The Practicalities of Cultural Competence - CARL 2014


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A presentation about ACRL's Diversity Standards for Cultural Competence in Academic LIbraries, and how they have been implemented in academic libraries in California. From a presentation given at the 2014 CARL - California Academic and Research Libraries - conference,

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The Practicalities of Cultural Competence - CARL 2014

  1. 1. The  Prac)cali)es  of   Cultural  Competence   Katherine  Becvar            Adjunct  Reference  Librarian,  College  of  San  Mateo     Sarah  Naumann          Adjunct  Instruc:on  Librarian,  CSU  East  Bay     Research  Into  Prac)ce  session   CARL  2014  -­‐  "Leadership  In  Ac)on”  
  2. 2. What  we’ll  be  covering  today:   !   Literature  review  and  background   !   The  diversity  standards  &  the  development  of   cultural  competence   !   Discussion  ac)vity   !   Research  results   !   Next  steps  and  ques)ons  
  3. 3. Cultural  Competence  in  Professional   OrganizaBons   What  can  we  learn  from  them?   !   AACN  -­‐  American  Associa)on  of  Colleges  of  Nursing   !   APA  -­‐  American  Psychological  Associa)on   !   NASW  -­‐  Na)onal  Associa)on  of  Social  Workers   !   NEA  -­‐  Na)onal  Educa)on  Associa)on   !   NIH  -­‐  Na)onal  Ins)tutes  of  Health   !   and  others...      
  4. 4. Diversity  as  focus            “If  your  school  or  library  or  organiza)on   doesn’t  look  like  the  community  around  it,  if  it   doesn’t  mirror  the  world,  you’ve  got  some  work   to  do.”  (Shorter-­‐Gooden)  
  5. 5. Cultural  Competence  in  Academic  Libraries   Yes!     !   Library  collec)ons   !   Instruc)on   !   Reference   “Not  everybody  learns  in  the  same  way...there  are   cultural  differences  in  learning  styles  and  approaches”     (Shorter-­‐Gooden).      
  6. 6. The  process  of  training   Challenges  &  Successes   !   Resistance   !   Who  is  going  to  be  the  diversity/mul)cultural   librarian?   !   Charge  comes  from  higher  up   !   Focus  on  individual  skills    
  7. 7. Cultural  Competence  Training  in  Library   School    
  8. 8. ACRL  Diversity  Standards  :  Overview  and   Context   !   Developed  by  ACRL’s  Racial  and  Ethnic  Diversity   Commiee  between  2008  -­‐  2012,  released  in  2012   !   Affirming  ACRL’s  commitment  to  “diversity  of  people   and  ideas”  and  making  libraries  reflec)ve  of  the   (diverse)  communi)es  they  serve   !   Increasing  aen)on  to  concept  of  cultural   competence  in  service  professions  -­‐  nursing,  social   work,  librarianship,  etc.  
  9. 9. ACRL  Diversity  Standards:  Cultural  Competency   for  Academic  Libraries   !   Standard  1.  Cultural  awareness  of  self  and  others        Librarians  and  library  staff  shall  develop  an  understanding  of  their  own  personal  and   cultural  values  and  beliefs  as  a  first  step  in  apprecia)ng  the  importance  of   mul)cultural  iden))es  in  the  lives  of  the  people  they  work  with  and  serve.   !   Standard  2.  Cross-­‐cultural  knowledge  and  skills        Librarians  and  library  staff  shall  have  and  con)nue  to  develop  specialized  knowledge   and  understanding  about  the  history,  tradi)ons,  values,  and  ar)s)c  expressions  of   colleagues,  co-­‐workers,  and  major  cons)tuencies  served.   !   Standard  3.  OrganizaBonal  and  professional  values        Librarians  and  library  staff  shall  develop  and  support  organiza)onal  and  professional   values  dedicated  to  culturally  competent  service.   !   Standard  4.  