentation's Which fully integrated with the R/3 applications. Other solutions like CRM , SCM , BIW , PUBLIC-SECTOR etc. can integrate With the sap system .
  12. 12. Basis Software  R/3 BASIS Software is the set of programs & tools which interfaces with the computer operating system ,database ,Application server & and the presentation interfaces . Basis software mainly R/3 common Kernel or R/3 Middle ware which is the nucleus of a system known as the SAP KERNEL . The main kernel directory in application server is usrsap<SID>sysexerun
  13. 13. R/3 WORK PROCESS or SERVICES In SAP naming convention , a service is a process or a group of work process . Computing system i e running the particular Services known as a server or Application server .
  14. 14. SERVICES in R/3
  15. 15. Standard Work processes SAPGUI SAPGUI SAPGUI SAPGUI Dispatcher D I A L O G U P D A T E E N Q U E U E B A C K G R O M E S S A G E DATABASE INSTANCE G A T E W A Y S P O O L
  16. 16. Dispatcher processes The SAP dispatcher is the control program which manages the resources of the R/3 applications. The main tasks of the dispatcher are as follows:  Balanced assignment of the transaction load to the appropriate work process  Buffer management in the main memory.  Connection with the presentation level.  Organization of the communication process.
  17. 17. Dialog work processes(1) Dialog Step: A dialog step is a sap r/3 screen,which is represented by a dynamic program(dynpro) .A dynamic program consists of a screen and all the associated processing logic . When users are entered something on the screen & press enter ,they are actually making one dialog step . The dialog work processes are in charge of interactive task of the R/3 System . A dialog process performs the dialog steps corresponding to the user interactive sessions. The SAP profile parameter that controls the number of interactive Dialog Work Process per instance is rdisp/wp_no_dia
  18. 18. Dialog work processes(2)
  19. 19. Update work Process The update process is in charge of executing database changes when requested by dialog or background work Processes.
  20. 20. Enqueue work Process The enqueue work process is in charge of lock Management system. It allows multiple application Services to synchronize the access to the database and maintain data consistency.
  21. 21. Background work Process The background work processes are in charge of executing ABAP/4 programs submitted for background execution. The SAP profile parameter that controls the number of background work processes per instance is rdisp/wp_no_btc
  22. 22. Message work Server The message server is a service used by the different Application servers to exchange data and internal messages. The message server routes the messages between application servers.
  23. 23. Gateway work Server The gateway server allows the communication between the R/3, R/2 and external applications. This service is a CPIC handler which implements the CPIC protocol for Communication. This is commonly known as a gateway. The function of the SAP gateway is to exchange larger Amounts of data between application servers.
  24. 24. Spool work Process The spool work process is in charge of formatting the data for printing and passing it to the host spool system. The SAP profile parameter that controls the number of background work processes per instance is rdisp/wp_no_spo
  25. 25. Setting of R/3 WORK PROCESS Name of the Services . Min Number of processes Dialog Services (D) >=2 rdisp/wp_no_dia >=0 rdisp/wp_no_vb, rdisp/wp_no_vb2 Enqueue (Lock management) (E) 0 or 1 rdisp/wp_no_enq Background Process (B) >=1 rdisp/wp_no_btc Message Server process (M) 0 or 1 Gateway services (G) >=1 Spool services (S) >=1 Update Services (V) Taken care by the parameters rdisp/wp_no_spo
  26. 26. Process Overview
  27. 27. Logical flow of a execution of a user request SAPGUI User enter data using 1. 2. SAPGUI convert data to sap format & sent to dispatcher 3. Dispatcher keeps the requests in queues & process one by one 4. Dispatcher allocates user request to free work process 5. Real execution takes place inside work processes 6. End of execution, result goes back to Dispatcher 7. Dispatcher sends data to user using SAPGUI Time is taken from step1 to step 7 is known as RESPONSE TIME .
  28. 28. Basis Terminology (1) R/3 System A R/3 System consists of combination of database server and the application servers . SAP System Identification The SAP System Identification, often referred to as the SAPSID, or SID, is a unique three-character code that identifies the R/3 System. SAP System Identification codes used are DEV for the development system, QAS for the quality assurance system, and PRD for the production system. Client A client is a legal and organizational entity in the R/3 System whose business management data is protected against unlawful access. In addition, a client: Has its own set of user data Is a logical system with separate master records Has its own set of table data on common table . System Landscape The landscape consists of all R/3 Systems (Instances) involved in the implementation project and client architectures that access (or share) a common transport directory.
  29. 29. Basis Terminology (2) Customizing Customizing is the process of configuring the SAP R/3 System such that the R/3 functionality fits the company’s needs. Database Server This is where the database resides. Main data stores in this server . Application Server This is where R/3 application runs. On a 2 tiered system, this would be combined with the database server. Instance An installation of R/3 on a application server . GUI: Graphical User Interface. The SAPgui is the software on users computer or local server that allows to connect to one or more of the SAP environments.
