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Mc Laren Food Forest


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PDC Student Design project presentation for a food forest/community orchard in McLaren Park.

Mc Laren Food Forest

  1. 1. McLaren Food Forest Designing an Edge
  2. 2. Vision and Goals   <ul><li>THE PATTERN </li></ul><ul><li>To empower people to positively influence their community by enabling them to participate together in the process of cultivating life for the purpose of feeding themselves, to discourage destruction of other ecosystems that feed us, learning about and appreciating the rich history of this place including but not limited to native plants, animals, peoples--and their ways and interrelations, participate in present and future of the community and ecosystem, and take part in the responsible stewardship of earth and resources. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Vision and Goals   <ul><li>THE DETAILS </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Showcase the multi-functional use of parks in an urban environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational resource for schools and adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw on local knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat for birds, bees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food for local people/causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A forum  to discuss the issues of native plants, non-native edibles, issues of water usage, climate change and how urban agriculture can help alleviate reliance on food grown outside cities, reduce pressure on land outside urban environments and reduce a city’s carbon footprint. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meditational or ceremonial space for life events </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Basemap Basemap   A 2.25 acre clearing - NE facing micro valley
  5. 5. Assessment   <ul><li>Weather/climate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rainfall - October through March -- wet months.  July and August are the driest months; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fog - McLaren Park is in a transition zone. It can get blanketed by fog during the foggy season; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind - relatively exposed park due to the geography; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun - North facing however close to ridge therefore anticipate good amount of sun except during foggy season . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toyon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lupine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coyote Bush </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wild Buckwheat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Fennel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California Poppy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unknown wild flowers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  6. 6. Assessment <ul><li>Soil    </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard packed in many places  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erosion om the SE rim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composition- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50-60 sand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 silt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30 clay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 organic matter  </li></ul></ul></ul>Elevation
  7. 7. Assessment <ul><li>Wildlife   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grasslands: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mice, Moles, Voles, Raccoons, Skunks, Opossums, Snakes, Lizards, Meadowlark, Goldfinches, Butterflies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal Scrub & Forest: Quail, Wren, Thrush, Finch, Swallow, Oriole, Hawks, Owl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Riparian Thickets:   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warbler, Forktail Damselfly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Sensitive Species: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>         California Quail </li></ul><ul><li>         Mission Blue Butterfly            (Critically Imperiled) </li></ul><ul><li>         San Francisco Forktail            Damselfly (Threatened) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Use   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dog walkers  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hikers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bird watchers </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. History of the Site  <ul><ul><li>1926—Land was proposed as a park </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1934—Park purchased by City of San Francisco; dedicated to John McLaren director of Golden Gate Park </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1958—Coffman Pool constructed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1960s—Glen Eagles Golf Course, two park lakes, Louis Sutter & Herz Playgrounds, tennis court, amphitheater, Mansfield-Burrows Playground, Wilde Overlook area & tower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1983—Master plan developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1987—$2.4 million bond for major improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1988—Master Plan Updated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1996—Master Plan Updated </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Project Details <ul><li>Vegetation   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food Forest edge with 3 Guilds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apple Tree  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Black Walnut  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coast Live Oak </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  North facing micro valley near the intersection of Mansell St. and John F. Shelly Dr.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  2-3 swales to harvest water and alleviate erosion.