Yoga for Cyclists - June 2010


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  • Abduction – moving away from the midline of the bodyAdduction – movement toward the axis or midline of the bodyFlexion – a movement at a joint that reduces the angle between two articulating bonesExtension – an increase in the angle between two articulating bones
  • Rounded shoulders – forward and roundAnterior head carriage – head forwardWinged scapula -a condition in which the medial border (the side nearest the spine) of a person's scapula is abnormally positioned outward and backward. Most common cause is weakened serratus anterior muscles.Short/tight:Pectorals (chest muscles) – flex/adduct/rotate/depress/protract shoulders, rotates scapula, elevates ribsSuboccipitals (next to medulla oblongata) – major cause of headaches – keep head balanced on top of spineUpper trap – right under neckLevator Scapulae (muscle from scapula to neck) – elevates scapulaSCM (short and overactive, left and right sides, originate from clavicle and sternum, insert into mastoid region of skull – behind the ear) – Together - flex the neck One side - bend head toward shoulder and turn face to opposite sideWeak/StretchedLower and middle traps (between shoulder blades)Rhomboids (underneath traps) – adducts scapula, rotates scapula downwardSerratus anterior (side of chest) – protracts shoulder, rotates scapula upwardDeep neck flexors (muscles underneath neck, used for nodding) – longuscapitis – flex the neck, rotate head to sidelonguscolli – flex and rotate neck, limit hyperextensionTrapezius (upper back, fan out) – elevate/retract/depress/rotate scapula, elevate clavicle, extend neckSCM – short and over-activeDeep neck flexors (longuscolli) – weak and stretched
  • Head position: glide chin back, head squarely on top of shoulders. Head movement exercises: side-to-side, ear-to-shoulder
  •  W exercise
  •  Diaphragmatic breathing exercise
  • Facilitate – adds tone, activates (neurons)Hold a pose at least 15 secs, 30 secs is good, 1min is even better
  • W-exercise -small of back flat, chin tucked, elbows and wrists against the wall and push up and down
  • Lumbarhyperlordosis – swaybackAnterior pelvic tilt – pelvis tilted forwardFoot flare – on bike: knee flare – caused by tight tensor fascia latae (TFL)Hypertrophy – enlargement caused by repeated stimulation (over-active) to produce near maximal tensionGroove in iliotibial band – TFL pulls on IT tract, tension creates a grooveIT Band (or tract) is a longitudinal fibrous reinforcement of the fascialata - IT band can't get weak because it is non-contractile--the muscle (TFL) gets facilitated and tight, and pulls the band taught.Short/TightHip flexors – pull knee upwardIliopsoas (psoas major, psoas minor and iliacus) – inner hip musclesLumbar erector spinae (iliocostalislumborum) – Extends vertebral column, depresses ribsTensor fascia latae (side of buttocks) – flexion and medial rotation at the hip; tenses fascia lata, which laterally supports the kneeQuadratuslumborum (from top of illiac crest [hipbone] to last rib and lumbar vertebrae) – depresses ribs; lateral flexion of vertebral columnPiriformis – (sacrum to femur) lateral rotation and abduction at the hip – use seated/supine twist, pigeon to stretchWeak/StretchedGluteus maximus (buttocks) – extension and lateral rotation at the hipGluteus medius (right above buttocks) – abduction and medial rotation at the hipAbdominals: abdominal oblique – compress abdomen, depress ribs, flex or rotate vertebral column rectus abdominis – depress ribs, flex vertebral column
  •  Pelvic tilt, on floor or standing
  • Keep heel above toes during hip abduction, otherwise tight piriformis.Keep leg in the same vertical plane, otherwise tight TFL or hip flexors. Side lying TFL exercise
  • On back one knee bent is similar to Supine Twist, but knee is closer to chest and then crossed over.
