Bipolar disorder made by viveka m.


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type of mood disorder

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  • A mixed episode includes both manic and major depressive episodes every day for at least one week. The criteria for duration of each episode obviously does not need to be met (e.g., manic symptoms for a week).
  • Bipolar disorder made by viveka m.

    1. 1. B I P O L A R D i s o r d e r
    2. 2. What is Bipolar Disorder? <ul><li>Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, energy, and ability to function </li></ul><ul><li>People with BD suffer extremes of mania and depression </li></ul><ul><li>More than 2 million American adults have bipolar disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Bipolar disorder typically develops in late adolescence or early adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>It is often hard to diagnosis so people may suffer for years before it is treated </li></ul><ul><li>BD is a long-term illness that can be controlled, but never cured </li></ul>
    3. 3. Bipolar Disorder <ul><li>Person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. </li></ul>
    4. 4. What Causes Bipolar Disorder? <ul><li>BD is a mental illness related to an imbalance of brain chemicals called neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><li>The cause of this imbalance is unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Stress and other mental factors can trigger manic and depressive episodes, but they do not cause BD </li></ul><ul><li>If parents or siblings have BD, chances of having BD greatly increase. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Genetics <ul><li>Environment can trigger it and affect the severity of the disorder </li></ul><ul><li>No single genetic basis </li></ul><ul><li>Most likely complex genetic disorder </li></ul><ul><li>One possibility … inherited variation in serotonin transporter gene may play a role. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder <ul><li>This picture shows the range of BD </li></ul><ul><li>People suffering from BD go through episodes of severe mania all the way down to severe depression </li></ul>
    7. 7. Manic Episode <ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased need for sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressured speech or more talkative than usual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flight of ideas or racing thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distractibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychomotor agitation or increase in goal-directed activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hedonistic interests </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Hypo manic Episode <ul><li>Similarities with Manic Episode = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differences = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Length of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impairment not as severe </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Major Depressive Episode <ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>Depressed mood (in children can be irritable) </li></ul><ul><li>Diminished interest in activities </li></ul><ul><li>Significant weight loss or gain </li></ul><ul><li>Insomnia or hypersonic </li></ul><ul><li>Psychomotor agitation or retardation </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue/loss of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings of worthlessness/inappropriate guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Diminished ability to think or concentrate/indecisiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Suicidal ideation or suicide attempt </li></ul>
    10. 10. Mixed Episode <ul><li>Both Manic and Major Depressive Episode criteria are met nearly every day for a least a one week period. </li></ul>
    11. 12. Subtypes <ul><li>Bipolar Disorder I = more classic form; clear episodes of depression & mania </li></ul><ul><li>Bipolar Disorder II = presents with less intense and often unrecognized manic phases </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclothymiacs = chronic moods of hypomania & depression, often evolves into a more serious type </li></ul><ul><li>Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (NOS) = largest group of individuals </li></ul>
    12. 14. Epidemiology <ul><li>Overall affects men and women equally </li></ul><ul><li>Affects about 1% of adults in the US </li></ul><ul><li>Usually appears between 15-25 years </li></ul><ul><li>No difference among racial groups </li></ul>
    13. 15. Bipolar Brain
    14. 16. Children vs. Adults (or early vs. late onset ) <ul><li>Irritability </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of mood reactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Rejection sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Less evident are the “classic” symptoms of mania. </li></ul>
    15. 17. Co morbidity <ul><li>Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between 60-80% </li></ul></ul>
    16. 18. Criteria Comparison <ul><li>Bipolar Disorder (mania) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More talkative than usual, or pressure to keep talking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distractibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in goal directed activity or psychomotor agitation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ADHD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often talks excessively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is often “on the go” or often acts as if “driven by a motor” </li></ul></ul>Differentiation= elated mood, grandiosity, decreased need for sleep, hyper sexuality, and irritable mood.
    17. 19. Co morbidity (cont.) <ul><li>Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) & Conduct Disorder (CD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70-75% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Substance Abuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40-50% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anxiety Disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>35-40% </li></ul></ul>
    18. 20. Suicidal Behaviors <ul><li>Prevalence of suicide attempts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40-45% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Age of first attempt </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple attempts </li></ul><ul><li>Severity of attempts </li></ul><ul><li>Suicidal ideation </li></ul>
    19. 21. Suicide
    20. 22. Cognitive Deficits <ul><li>Executive Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory-Motor Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal Problem-Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Deficits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul></ul>
    21. 23. Psychosocial Deficits <ul><li>Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family members </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recognition and Regulation of Emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Social Problem-Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Impulse Control </li></ul>
    22. 24. Bipolar Disorder in Children <ul><li>About 1 million American children and teenagers struggle with bipolar disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Most are misdiagnosed, undiagnosed or untreated </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers believe many children with bipolar disorder are misdiagnosed with ADHD, because hyperactivity is a symptom of both. </li></ul><ul><li>It is imperative that children be diagnosed early on in childhood. Early treatment may prevent a worsening course of the illness later on in life. </li></ul>
    24. 26. Psychopharmacological <ul><li>DEPRESSION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood Stabilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lamictal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Obsessional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paxil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Depressant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wellbutrin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atypical Antipsychotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zyprexa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>MANIA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood Stabilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lithium, Depakote, Depacon, Tegretol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atypical Antipsychotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zyprexa, Seroquel, Risperdal, Geodon, Abilify </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benzodiazepines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Klonopin, Ativan </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 28. Therapy <ul><li>Psycho education </li></ul><ul><li>Family Interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>RAINBOW Program </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Schema-focused Therapy </li></ul>
    26. 29. Other Considerations <ul><li>Educating staff </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitalization </li></ul>
    27. 30. Future? <ul><li>Researchers believe they are coming closer to finding a genetic link and mechanism of the disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>This could lead to better drugs that would act specifically for bipolar disorder. </li></ul>
    28. 32. <ul><li>WEBSITES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bipolar disorder- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Child and Adolescent Bipolar Foundation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents of Bipolar Children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>