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A hedgerow to identify entrance to the food forest  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Community Involvement  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad base support for the project  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventual neighborhood school involvement  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A harvest to share with communities of need   </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Sectors <ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water, rain  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fog  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bird migration  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People/dogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise - what happens if something changes?  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>View </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Societal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parks and Recreation  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native Plant enthusiasts   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire Hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical runoff from the street  </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Zones <ul><li>1. Main Trail  </li></ul><ul><li>2. Prairie level   </li></ul><ul><li>3. guilds and swales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Apple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Black Walnut </li></ul></ul><ul><li>     c. Coast Live Oak </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>4.Park   </li></ul><ul><li>5. Portola, Visitation Valley, Excelcior  </li></ul><ul><li>6. SF 7. Bay Area </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  12. 12. Placement of Elements <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>   Trails </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Earthworks
  14. 14. Analysis - The Why <ul><li>The Edge - Increased biodiversity, keeping open space,                             maintaining the view. </li></ul><ul><li>Structure - harvest water, utilize current attributes of the                         space, conserve micro valley, prevent further                         erosion.  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Guild Choice  - A strategic process </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  15. 15. A (MOSTLY) NATIVE GUILD - Coast Live Oak
  18. 18. Wildlife Interaction <ul><li>Grasslands: </li></ul><ul><li>Mice, Moles, Voles, Raccoons, Skunks, Opossums, Snakes, Lizards, Meadowlark, Goldfinches, Butterflies </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal Scrub & Forest: </li></ul><ul><li>Quail, Wren, Thrush, Finch, Swallow,  </li></ul><ul><li>Oriole, Hawks, Owl </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Riparian Thickets:   </li></ul><ul><li>Warbler, Forktail Damselfly </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive Species: </li></ul><ul><li>California Quail </li></ul><ul><li>Mission Blue Butterfly (Critically Imperiled) </li></ul><ul><li>San Francisco Forktail Damselfly (Threatened) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Food Forest  Succession Phase 1
  20. 20. Food Forest  Succession <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2 </li></ul>
  21. 21. Food Forest  Succession       Phase 3  
  22. 22. McLaren Food     Forest     Final Vision
  23. 23. Implementation Timeline <ul><li>1st 6 months   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement from Parks and Native Plants people  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheet mulching  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One time inputs  - compost/mulch, seeds and starts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planting all but the vines in Live Oak guild  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant all ground cover  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First upper swales  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging community involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1st year   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st guild established  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil Building  </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Implementation Timeline <ul><li>2nd year   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Walnut guild planted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthworks completed  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>3rd years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple guild planted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field trips and educational opportunities for surrounding schools  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvests going to surrounding community </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Unknowns and Questions <ul><ul><li>Numbers and proportions of plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drianage on the road </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire Hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Codes/ Permits to change park land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where to contract earth works- if necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Involvement  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approaching the Native Plant People -  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to proceed with SF Parks and Recreation and Friends of McLarenPark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  26. 26. A (MOSTLY) NATIVE GUILD <ul><li>The Seven Levels: 1. Tall Tree/Canopy Level --Coast Live Oak (quercus agrifolia) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Understory Tree Level --California Bay (umbellularia californica) --Toyon (heteromeles arbutifolia) --California buckeye (aesculus californica) --Manzanita (arctostaphylos manzanita) --Redbud (cercis occidentalis) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>3. Shrub/Bush Level --Coffeeberry (rhamnus californica) --Creambush (holodiscus discolor) --Red currant (ribes sanguineum) </li></ul><ul><li>--Gooseberry (ribes speciosum) --Evergreen Huckleberry (vaccinium ovatum) --Red Huckleberry (vaccinium parvifolium) </li></ul><ul><li>  --Western Serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Herbaceous Level --Dandelion (taraxacum officinale) --Chicory (cicorium intybus) --Lupine (lupinus arboreus) --Chinese Houses (collinsia heterophylla) --Clarkia (Clarkia concinna, C. amoena) --Comfrey (symphytum officinale) </li></ul><ul><li>--California Golden Violet/Johnny Jump-up (viola pedunculata) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Ground Cover