  30. 30. Disk Space Requirements To configure a R/3 Release 4.X System, each database will require approximately 20 GB of disk space. An application server will require approximately 2 GB of disk space . A client with pure customizing data will require between 700 to 1500 MB. If the client also contains application data, such as a production system, the storage requirements can increase to several GB. The disk space requirements can also be affected by the:  Relational database management system (RDBMS) selected  Number of clients in the system  Number of master data records  Number of transaction data records  Amount of historical data retained
  31. 31. Server Requirement for sap installation (Case study) DEV Intel 80686 (Mod 8 Step 3) Machine Type PRD Intel 80686 (Mod 10 Step 1) Processor DEV X86 Family 6 Model 8 Stepping 3 Genuine Intel ~789 Mhz PRD X86 Family 6 Model 10 Stepping 1 Genuine Intel ~700 Mhz DEV HP Net Server LC2000 PRD HP Net Server LH6000 Total Physical Memory DEV 1GB PRD 4 GB Total Virtual Memory DEV 6 GB PRD 12 GB Disk Space DEV 60 GB PRD 130 GB Server Model O.S. Windows 2000 , service pack 2 SAP R/3 Release 46C Database Oracle
  32. 32. SCM SAP R/3 Directory structure (1) These sap directories created by sap installation DVEBMGS00 The physical parent directory of the whole sap application is /usr/sap Transport directory is /usr/sap/trans SAP system parent directory <sapsid> , which is /usr/sap/SCM If more than one sap system will installed on the same machine then additional directory will be created under /usr/sap/….. ..
  33. 33. SAP R/3 Directory structure (2) Sap mount directory is /sapmnt useful for sharing the common files with all system belonging to the same group . Mainly /sapmnt/scm  indicates the directory /usr/sap/scm Directory /sapmnt/scm/sys/exe/run it contains all sap runtime programs this directory also called sap kernel directory.Most of the program files in this directory are directly used by sap processes Directory /sapmnt/scm/sys/profile which contains sap profile files like startup-profile ,default-profile & instance-profile. Directory /sapmnt/scm/sys/global which contains global or common data managed by the SAP application & shared by all instances ,all types of logs.
  34. 34. R/3 ClientSap installed it comes with  When 3 default clients with default users and default password. Client User 000 000 001 001 066 SAP* DDIC SAP* DDIC EARLYWATCH Default Password 06071992 19920706 06071992 19920706 SUPPORT
  35. 35. CLIENT CLIENT CLIENT 000 R/3 Data(1) 066 001 CLIENT Independent customizing SAP Repository Object  An R/3 System is subdivided into clients .  In R/3 most of Customer business data in sub groups divided by clients ,these type of data is client dependent data When the SAP objects are just accessed by only one client, we define them as client dependant data. Some data in R/3 which is shared by all client like R/3 repository data.This type of data is client independent data.
  36. 36. R/3R/3 database can be divided into two logical components: Data(2) • R/3 repository object • R/3 customer data R/3 repository : central part of this is ABAP dictionary i.e. programs,screens, reports provided by sap or created or modified by sap user . Customer data : customer data consists of any kind of data entered into r/3 by the customer in time of sap implementation or day to day business processing . Customizing data This data generated when r/3 is configured to meet the particular needs of the customer through customizing.Most customizing data is client-dependent some is independent . Application data Also known as business data ,which generated day by day business processing. Mainly master data , transaction data . User master data Records of R/3 users password & authorization
  37. 37. System strategies(1) setup the question we •In time of system have to face  How many R/3 systems will be needed ?  What function will be performed by each R/3 system in a system landscape ?  How many clients will be needed by each R/3 system ?  What role will each client play in the system Landscape ? Three types of Environment needed for a system strategies  Development environment (DEV) For development activities .  Quality Assurance environment (QA) For extensive testing the developed or customized object .Mainly for integration testing purpose.  Production environment (PRD) For actual company business transaction. Combination of all the system is called SYSTEM LANDSCAPE . Three types of system landscape are  Single-system Landscape  Two-system Landscape  Three-system Landscape
  38. 38. System strategies(2) Single-system Landscape Development client , Testing client , Production Client on a same server . Advantages •For this type of system , hardware cost & administrative cost is lower . Disadvantages •Changes to client-independent or repository objects will affect the whole environment . •The performance of the system affect all clients •Production data is a accessible from development & testing environment •Problems during the implementation of other applications , when some production is going on . •Problems when modifying standard programs •If the system crashes the all three R/3 systems will be affected . Most of the disadvantages with a one-system landscape are associated with client independent changes, repository changes, & upgrades , that immediately impact the production environment. These disadvantages are a much greater problem once the R/3 System is in a productive state.