  • Yoga for Cyclists - June 2010

    1. 1. Yoga for Cyclists2010 <br />Men are born soft and supple:<br />dead, they are stiff and hard.<br />Plants are born tender and pliant:<br />dead, they are brittle and dry.<br />Thus whoever is stiff and inflexible<br />is a disciple of death.<br />Whoever is soft and yielding<br />is a disciple of life.<br />-Lao Tsu<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />1<br />
    2. 2. Muscle Imbalance<br />Cycling creates predictable muscle imbalances. Muscles that are chronically stretched become weak in neutral positions. Muscles that are chronically shortened become tight in neutral positions.<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />2<br />
    3. 3. Cycling is not a postural break……<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />3<br />
    4. 4. The best cycling posture is the worst slumping posture!<br />This posture is associated with two well known “syndromes”, upper and lower cross.<br />These are described in detail in remaining slides.<br />Yoga for Cyclists targets these muscular imbalances, bringing greater harmony, balance, ease, endurance, and strength to the cyclist’s body, and by extension, to the mind.<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />4<br />
    5. 5. UPPER CROSS<br />Postural findings:<br />Rounded shoulders<br />Anterior head carriage<br />C0-C1 hyperextension<br />Elevation of shoulders<br />Winging of scapulae<br />-McCaffery’s notes<br />Short/tight Weak/stretched<br />Pectorals<br />Suboccipitals<br />Upper trap/levatorscapulae<br />SCM (sternocleidomastoid)<br />Lower and middle traps<br />Rhomboids<br />Serratus anterior<br />Deep neck flexors<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />Deep neckflexorsweak<br />Trapezius and levator scapulaetight<br />Rhomboids and serratus anterior weak<br />Pectoralstight<br />5<br />
    6. 6. Upper Cross Syndrome After Liebenson and Janda<br />“The combined result of this posture is that the cervico-cranial, cervicothoracic, glenohumeral, and tempero-mandibular joints are all overstressed. Joint dys-function and trigger points naturally result from these muscle imbalances, associated with headache, neck pain, shoulder blade pain, and TMJ and shoulder disorders”(Liebenson).<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />Deep neckflexorsweak<br />Trapezius and levator scapulaetight<br />Rhomboids and serratus anterior weak<br />Pectoralstight<br />-McCaffery’s notes<br />6<br />
    7. 7. Key movement patterns<br />During normal neck flexion the chin will travel in a smooth arc to the chest, and will come to rest either touching the chest or no more than two fingers away from the chest. This motion can only occur if the deep neck flexors and the SCMs are working together properly. If the SCM is overactive and the deep flexors are weak or inhibited, the SCM’s action will cause the chin to poke, as picture in the dotted outline above. The most crucial period to watch for this pattern is in the first 5 degrees of movement (Hammer). After the initial 5 degrees the patient may correct him/herself.<br />If the chin cannot reach a position of no more than two fingerwidths from the chest the suboccipitals may be tight (travel).<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />7<br />
    8. 8. Altered key movement patterns<br />Shoulder Abduction<br />Shoulder elevation beginning before 60 degrees indicates muscle imbalance (overactive upper trapezius and/or levator scapula, inhibited mid and lower trapezius).<br />Pushup test<br />Scapular winging occurring during floor or wall push ups indicates a weak/inhibited serratus anterior. Observe both sides for symmetry as the discrepancy is often more subtle than pictured below.<br />Normal shoulder abduction<br />Scapular winging during wall push-up<br />Shoulder hike do to overactive upper trapezius<br />-Hoppenfeld<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />8<br />
    9. 9. Respiration<br />Respiration may often be affected by upper cross syndrome<br />Rounding of the shoulders and increased thoracic kyphosis (upper back rounding) lead to decreased lateral excursion of the rib cage (think of the ribs moving up and down like a bucket-handle—poor posture impedes the bucket-handle movement).<br />Compression at the sternoclavicular joint reflexively increases respiratory rate (MPI)<br /> Look for:<br />Paradoxical breathing (“chest breathing”)<br />Trigger points in scalenes (accessory muscles of respiration)<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />9<br />
    10. 10. Hatha yoga for upper cross<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />10<br />
    11. 11. Hatha yoga for upper cross<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />11<br />
    12. 12. Hatha yoga for upper cross<br />Whenever possible make certain the mid and lower traps are active, the shoulders are externally rotated and depressed, and that the deep neck flexors are active tucking the chin and keeping the ears in a plumb line with the center of the shoulders. A mirror or an instructor is extremely helpful in the beginning.<br />Be especially conscious of the above directions when performing tadasana, vajrasana, and salabhasana. <br />As you enter each pose first mentally check your body position, then make certain that you are breathing slowly and with the diaphragm.<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />12<br />
    13. 13. …………………………Warrior sequence to one side, then the other……………………………<br />…………One side, then other……….….<br />Quadraped track<br />Arms may be straight<br />Arms in overhead “V”<br />……………..Several Times……………….<br />W-exercise<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />13<br />
