the Ihram

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the Ihram

  1. 1. The State of Ihram During the Hajj to Mecca By Emily Rompelman
  2. 2. <ul><li>- WHAT IS ‘IHRAM’? </li></ul><ul><li>- WHERE AND WHEN DOES IHRAM START? </li></ul><ul><li>- REASONS OF IHRAM </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF IHRAM </li></ul><ul><li>HOW TO WEAR THE IHRAM </li></ul><ul><li>- PHYSICAL RESTRICTIONS OF IHRAM </li></ul><ul><li>- PHYSICAL EXCEPTIONS TO IHRAM </li></ul><ul><li>- SPIRITUAL ASPECTS OF IHRAM </li></ul><ul><li>- VARIATIONS BY GENDER </li></ul><ul><li>- THE CESSATION OF IHRAM </li></ul><ul><li>HISTORICAL ACCOUNTS </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONAL ACCOUNTS </li></ul><ul><li>RESOURCES </li></ul>TABLE OF CONTENTS
  3. 3. WHAT IS ‘IHRAM’? <ul><li>“ al-ihram”: means ‘prohibition’ or making unlawful </li></ul><ul><li>First prescribed ritual act of the hajj, marking the entrance </li></ul><ul><li>into spiritual purification, represented through physical and spiritual </li></ul><ul><li>change. </li></ul><ul><li>- At the specific ‘miquat’ or sacred point, men are to take off all stitched </li></ul><ul><li>clothing and put on two hirrawems, or white cloths. One on the lower </li></ul><ul><li>portion of the body from the waist down and the other is shoulder down, </li></ul><ul><li>covering only the left shoulder, leaving the right shoulder and arm open </li></ul><ul><li>for movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of technological advances, pilgrims dress in airplanes or other </li></ul><ul><li>modes of transportation. </li></ul>Encyclopedia of Religion, p. 7158 Peters, F.E., p. 117, 114-115
  4. 4. WHERE AND WHEN DOES IHRAM START? Peters, F.E., p. 114-115 Encyclopedia of Religion, p. 7158 <ul><li>Begins with salat (daily prayers); trims nails, shaves all hair </li></ul><ul><li>(further cutting of nails and hair is prohibited) </li></ul><ul><li>Niyah : Prayer that declares a pilgrim’s intention of lesser </li></ul><ul><li>pilgrimage (circumambulate the Ka’ba) </li></ul><ul><li>Salat: formal prostrations in the direction of the Ka’ba, done </li></ul><ul><li>Twice before entering sacred territory. Then done at dawn, </li></ul><ul><li>noon, midday, sunset and dusk. </li></ul><ul><li>Du’at: asking God for supplication </li></ul><ul><li>Talbiyyah: said loudly when passing through markers and </li></ul><ul><li>Voiced frequently throughout the hajj. Translated to: “ Here </li></ul><ul><li>I am, O Lord! What is Thy command?” or “At Your Service O </li></ul><ul><li>Lord, at Your Service” </li></ul>
  5. 5. REASONS OF IHRAM <ul><li>One’s ihram represents their answering God’s call </li></ul><ul><li>- The physical aspect represents the burial shroud; as one </li></ul><ul><li>enters ihram and performs the hajj, their soul is the only </li></ul><ul><li>thing in front of God and not their body. </li></ul><ul><li>Brotherhood: The uniform cloth represents how </li></ul><ul><li>all Muslims are brothers, which the hajj and umrah celebrate. </li></ul>Peters, F.E., p. 115
  6. 6. PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF IHRAM <ul><li>“ ‘ He [man] shall not wear shirt, nor turban, nor </li></ul><ul><li>Trousers, nor headgear, nor any dyed cloth; and if he </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot find footwear, then let him wear leather </li></ul><ul><li>Stockings, but cut off so they may be lower than the </li></ul><ul><li>ankles.’” </li></ul><ul><li>- Bukhari, The Sound 3.53 </li></ul><ul><li>- Clothing- hirrawems : white cloths; a belt can be </li></ul><ul><li>used to hold up the lower cloth. </li></ul><ul><li>Footwear- Gimgameea : thin-soled shoes where </li></ul><ul><li>leather only covers the toes. It appears that flip-flop </li></ul><ul><li>Sandals are appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>- One is to not wear any perfumes or scents. </li></ul>Peters, F.E., p. 55-56, 115-116 Click picture to view an online store
  7. 7. HOW TO WEAR THE IHRAM <ul><li>Wishah (normal way): The izar, or lower cloth, </li></ul><ul><li>is worn from waist down </li></ul><ul><li>and the rida, or upper cloth, </li></ul><ul><li>is worn to cover the shoulders. </li></ul><ul><li>Idtiba (done when entering Tawaf ul Qudom, </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to perform the hajj): the rida is put over </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the left shoulder, from back to front, with </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the other end under his right arm and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>put over the left shoulder. </li></ul></ul></ul>Textile Research Center, Leiden Netherlands click picture for various applications of the ihram
  8. 8. PHYSICAL RESTRICTIONS OF IHRAM <ul><li>Cutting or shaving any hair, until the sacrifice of animals is done. - Cutting the nails. - Men cannot wear any stitched clothing or head coverings </li></ul><ul><li>(hat/turban, etc). </li></ul><ul><li>Wearing shoes or socks above the ankle. - Covering the face. - Hunting animals: Some tell that a pilgrim, when in ihram, </li></ul><ul><li>cannot even kill a flea. If the bug is sucking their blood, one </li></ul><ul><li>may move it to another spot on their body, but cannot kill it.. - Fornication. </li></ul>Peters, F.E., p. 117 http://www.salaam.co.uk/themeofthemonth/december02_index.php