  39. 39. System strategies(3) Two-system Landscape For this case development & QA testing done on same system . But production on different system . Advantages •The production system (PRD) containing only the finalized production environment . After completing the preparation phase (test, verification, and release), the parameters and programs can be transported from the development system (DEV) to the production system (PRD) . (DEV client  QA client  PRD System). Minimal amount of hardware investment. Minimal system administration and change request management required Disadvantages •Recommended only for projects with a limited amount of ongoing development •No separate quality assurance system (QAS) for isolated testing •Client-independent customizing activity must be carefully planned so that, it does not affect other customizing/development activities
  40. 40. Three strategies(4) System-system Landscape In this case development ,QA , production take place on different system. The most recommended system in SAP . Advantages •New development can start without affecting the production environment. •QA system allows for integration testing of developments before promoted to production. •Production data is secure, security will prevent access to sensitive data & client settings will prevent the unauthorized changing of data . •Production performance is not affected by other clients, there is only one production client . •The general sandbox client (SAND) in the development system (DEV) makes it easier to become familiar with the new application functions and conduct suitability testing •Client-independent customizing testing can occur without conflicts Disadvantages •Requires increased system administration and change management activities •Increase hardware cost
  41. 41. Transport management system Within the R/3 System Landscape customizing & development changes performed, in a development client ,has to transfer to QAS client & PRD client .  SAP R/3 enables user to record changes to a CHANGE REQUEST ,which is distributed to other client or other R/3 system . When changes to either customizing or repository objects are made,the changed objects are recorded to a TASK in a Change Request corresponding to a specific user . After completion the development ,user release the Change Request & transport to QAS & PRD system .  Transport Directory  usrsaptrans DEV QAS PRD
  42. 42. SAP consultants SAP consultants divide themselves into 3 categories FUNCTIONAL consultant BASIS consultant ABAP programmers FUNCTIONAL consultant: Experienced people in some business areas who knows how to customize those modules to meet the customers need. BASIS consultant: Technical consultants who taken care installation sap administration , database administration. ABAP programmer: Technical consultant who writes sap programs & reports for any new requirements in sap by using ABAP/4 programming language. Customizing : Once customer buy one sap-kit,it contains all the modules with all the business processes.the next step is to customize to suit business needs & practices. ABAP/4  Advanced Business Application Programming (4GL) ABAP/4 is a SAP programming language used in the development of all standard applications included with R/3 .SAP has designed a full purpose development environment known as ABAP/4 development workbench.
  44. 44. SAP Screen Features(1) • SAP screen has seven main areas: Screen Header, Menu Bar, Standard Toolbar, Title Bar, either a Navigation Toolbar or Application Toolbar, Screen Body, and Status Bar..
  45. 45. SAP Screen Features(2) Command Field The Command field is used to enter transaction codes Standard Toolbar Buttons The SAP buttons displayed on the Toolbar provide quick access to commonly used SAP functions. If a Toolbar button is gray, it is not available for use on that particular screen.
  46. 46. OPENNING A SAP SESSION using saplogon-pad • Navigation to opening a SAP session 1. Start Programs SAP Fronted  SAPLogon 2. Choose any one of the icon ‘SAPlogon’ or ‘SAPlogon-pad’ from the desktop . Choose any server name e.g. ‘SCMA SERVER’ . Then the Sap screen will open & connect to the Application server defined on SAPlogon pad Continue …..
  47. 47. Creating one new entry on SAP-logon Enter IP address of the application server & the system number • Creation of new SAPLogon on logon-pad . We create giving the IP address & the system number which is the identification of the instance.` Continue …..
  48. 48. OPENNING A SAP SESSION using sap-session-manager front-end can be SAP open using Session Manager. Choose Application server first . Enter Proper USERID,Client ID, Password & Language to open the sap session . SAP
  49. 49. FIRST SCREEN ON SAP Enter Proper Client id , User id , Password & Language to open the sap session . Now start Working
  50. 50. Start work on Basis SAP menu Tools Administration Start Basis Adminstration • Basis Administration • User Administration • Client Administration • Transport Management
  51. 51. Navigation Using Transaction Codes  SAP provides a unique multi-character identifier for each system task. This shorthand name is called a transaction code which is a navigation alternative to using a menu path to get to a system task  Transaction code may contain letters only, or a combination of letters and numbers. Used in conjunction with a prefix such as /n or /o . e.g . SPAM , SU01 .  /n ends the current transaction and switches to the new one without saving any data in the current transaction .  /o opens a new SAP session and accesses the new transaction without ending Command field the with transaction current one (which will remain open in the background session) Code.