    14. 14. LOWER CROSS<br />Postural findings:<br />Lumbar hyperlordosis<br />Anterior pelvic tilt<br />Protruding abdomen<br />Foot flare<br />Hypertrophy of thoraco-lumbar junction<br />Groove in iliotibial band<br />-Liebenson<br />Short/tight Weak/stretched<br />Hip flexors<br />Lumbar erector spinae<br />Tensor fascia latae (TFL)<br />Quadratuslumborum (QL)<br />Piriformis<br />Gluteus maximus<br />Gluteus medius<br />Abdominals<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />Erector spinaetight<br />Abdominalsweak<br />Gluteus maximusweak<br />Iliopsoastight<br />14<br />
    15. 15. Lower Cross Syndrome<br />“The combined result of this posture is that the lumbosacral, thoracolumbar, SI, hip, and knee joints are all over-stressed. Joint dysfunction and trigger points naturally result from these muscle imbalances, accompanied by low back pain, buttock pain, pseudo-sciatica, and knee disorders.” -Liebenson<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />Erector spinaetight<br />Abdominalsweak<br />Iliopsoastight<br />Gluteus maximusweak<br />-McCaffery’s notes<br />15<br />
    16. 16. Key movement patterns<br />Leg extension<br />The prone patient is instructed to slowly lift one leg while the evaluator uses one hand to monitor the activity of the gluteal muscles and the hamstrings of the leg being raised, and the other hand to monitor the lumbar erectors bilaterally. The correct sequence is listed at left.<br />-Hammer<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />16<br />
    17. 17. Key movement patterns<br />Hip Abduction<br />Leg should rise in-plane with the body<br />Leg and foot should maintain neutral rotation<br />Tight piriformis causing external rotation of foot.<br />Tight QL causing hip-hike<br />Tight TFL or hip flexors causing thigh flexion<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />(Superior view)<br />17<br />
    18. 18. Hatha Yoga for lower cross<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />18<br />
    19. 19. Hatha Yoga for lower cross<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />19<br />
    20. 20. Hatha Yoga for lower cross<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />20<br />
    21. 21. Hatha Yoga for lower cross<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />21<br />
    22. 22. Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />22<br />
    23. 23. Facilitate: <br />Rhomboids<br />Lower and mid traps<br />Deep neck flexors<br />Abdominals (neutral pelvis)<br />Stretch:<br />Suboccipital muscles<br />Facilitate:<br />Gluteus medius<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />23<br />Tadasana<br />ArdhaChandrasana<br />Sarvangasana<br /><ul><li>Facilitate
    24. 24. Abdominals
    25. 25. Stretch:
    26. 26. Suboccipitals</li></li></ul><li>Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />24<br />Chaturanga<br />Dandasana<br />Salabhasana<br />Facilitate:<br />Rhomboids<br />Lower and mid traps<br />Serratus anterior<br />Facilitate: <br />Rhomboids<br />Lower and mid traps<br />Deep neck flexors<br />AdhoMukha<br />Svanasana<br />Ustrasana<br /><ul><li>Facilitate
    27. 27. Rhomboids
    28. 28. Lower and mid traps
    29. 29. Stretch
    30. 30. Pectoral muscles
    31. 31. Stretch
    32. 32. Pectoral muscles</li></li></ul><li>Facilitate: <br />Rhomboids<br />Lower and mid traps<br />Deep neck flexors<br />Stretch<br />Pectoral muscles<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />25<br />Parvatasana<br />Dhanurasana<br /><ul><li>Facilitate:
    33. 33. Rhomboids
    34. 34. Lower and mid traps
    35. 35. Deep neck flexors
    36. 36. Stretch
    37. 37. Pectoral muscles</li></li></ul><li>Facilitate: <br />Rhomboids<br />Lower and mid traps<br />Deep neck flexors<br />Stretch<br />Pectoral muscles<br />Lumbar erectors<br />Quadratuslumborum<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />26<br />Trikonasana<br />Purvottanasana<br /><ul><li>Facilitate:
    38. 38. Rhomboids
    39. 39. Lower and mid traps
    40. 40. Deep neck flexors
    41. 41. Gluteus maximus
    42. 42. Abdominals
    43. 43. Stretch
    44. 44. Pectoral muscles</li></li></ul><li>Facilitate: <br />Rhomboids<br />Lower and mid traps<br />Stretch<br />Pectoral muscles<br />Suboccipital muscles<br />Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />27<br />SetuBandhasana<br />Virabhadrasana II<br />Facilitate<br />Rhomboids<br />Lower and mid traps<br />Deep neck flexors<br />Stretch<br />Pectoral muscles<br />
    45. 45. Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />28<br />Virabhadrasana I<br />Sasamgasana<br />Stretch<br />Upper trap<br />Levator scapulae<br />Suboccipitals<br />Lumbar erectors<br /><ul><li>Facilitate
    46. 46. Rhomboids
    47. 47. Lower and mid traps
    48. 48. Deep neck flexors
    49. 49. Stretch
    50. 50. Pectoral muscles</li></ul>JatharaParivartanasana<br /><ul><li>Stretch
    51. 51. Lumbar erectors</li></li></ul><li>Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />29<br />Rajakapotasana<br />ArdhaMatsyendrasana<br />Stretch<br />Piriformis<br />Lumbar erectors<br /><ul><li>Stretch
    52. 52. Piriformis
    53. 53. Hip flexors</li></ul>Padahastasana<br />Ardha<br />Salabhasana<br />Facilitate<br />Gluteus maximus<br /><ul><li>Stretch
    54. 54. Lumbar erectors
    55. 55. Quadratuslumborum</li></li></ul><li>Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />30<br />Paschimotanasana<br />Vasisthasana<br />Stretch<br />Lumbar erectors<br />Quadratuslumborum<br /><ul><li>Facilitate
    56. 56. Gluteus medius
    57. 57. Abdominals</li></ul>Janushirasana<br />Virabhadrasana III<br />Facilitate<br />Gluteus maximus<br /><ul><li>Stretch
    58. 58. Lumbar erectors
    59. 59. Quadratuslumborum</li></li></ul><li>Craig Roberts, DC WWW.DOCROBERTS.COM<br />31<br />Savasana<br />SuptaVajrasana<br />Stretch<br />Hip flexors<br /><ul><li>Facilitate
    60. 60. Abdominals</li></ul>ArdhaNavasana<br />Banarasana<br />Stretch<br />Hip flexors<br /><ul><li>Facilitate
    61. 61. Gluteus maximus
    62. 62. Abdominals</li>