Level --Miner's lettuce (montia perfoliata) --Ceanothus (ceanothus prostatus) --Wild strawberry (fragaria chiloensis) </li></ul><ul><li>--Broadleaf stonecrop (sedum spathulifolium) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Climbers/Vines Level --Maypop (passiflora incarnata) --Lemonade berry (rhus integrifolia) </li></ul><ul><li>7. Root Crops Level --Common camass (camassia quamash) --Ramps (allium tricoccum) </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>1. Insect-Attracting Plants --Toyon --Manzanita --Creambush --Lupine --Chinese Houses --Clarkia --Ceanothus --Wild strawberry --Maypop --Lemonade berry </li></ul><ul><li>--Broadleaf stonecrop </li></ul><ul><li>--California Golden Violet/Johnny Jump-up </li></ul><ul><li>2. Bird-Attracting Plants --Toyon  </li></ul><ul><li>--Manzanita --Coffeeberry --Creambush </li></ul>-Red currant --Gooseberry --Huckleberry--Western Serviceberry --Wild strawberry --Lemonadeberry   3. Animal Forage --Coast live oak --Western serviceberry --Comfrey 4. Mulch Plants --Coast live oak --California bay --Creambush --Ceanothus --Comfrey 5. Nutrient Acc. --Dandelion --Chicory --Comfrey Live Oak Guild Plant Functions:
  28. 28. Live Oak Guild Plant Functions: <ul><li>6. Nitrogen Fixers --Ceanothus --Lupine </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>7. Human Forage --Coast live oak --California bay --Red currant --Gooseberry --Huckleberry </li></ul><ul><li>--Western serviceberry </li></ul><ul><li>--Dandelion --Chicory </li></ul><ul><li>--Comfrey --Miner's lettuce --Wild strawberry --Maypop --Lemonadeberry --Common camass --Ramps </li></ul><ul><li>8. Native plants --Coast live oak --California bay --Toyon --Manzanita --Coffeeberry --Creambush --Redbud --Red currant --Gooseberry --Huckleberry </li></ul><ul><li>--Western serviceberry --Lupine --Ceanothus --Chinese Houses --Clarkia </li></ul><ul><li>--California Golden Violet/Johnny Jump-up --Miner's lettuce --Wild strawberry </li></ul><ul><li>--Broadleaf stonecrop </li></ul>
  29. 29. A BLACK WALNUT/SHELLBARK HICKORY GUILD <ul><li>1 . Tall Tree/Canopy Level --Northern California Black walnut (juglans hindsii) --Shellbark hickory (carya laciniosa) 2. Understory Tree Level --White mulberry (morus alba) --American persimmon </li></ul><ul><li>(diospyros virginiana) --Redbud (cercus ocidentalis) --Hollyleaf cherry (prunus ilicifolia 3. Shrub/Bush Level --Goumi (eleagnus multiflora) --Elderberry (sambucus mexicana) --Red currant (ribes sanguineum) --Black raspberry (rubus occidentalis) --Silverberry (elaeagnus commutata) </li></ul>4. Herbaceous Level --Chiltepine (capsicum aviculare) --Coneflower (echinacea purpurea) --Bee balm (monarda didyma) --Giant Solomon's seal (polygonatum commutatum) --Dandelion (taraxacum officinale) --Chives (allium schoenoprasum) --Walking onion (allium cepa proliferum) 5. Ground Cover Level --White clover (trifolium repens) --Ceanothus (ceanothus prostatus) --Canada violet (viola canadensis) 6. Climbers/Vines Level --Wild grape (vitis californica) 7. Root Crops Level --Jerusalem artichoke (helianthus tuberosus)
  30. 30. Black Walnut Guild - Plant Functions <ul><li>1. Insect-Attracting Plants --Shellbark Hickory --Hollyleaf cherry --Goumi --Elderberry --Black raspberry --Silverberry --Coneflower --Bee balm --White clover --Ceanothus --Canada violet 2. Bird-Attracting Plants --White mulberry --Goumi --Elderberry --Red currant --Black raspberry --Silverberry --Bee balm --Wild grape </li></ul>3. Animal Forage --Black walnut --Shellbark hickory --White mulberry --American persimmon --Hollyleaf cherry --Elderberry --Black raspberry --Silverberry 4. Mulch Plants --Goumi 5. Nutrient Accumulators --Dandelion 6. Nitrogen Fixers --Goumi --Silverberry --White clover --Ceanothus 7. Human Forage --Black walnut --Shellbark hickory --White mulberry --American persimmon --Hollyleaf cherry --Goumi --Elderberry --Red currant --Black raspberry --Silverberry --Chiltepine --Giant Solomon's seal --Dandelion --Chives --Walking onion --Wild grape --Jerusalem artichoke 8. Native plants --California Black Walnut --Redbud --Hollyleaf cherry --Elderberry --Red currant --Bee balm --Ceanothus  
  31. 31. AN APPLE TREE GUILD: <ul><li>1. Tall Tree/Canopy Level --Apple (malus sylvestris)   </li></ul><ul><li>2. Understory Tree Level --Apricot (prunus armeniaca) --Golden-chain tree (laburnum anagyroides) --Persimmon (diospyros kaki) --Pomegranate (prunica granatum)   </li></ul><ul><li>3. Shrub/Bush Level --Oregon grape (mahoria aquifolium) --Globe artichokes (cynara scolymus) --Saltbush (atriplex halimus) --Thimbleberry (rubus parviflorus) --Goumi (eleagnus multiflora) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>4. Herbaceous Level --Anise hyssop (agastache foeniculum) --Lemon balm (melissa officinalis) - </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-Bee balm (monarda didyma) --Blue wild indigo (baptisia australis) </li></ul><ul><li>--Good King Henry (chenopodium bonus-henricus) --Turkish rocket (bunias orientalis) --Red wood sorrel (oxalis oregana) --French sorrel (rumex acetosa) --Comfrey (symphytum officinale)   </li></ul><ul><li>5. Ground Cover Level --White clover (trifolium repens) --Parma violet (violaceae alba) --Green and Gold (chrysogonum virginianum) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Climbers/Vines Level --Sarsaparilla (smilax aspera) </li></ul><ul><li>--Honeysuckle (loniceria ciliosa) 7. Root Crops Level --Yacon (smallianthus sonchifolia) --Achira (canna edulis) </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Apple Guild Plant Functions:   </li></ul><ul><li>1. Insect-Attracting Plants --Apple --Apricot --Goumi --Anise hyssop --Bee balm --Lemon balm --Blue wild indigo --Turkish rocket --White clover --Parma violet --Green and gold --Honeysuckle   </li></ul><ul><li>2. Bird-Attracting Plants --Oregon Grape --Thimbleberry --Goumi --Bee balm </li></ul><ul><li>3. Animal Forage --Apricot --Persimmon --Oregon Grape --Comfrey </li></ul><ul><li>4. Mulch Plants --Goumi --Comfrey   </li></ul><ul><li>5. Nutrient Accumulators --Red wood sorrel --French sorrel --Comrey   </li></ul><ul><li>6. Nitrogen Fixers --Golden chain tree --Goumi --Blue wild indigo --White clover </li></ul>7. Human Forage --Apple --Apricot --Persimmon --Pomegranate --Oregon grape --Artichoke --Saltbush --Thimbleberry --Anise hyssop --Lemon balm --Good King Henry --Turkish rocket --Red wood sorrel --French sorrel --Comfrey --Parma violet --Sarsaparilla --Yacon --Achira 8. Native plants --Anise hyssop --Bee balm