Overview of ergonomics


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This overview of ergonomics and occupational therapy was developed by Karen Jacobs for the promOTing Occupational Therapy to rOTary initiative. Please learn more about this initiative at promotingot.org at Facebook at promotingot and Twitter at @promotingot

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  • A lot of stuff
  • Sitting so that the: Angle formed by the shoulders, hips, & knees is >90° Angle formed by the shoulders, elbows, & wrist is >90° Angle formed by the hips, knees, & feet is >90°
  • Wrists at a neutral position, level with forearm (<15° deviation) Chair armrests not directly compressing any part of the forearms or elbows Move a mouse with your forearm & not just wrist
  • Muscles get stiff if you sit in the same position too long Eyes get tired Too much typing can = wrist and hand discomfort Eye Breaks Micro-breaks Rest breaks Ergonomic software Exercise breaks
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  • Overview of ergonomics

    1. 1. Occupational Therapy & Ergonomics
    2. 2. Ergonomics “ Science of work; of the people who do it and the ways it is done; the tools and equipment they use, the places they work in, and the psychosocial aspects of the working situation ” Pheasant, 1998
    3. 3. Work comfortably: Change & vary your posture often
    4. 5. Working in Comfort <ul><li>Feet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat on floor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Head </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up, not tilting back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facing forward </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At right angle or greater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free of edge of seat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relaxed by sides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elbows at right angle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wrist (hands on keyboard) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Straight or slightly bent forward </li></ul></ul>http://lonesonline.org.au/images/computer_comfort.gif
    5. 6. Arranging Your Work Area <ul><li>Chair </li></ul><ul><li>Desk/Workstation </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Keyboard & Pointing Device </li></ul><ul><li>Papers & Books </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone </li></ul>Source: Hewlett-Packard Company’s Safety & Comfort Guide (2002) (Retrieved on December 13, 2006 from www.hp.com/ergo).
    6. 7. Chair <ul><ul><li>Adjustable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stable base supported by legs with casters </li></ul></ul>
    7. 8. Desk/Workstation <ul><ul><li>Sufficient work space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncluttered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sufficient light </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Monitor <ul><li>Positioned directly in front of you and at an arm ’ s length away </li></ul><ul><li>Screen top at eye level </li></ul><ul><li>Perpendicular to the window </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid glare on the screen </li></ul><ul><li>If you wear bifocals, wear special computing glasses </li></ul>
    9. 10. Keyboard & Pointing Device <ul><li>Try & alternate different input devices including voice recognition software </li></ul><ul><li>Position keyboard & mouse just below elbow height & at the same height </li></ul><ul><li>Use a keyboard tray </li></ul>
    10. 11. Papers & Books <ul><li>Keep most frequently accessed items within easy reach </li></ul><ul><li>Use a document holder for prolonged computer inputting </li></ul>
    11. 12. Telephone <ul><li>Avoid cradling the phone </li></ul><ul><li>Use a wireless head set or speaker phone </li></ul>
    12. 13. Healthy Notebook Computing
    13. 14. Stretch Breaks <ul><li>20/20/20 rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take a break every 20 minutes for 20 seconds and look at least 20 feet away from the moni t or </li></ul></ul>Stretch break for kids http://www.paratec.com/sbform/kidsform.htm http:// blogs.bu.edu/kjacobs/index.shtml
    14. 15. Exercises to Help Prevent Workplace Discomfort <ul><li>Hold each stretch for 10 to 15 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to keep breathing while stretching </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat each stretch two to three times </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat these stretches every 1-2 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Get up from your workstation </li></ul><ul><li>Each stretch should be done slowly and carefully. They should not hurt! </li></ul>
    15. 16. Neck <ul><li>Glide the head back as far as it will go, keeping head and ears level. Hold. Now glide the head forward. Hold. </li></ul><ul><li>Tilt your ear towards your shoulder. Hold. Now repeat on the other side. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn your body to the left and grasp the armrest or the back of your chair. Rotate your head to the left. Hold. Now repeat to the other side. </li></ul>
    16. 17. Upper & Lower Back <ul><li>Push one arm up toward the ceiling with the hand stretched out. Hold. Repeat with the other arm. </li></ul><ul><li>Place hands at shoulder height, palms forward, elbows down. Try to touch your elbows behind your back. Hold. </li></ul><ul><li>Move forward slightly in the chair and place hands on the edges of the chair. Straighten up slowly, raising chest up and out. Hold. </li></ul>
    17. 18. Wrists & Hands <ul><li>Place palms together, point fingers toward ceiling. Keeping palms together, try to push the heels of the hands toward the floor. Hold. </li></ul><ul><li>Place palms together, point fingers toward floor. Keeping palms together, try to push the heels of the hands toward the ceiling. Hold. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a tight fist. Hold. Stretch your fingers as far as you can. Hold. </li></ul>
    18. 19. Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) <ul><li>Be selective in answering e-mails and text messages on hand-held devices </li></ul><ul><li>Record messages </li></ul><ul><li>Use abbreviations, cut & paste when text messaging and typing e-mails </li></ul><ul><li>Type on handheld devices for no more than ten-minute sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid typing with your thumbs, and use other fingers on both hands to type </li></ul><ul><li>Stretch the hands during typing sessions </li></ul>
    19. 20. iPad <ul><li>Keep forearms, wrists, and hands aligned in a straight line. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not rest your wrists on the iPad. </li></ul><ul><li>The iPad should be placed so that the bend in the arms at the elbow is never less than 90º. </li></ul><ul><li>Caution “flicking” wrist from left to right while swiping across the screen. </li></ul><ul><li>Move the entire arm along with the hand as you swipe. </li></ul><ul><li>When possible, position the iPad in landscape when typing so you can spread your hands and fingers out. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Smartcover on a raised surface to position iPad at or slightly below eye level to avoid bending of the neck. </li></ul><ul><li>The iPad should be within two feet from your body. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn accessibility setting to “white on black” when reading text to improve visibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Zoom into small text by pinching fingers in and out to avoid straining your eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Use both hands for typing and other touch screen functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Use shortcut symbol keys to decrease number of key strokes. </li></ul><ul><li>Touch the screen lightly, as it does not require a lot of force to activate. </li></ul>
    20. 22. Thank you
    21. 23. Acknowledgements <ul><li>The original presentation was created </li></ul><ul><li>by Karen Jacobs at [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>To the individuals whose photographs </li></ul><ul><li>are contained in the presentation. </li></ul>