  52. 52. Transaction Code(1) operation that lets a user make changes to a database . Transaction is an  In SAP transaction is a sequence of related steps ,are screens in which data is introduced causing the generation of other events.  The final task of a transaction is to modify the information which ultimately goes into the database. The database is not updated until a transaction has finished.  All the transactions in the R/3 system have an associated transaction code.  All available transaction are held in table TSTC .To see the table data we can use the transaction codes SE16 / SE11 .  We can create user defined transaction code by using SE93 . The Used transaction code by the user can be monitored using the transaction code STAT.
  53. 53. Transaction Code(2) Transaction code SE93 to maintain TC. User defined TC start with Y or Z
  54. 54. Transaction Code(3) Transaction code STAT to monitor Transaction code used by any user
  55. 55. System Status  Navigation : Menu  System  Status
  56. 56. Client Maintenance using the transaction code SCC4  Maintain client
  57. 57. User Maintenance Create or maintain User using the transaction code SU01
  58. 58. Maintain Authorization  Maintain User Authorization using transaction code PFCG
  59. 59. Configure & Maintain Transport Management using transaction  Maintain Transport management system System code STMS .
  60. 60. Maintain Transport request  Maintain Transport Request using transaction code SE01 .
  61. 61. Maintain RFC RFC connection using the transaction code SM59.  Maintain connection
  62. 62. Maintain SAP SAP Profile using the transaction code RZ10.  Maintain Profile
  63. 63. Maintain SAP SAP table using the transaction code SE11.  Maintain table data
  64. 64. To Can Monitor any user with R/3 or not using TC SM04. monitoring Logon user working
  65. 65. ToCreate customizing setting by the transaction code SPRO maintain the customizing setting within R/3
  66. 66. ToUploadsupport package to R/3 using transaction code SPAM upload the support packages
  67. 67. ToMonitor log of thelog messages transaction code SM21 monitoring system system using
  68. 68. Database backup scheduling database backup using TC DB13 Scheduling and monitoring
  69. 69. Sending System Message to the sap users using TC SM02.  Send system message
  70. 70. SAP SYSTEM STARTUP or SHUTDOWN(1) Double click on the icon ‘SAP SYSTEM MANAGEMNT CONSOLE’ to START SAPMMC . SAPMMC Which used to start & stop sap application server .
  71. 71. SAP SYSTEM STARTUP or SHUTDOWN(2) SAPMMC Right click the application server name (scma here) the start/stop option will come choose the right one SAPMMC When the sap system start properly then msg_server.ex e& disp+work.exe will green & status will show Running .
  72. 72. SAP SYSTEM STARTUP or SHUTDOWN(3) SAPDBA tool can be invoke from operating system (dos prompt for WinNT) using the command C:> sapdba SAPDBA Sap startup/shutdown also can be done by using SAPDBA tool. STARTUP/ SHUTDOWN can be done from operating system (dos prompt for WinNT) using the commands C:> startsap (Starting sap & db ) C:> stopsap (Stoping sap & db ) C:> startsap r3 (Starting sap server only ,when db is running ) C:> stopsap r3 (Stoping sap server only, but db will running ) C:> startsap db (Starting db only ,but sap will not start ) C:> stopsap db (Stoping db ,when sap already stopped )
  73. 73. Roles of an Basis Admin(1) Within R/3 :  User administrator Set up and maintain user accounts New user setup Reset a password Lock or unlock a user  Security administrator Create and maintain SAP security profiles Monitor and manage security access and violations System administrator Create a system message Start or stop the system Maintain the health of the system Monitor system performance and logs Transport administrator Transport changes from one system to another Manage change requests
  74. 74. Roles of R/3 Basis Admin(2) an : Within Batch scheduler Create and manage the scheduling of batch jobs Backup operator Schedule, run, and monitor backup jobs of the SAP database and any required operating system level files  Disaster recovery technical manager Create, test, and execute the SAP disaster recovery plan  Programmer Apply Online Service System note fixes to programs  Data Dictionary (DDIC) manager Change the Data Dictionary (when applicable)
  75. 75. Roles of an Basis Admin(3) Outside R/3 :  DBA for the specific database on which the system is running Manage database specific tasks Maintain the database’s health and integrity Operating system administrator Manage the operating system access and user IDs Manage operating system specific tasks Desktop support Supports the user’s desktop PC Maintenance R/3 Changing system profile parameters Applying hot packages or legal change patches Upgrading the kernel Client copy (create, copy, and delete) Transporting objects from system to system
  76. 76. SAP Today  4th largest software vendor in the world  30+ years of business experience  7,500+ customers in 90+ countries  13,000+ R/3 installations  1,400+ R/2 installations  ~13,000 employees  Worldwide presence in over 50 countries outside Germany SAP WORLWIDE HEADQUARTER ADDRESS : SAP AG Germany Neurottstrass 16, D –69190 Walldorf ,Germany Phone : 06227 –34 –0 Web site : www.sap.com www.sap-ag.de