Gait and gait abnormalities


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Gait and gait abnormalities

  1. 1.  Gait is the pattern of movement of the limbs of animals, including humans, during locomotion over a solid substrate.  Gait abnormality is a deviation from normal walking (gait). Watching a patient walk is the most important part of the neurological examination. Normal gait requires that many systems, including strength, sensation and coordination, function in an integrated fashion. Many common problems in the nervous system and musculoskeletal system will show up in the way a person walks.
  2. 2. Stages of normal gait
  3. 3. Distribution of weight in a normal gait
  4. 4. GAIT ABNORMALITIES  Scissor gait :- Spastic cerebral palsy(UMN lesion).  Rigidity & excessive adduction of the leg in swing  Plantar flexion of the ankle  Flexion at the knee  Adduction & internal rotation at the hip  Progressive contractures of all muscles  Complicated assisted movements of the upper limb
  5. 5. Conditions associated with a scissor gait  Arthrogryposis  Spastic diplegia  Pernicious anaemia  Cervical spondylosis with myelopathy  Multiple sclerosis
  6. 6.  Antalgic gait:- the stance phase of the gait is abnormality shortened relative to the swing phase. It can be a good indication of pain with weight bearing.  Coxalgia  Osteoarthritis  Tarsal tunnel syndrome  Trauma
  7. 7.  Festinant gait :- small shuffling steps and a general slowness of the movements. Commonly seen in Parkinson disease.  Trendelenburg gait :- caused by weakness of abductor muscles of the lower limb( Gluteus medius & minimus). During the stance phase, the weakened abductor muscle allow the pelvis to tilt down to the opposite side. To compensate, the trunk lurches to the weakened side to attempt to maintain a level pelvis through out the gait cycle.
  8. 8.  Magnetic gait :- feet seem attached to the floor by a magnet. Here each step is initiated in a wrestling motion carrying feet forward and upward. Seen in normal pressure hydrocephalous.  Myopathic gait/ waddling gait :- due to the weakness of the proximal muscles of the pelvic girdle. The patient uses circumduction to compensate for the gluteal weakness.  Pregnancy  CDH
  9. 9.  High stepping gait :- seen in deep peroneal nerve injury. Associated with loss of dorsiflexion.  Polio  Multiple sclerosis  Guillain barre  Peroneal nerve injury
  10. 10.  THANK YOU