  9. 9. PHYSICAL EXCEPTIONS TO IHRAM <ul><li>Only in cases of extreme heat can one put on their original </li></ul><ul><li>clothes. If this occurs regular clothing can be put on. </li></ul><ul><li>When the pilgrim reaches Mecca, they have to put on the </li></ul><ul><li>Ihram shroud, sacrifice a sheep and then give it to the poor. </li></ul>Peters, F.E., p. 116-117
  10. 10. SPIRITUAL ASPECTS OF IHRAM <ul><li>- Because one is in front of God, tempers, desires and </li></ul><ul><li>language have to be censored. </li></ul><ul><li>Forbidden aspects vary by school : for example the Shafi’ite </li></ul><ul><li>school does not allow pilgrims to look in a mirror. </li></ul><ul><li>Brotherhood: as all pilgrims are dressed alike, </li></ul><ul><li>socio-economic and backgrounds are to disappear. </li></ul>Peters, F.E., p. 115-117, 119
  11. 11. VARIATIONS BY GENDER http://www.salaam.co.uk/themeofthemonth/december02_index.php <ul><li>Physical Differences: Women are allowed to wear </li></ul><ul><li>dresses, traditionally white, but can now </li></ul><ul><li>wear various colors. A woman cannot cover </li></ul><ul><li>their face but cover their hair with </li></ul><ul><li>scarves. Women can also wear stitched </li></ul><ul><li>clothing. </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual Differences: Women </li></ul><ul><li>follow the additional spiritual guidelines as </li></ul><ul><li>male pilgrims. For example, women </li></ul><ul><li>cannot sell wild animals, break an </li></ul><ul><li>egg of a wild bird, etc… </li></ul>
  12. 12. VARIATIONS BY GENDER, cont… <ul><li>When menstruating: A woman must perform the obligatory </li></ul><ul><li>bath (ghusi) before entering ihram and before saying her </li></ul><ul><li>intentions (niyat). Women can perform everything, but are </li></ul><ul><li>required to bathe before circumambulating the Ka’ba. </li></ul><ul><li>Women need to perform </li></ul><ul><li>the hajj with a mahram (someone </li></ul><ul><li>who the woman cannot marry). If </li></ul><ul><li>a woman feels as if she will tempt </li></ul><ul><li>men, she may use an umbrella to </li></ul><ul><li>shield her face. </li></ul>http://www.salaam.co.uk/themeofthemonth/december02_index.php
  13. 13. THE CESSATION OF IHRAM <ul><li>- Only once all rituals have been performed can one </li></ul><ul><li>rightfully discard their ihram shroud. </li></ul><ul><li>The ritual sacrificing of the sheep occurs and then </li></ul><ul><li>pilgrims can put on their original clothing or even </li></ul><ul><li>new clothes. It is at this time </li></ul><ul><li>that the celebration begins </li></ul><ul><li>and the pilgrims </li></ul><ul><li>congratulate each other </li></ul><ul><li>on their completing the </li></ul><ul><li>hajj. </li></ul>Festival at the end of the hajj Peters, F.E., p. 254
  14. 14. HISTORICAL ACCOUNTS <ul><li>Ibn Battuta : At the mosque of Dhu Hulayfa (5 mi. from </li></ul><ul><li>Medina), the Prophet assumed the pilgrim garb and </li></ul><ul><li>entered the ihram state. He said a prayer and made two </li></ul><ul><li>bowings, making his intentions for the Greater Pilgrimage </li></ul><ul><li>known. </li></ul><ul><li>Burton’s : Miquat was al-Zariba. When entering ihram, he bathed, faced </li></ul><ul><li>Mecca and said: “I vow this ihram of the Hajj and the Umrah to Allah </li></ul><ul><li>Almighty”. They he bowed twice and prayed: “O Allah! Verily I purpose </li></ul><ul><li>the Hajj and the Umrah, then enable me to accomplish the two, and </li></ul><ul><li>accept them both of me and make both blessed to me.” He then says </li></ul><ul><li>the talbiyya. </li></ul>Peters, F.E., p. 104, 117-118
  15. 15. http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=AiwZB6-L1fE PERSONAL ACCOUNTS http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cyLqu-utGPU http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=fP5dWtHw- -I Various personal accounts of the hajj and ihram can be found online. Here are a few links to YouTube videos, giving additional information on ihram.
  16. 16. RESOURCES <ul><li>INFORMATION: </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopedia of Religion . Jones, L. (Ed.) 2 nd Ed. Vol. 10. Thompson Gale: NY, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Peters, F. E., The Hajj: The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Places . Princeton </li></ul><ul><li>University Press: NJ, 1994. </li></ul><ul><li>http://home.tiscali.nl/willemvogelsang/Exhibitions/hajjexhibition.digital/hajj.ihramdress/ </li></ul><ul><li>ihram.dress/hajj.ihram.How%20is%20ihram%20worn%20during%20the%20Hajj.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://islamicvoice.com/December2006/Rituals/?PHPSESSID=4e3796a9c2fd5e71640a1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-e72ee7902f6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PICTURES: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various online sources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.salaam.co.uk/themeofthemonth/december02_index.php </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.YouTube.com </li></ul></ul>

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