Congruent Exercise by Bill DeSimone

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Congruent Exercise by Bill DeSimone

  1. 1. Congruent Exercise: A Trainer’s Guide To Biomechanics Bill DeSimone Youtube.com/optimalex
  2. 2. Why Biomechanics Matters• Without Biomechanics – Overuse Conditions – Rare but Catastrophic Injuries – Inefficient, Ineffective Techniques• With Biomechanics – Pain-free joints – Lifetime training – Purpose Behind Exercise Selection and Techniques
  3. 3. 1972 Elmont, NY 1970s
  4. 4. Soon to be M&F Governor
  5. 5. Ripped Hulk 1974 The Hulk, 2000
  6. 6. 1973? Interior
  7. 7. 1976 The Bridge 1978
  8. 8. From The New HIT Blue Monster
  9. 9. Motivation
  10. 10. Biomechanics• The study of forces and their effects on living systems (McGuinness)• Focuses on the mechanisms through which the musculoskeletal anatomy interacts to create movement (Harman)• The physical structure of bones, joints, muscles, and how the physical laws of motion govern that structure (Ellison)• Ie, How joints and muscles are supposed to work, at least according to academic textbooks
  11. 11. My Application of Biomechanics• HOW THE BONES AND MUSCLES OF THE SPINE HANDLE LOAD• HOW THE SHAPES AND CONNECTIONS OF THE JOINTS AFFECT MOVEMENTS• HOW THE MUSCLES APPLY AND RESIST FORCE THROUGH THE LIMBS• IN THE CONTEXT OF WORKING OUT OVER A LIFETIME, NOT A CONTEST OR PHOTO SHOOT
  12. 12. Which is more “Functional”?
  13. 13. Jarmey, p 122
  14. 14. Jarmey, p 128
  15. 15. Jarmey, p 128
  16. 16. Jarmey, p 49
  17. 17. Jarmey, p 46
  18. 18. Which is more suited forthe joints and muscles?
  19. 19. The Squat1. MAs approximate • Especially avoid lock out and bottom out2. “Free knees” allows • Screw-home mechanism in extension • Lower leg movement in flexion
  20. 20. bow&arrow, crowbar
  21. 21. Minimize Spine Involvement
  22. 22. Seat back s/b more openHIGH SEAT, FINISH AT GREATER LOW SEAT, FINISH AT LOWER THANTHAN 90 DEG HF 90 DEG HF: MAX GLUTE MT AT 70 DEG
  23. 23. Full Range of Motion: Biomechanics or Buzzword? 1. Muscle 2. Joints
  24. 24. Length-Tension Relationship
  25. 25. Terms regarding Length-tension• Most daily movements occur in a range around “resting length”: “favorable length-tension”• Active insufficiency: weakness when the target muscle is outside of favorable length• Passive insufficiency: weakness when the opposing muscle is overstretched and interferes with the target muscle contraction• Tenodesis: tendon action of muscle; a joint shifts to accommodate the overstretched muscle
  26. 26. Some examples of Exercises and L/TActive insufficiency Active insufficiencyLX, PO, SR, Row for lats,PR, Seated Heel Raise, Pullover stretch, flye stretch, LC stretch Favorable length Active insufficiency
  27. 27. Muscle Torque vs. Moment Arms Harman, E. p 40
  28. 28. Muscle torque/moment arm matchSmith, L.K.; Weiss, E.L.; Lehmkuhl, L.D. (1996) Brunnstrom’s Clinical Kinesiology, 5thEdition. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company.
  29. 29. Torque/moment arm mismatchSmith, L.K.; Weiss, E.L.; Lehmkuhl, L.D. (1996) Brunnstrom’s Clinical Kinesiology, 5thEdition. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company.
  30. 30. Torque/moment arm matchSmith, L.K.; Weiss, E.L.; Lehmkuhl, L.D. (1996) Brunnstrom’s Clinical Kinesiology, 5thEdition. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company.
  31. 31. Smith, L.K.; Weiss, E.L.; Lehmkuhl, L.D. (1996) Brunnstrom’s Clinical Kinesiology, 5thEdition. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company.
  32. 32. Joint Function Follows Form• “A joint or articulation is any place where two bones meet or join…primary function is to join bones together while controlling the motion between them”• “Synovial joints …are subclassified into six different types according to the movements allowed and the structure of the joint: gliding, hinge, pivot, ellipsoidal, saddle, and ball and socket…few joints are exactly like the idealized representations…”
  33. 33. Axis of the Knee Joint
  34. 34. Screw-home mechanism Nordin, M.; Frankel, p 186
  35. 35. Axis of the Knee JointLevangie, P.K.; Norkin, C.C. (2001) Joint Structure and Function: aComprehensive Analysis. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company; p342.
  36. 36. Overhead Motion: Press, Pullover, Chin-ups1. Demonstration: path of humerus2. Implication for overhead press and chin-up3. True overhead (180 deg flexion)?4. Press and Pulldown station designs
  37. 37. Overhead view of socket
  38. 38. Scapulohumeral rhythm Nordin, M.; Frankel, p 335.
  39. 39. The Human Machine: Speed, or strength?
  40. 40. Law of the Lever• Effort x Effort Arm vs. Resistance x Resistance Arm• You don’t just lift weights; you lift weights applied through an external lever (RA)• You don’t just apply muscle effort; you apply it through an internal lever (EA)• The RA is always much longer than the FA;• So, for a given weight, the Muscle Effort is always disproportionately high• Or, reverse a nutcracker and tell me what happens.
  41. 41. Everett Harman, Essentials, p 32
  42. 42. Take home points• Lift with your legs, not your back.• Effective Range of Motion.• Balance: – Concern for Muscle and Joint Health – Intensity of the Set – Overall Metabolic ChallengeIt doesn’t help if your training is “Functional” and you’re not.
  43. 43. Coming soon: Congruent Exercise: Biomechanics for Better Weight Training• on Amazon: Moment Arm Exercise• Optimal Exercise Guide: Bodyblade Plus• www.youtube.com/optimalex• Consulting and training: 609-462-7722• optimalexercise@comcast.net
  44. 44. Congruent Exercise• Chapter 1: Avoiding the Tragic “Accident”: Biomechanics You Need To Know• Chapter 2: Full Range of Motion and the Length- Tension Curve• Chapter 3: Functional Training: Purpose or Practice• Chapter 4: Shaping Muscle, or Straining Joints?• Chapter 5: Speed, Strength, and the Human Machine

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