An Evaluation Of Bipolar Disorder


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  • Although both Bipolar I and Bipolar II may have similar symptoms it is important to be able to differentiate between the two in order to offer proper treatment for the client. . The major difference between the two is the severity of the manic episodes.
  • Biological insight into bipolar disorder has increased over the years but, there it is clear there is no singular cause.
  • Much focus is centered on brain chemistry of bipolar patients and little is mentioned on genetic factors. This is because there is little statistically significant evidence to support genetic factors contributing to bipolar disorders. More expansive evidence has been found in studies regarding schizophrenia, which made it difficult to find arguments regarding bipolar disorder.
  • The most influential and notable research on genetics is research involving twins, families, and adoption studies. The studies have concluded that genetic factors can leave individuals susceptible to bipolar disorder. Another technique that has been used by researchers is molecular biology, “linking bipolar disorders to genes on chromosomes 1,4,6,10,11,12,13,15,18,21,and22” (Depaulo,2004). This information supports the theory that there is indeed a genetic component to bipolar disorders. Researchers have concluded that based on statistical models, which not one but many genes of moderate or small effect contribute to bipolar disorders (Rutter, 2006).
  • Determining the right dosage is very important when treating bipolar clients. It is a process that should not be taken lightly. Too little of a dose will not treat the mood swings and too high of a dose can lead to intoxication. Research has proven that Lithium is effective in treating manic episodes. . Atypical antipsychotic drugs are effective as adjuncts to mood stabilizers in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder, especially for patients with more chronic and relapsing forms of bipolar disorders. Atypical antipsychotic drugs are favorable because they do not have side effects other drugs have such as Tardive Dyskinesia. (Soares&Young, 2007). Most importantly, atypical antipsychotic drugs appear to have mood-stabilizing, anti-manic, and anti-depressant actions (Ertugrul&Meltzer, 2003). “Few controlled studies have tested the effectiveness of such adjunctive therapy, but clinical reports suggest that it helps reduce hospitalization, improves social functioning, and increases clients` ability to obtain and hold a job” (Soares& Young, 2007).
  • An Evaluation Of Bipolar Disorder

    1. 1. Krista Logan PSY 492 Argosy University April 2011
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>People with Bipolar disorder experience both the lows of depression and the highs of mania. Their life can be described as a rollercoaster as they shift back and forth between extreme moods. This can take a toll on the person who suffers from bipolar disorder and effects family members and friends around them. Bipolar disorder does not only affect adults, but studies have been linked to children as well. One article poses the fact that children are frequently hospitalized for bipolar disorder. In this study, “50 percent of those children admitted were diagnosed with bipolar disorder or were likely to have bipolar” (Issac, 1995). This proves that bipolar disorder is not uncommon. </li></ul>
    3. 3. What Does Bipolar Disorder Consist of? <ul><li>Bipolar I </li></ul><ul><li>Bipolar II </li></ul><ul><li>Full manic episodes : </li></ul><ul><li>Grandiose behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Increased activity </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased need for sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Pressured speech </li></ul><ul><li>Flight of ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Distractibility </li></ul><ul><li>Major depressive episodes </li></ul><ul><li>(Comer, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>(Daley&Salloum,2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Hypo manic episodes: </li></ul><ul><li>Less severe </li></ul><ul><li>Cause little impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Major depressive episodes </li></ul>
    4. 4. Biological Insight: Possible Causes <ul><li>Neurotransmitters : </li></ul><ul><li>Low serotonin activity accompanied by low norepinephrine activity may lead to depression </li></ul><ul><li>Low serotonin activity accompanied by high norepinephrine activity may lead to mania </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane defects in neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal functioning in the proteins that help transport ions across a neuron`s membrane </li></ul><ul><li>(McDonald et al.,2005) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Argument <ul><li>Brain imaging studies have identified a number of abnormal brain structures in people with bipolar disorders. For example, the basal ganglia and cerebellum of these individuals tend to be smaller than those of other people </li></ul><ul><li>Another researcher suggests there is an enlargement in the amgylada, which regulates emotions such as fear and anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple theories as to what brings the onset of bipolar disorder , these are only inferences, not causations </li></ul>
    6. 6. Biological Predisposition <ul><li>Genetic Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Twin studies </li></ul><ul><li>Identical twins with bipolar disorder have a 40 percent likelihood of developing the same disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Fraternal twins, siblings and other close relatives of such persons have 5 to 10 percent likelihood </li></ul><ul><li>1 to 2.6 percent prevalence rate in the general population </li></ul><ul><li>(Comer,2008) </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Problem <ul><li>Bipolar disorder is often misdiagnosed or goes untreated </li></ul><ul><li>There is no quick fix </li></ul><ul><li>Not all patients respond to medication alone </li></ul><ul><li>Not all patients take their medication as prescribed or do not take it at all </li></ul><ul><li>If not treated properly can lead to suicide </li></ul>
    8. 8. Treatment: Combination Approach <ul><li>Lithium </li></ul><ul><li>More than 60 percent of patients with mania improve on this medication </li></ul><ul><li>Atypical antipsychotics </li></ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>The most effective solution involves Lithium, atypical antipsychotic drugs, and psychotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>(Ertugrul&Meltzer, 2003) </li></ul>
    9. 9. Literature Review <ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate scholarly research </li></ul><ul><li>Possible explanations vs. causes </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed description of Bipolar disorder (Comer,2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed insight of biological factors (McDonald et al.,2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Lacking in therapy research </li></ul><ul><li>Weak arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Little explanation of how therapy benefits the client </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily centered on scientific research </li></ul><ul><li>Little practical application of findings </li></ul>
    10. 10. Future Research <ul><li>In the future I would like to see more substantial research regarding the effectiveness of therapy alone and the combination of psychotherapy and medication. I am also eager to research more development into what causes bipolar disorder, not just what makes someone susceptible to the disorder. </li></ul>
    11. 11. References <ul><li>Antai-Otong,D. (2006). Treatment Considerations for Patients Experiencing Rapid-Cycling </li></ul><ul><li>Bipolar Disorder. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 42 (1), 55-58. </li></ul><ul><li>Comer, R. J. (2008). Abnormal Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Daley,D. C., Salloum, I. M. (2001). Clinician's Guide to Mental Illness. (n.c.). McGraw-Hill </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Depaulo, J.R. (2004). Genetics of Bipolar Disorder: Where Do We Stand? The American Journal </li></ul><ul><li>Of Psychiatry, 161 (4), 595-597. </li></ul><ul><li>Ertugrul, A., Meltzer, H. (2003). Antipsychotic Drugs and Bipolar Disorder. The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 6 (3), 277-284. </li></ul><ul><li>Issac, G. (1995). Is Bipolar Disorder the Most Common Diagnostic Entity in Hospitalized? </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents and Children? Adolescence, 30 (118), 273-277. </li></ul><ul><li>McDonald, C., Schulze, K., Murray, R.M., Tohen, M. (2005). Bipolar Disorder: The Upswing in </li></ul><ul><li>Research and Treatment. London: Taylor& Francis. </li></ul>
    12. 12. References <ul><li>Miklowitz,D., Cicchetti,D. (2010). Understanding Bipolar Disorder: A Developmental </li></ul><ul><li>Psychopathology Perspective .(n.c.). Guilford Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Rutter, M. (2006). Genes and Behaviour: Nature-Nurture Interplay Explained. Wiley-Blackwell. </li></ul><ul><li>Soares, J., Young, A.H. (2007). Bipolar Disorders: Basic Mechanisms And Therapeutic Implications. New York: New York Informa Healthcare. </li></ul>