Development  of  collecBons,  programs,  and  services        Librarians  and  library  staff  shall  develop  collec)ons  and  provide  programs  and   services  that  are  inclusive  of  the  needs  of  all  persons  in  the  community  the  library   serves.   !   Standard  5.  Service  delivery        Librarians  and  library  staff  shall  be  knowledgeable  about  and  skillful  in  the  use  and   provision  of  informa)on  services  available  in  the  community  and  broader  society,  and   shall  be  able  to  make  appropriate  referrals  for  their  diverse  cons)tuencies.   !   Standard  6.  Language  diversity        Librarians  and  library  staff  shall  support  the  preserva)on  and  promo)on  of  linguis)c   diversity,  and  work  to  foster  a  climate  of  inclusion  aimed  at  elimina)ng  discrimina)on   and  oppression  based  on  linguis)c  or  other  diversi)es.  
  10. 10. ACRL  Diversity  Standards:  Cultural  Competency   for  Academic  Libraries  (cont.)   !   Standard  7.  Workforce  diversity        Librarians  and  library  staff  shall  support  and  advocate  for  recruitment,  admissions,   hiring,  and  reten)on  efforts  in  libraries,  library  associa)ons,  and  LIS  programs  to   increase  diversity  and  ensure  con)nued  diversity  in  the  profession.         !   Standard  8.  OrganizaBonal  dynamics          Librarians  and  library  staff  shall  par)cipate  in  and  facilitate  the  development  of   organiza)onal  dynamics  that  enable  individuals,  groups,  and  organiza)ons  to   con)nually  develop  and  exercise  cultural  competence.   !   Standard  9.  Cross-­‐cultural  leadership        Library  leaders  shall  influence,  support,  and  encourage  the  crea)on  of  proac)ve   processes  that  increase  diversity  skills;  empower  colleagues,  co-­‐workers,  and   cons)tuents  from  diverse  backgrounds;  share  informa)on  about  diverse  popula)ons;   and  advocate  for  their  concerns.     !   Standard  10.  Professional  educaBon  and  conBnuous  learning        Librarians  and  library  staff  shall  advocate  for  and  par)cipate  in  educa)onal  and   training  programs  that  help  advance  cultural  competence  within  the  profession.   !   Standard  11.  Research        Research  shall  be  inclusive  and  respecdul  of  non-­‐Western  thought  and  tradi)onal   knowledge  reflec)ng  the  value  of  cultural  ways  of  knowing.  
  11. 11. The  Culturally  -­‐  Competent  Librarian…   !   “shall  develop  an  understanding  of  their  own   personal  and  cultural  values  and   beliefs”  (Standard  1)   !   “shall  have  and  con)nue  to  develop   specialized  knowledge  and  understanding   about  the  history,  tradi)ons,  values,  and   ar)s)c  expressions  of  colleagues,  co-­‐workers,   and  major  cons)tuencies  served”  (Standard  2)     !   But  how?  …  
  12. 12. Cultural  Competence  as  a  Process   !   Star)ng  at  the  individual  level   !   self-­‐reflec)on,  iden)ty  forma)on,  power  and  privilege   !   cogni)ve  flexibility  -­‐  ability  to  shig  frames  of  reference   !   Moving  to  interpersonal  level   !   beyond  just  contact  or  knowledge  of  other  cultures   !   Expanding  to  environmental  level   !   impac)ng  our  organiza)ons  and  prac)ce   Informed  by  Patricia  Mon)el-­‐Overall  and  Janet  M.  Benne    
  13. 13. From  Mon)el-­‐Overall,P.  (2009)  “Cultural  Competence:  A   Conceptual  Framework  for  LIS  Professionals.”  
  14. 14. AcBvity:  The  Cultural  Shield   How  do  these  things  help  you  think   about  culture  or  diversity?   !   Family  /  Heritage  /  Growing  Up   !   Educa)on  /  Training   !   Personal  Life  /  Friends  /  Life   Experience   !   Work  Experience   Take  5  minutes  to  write  responses  on  your  handout,   then  discuss  in  small  groups  for  10  minutes  
  15. 15. Cultural  competence  and  the   ACRL  Diversity  Standards  in   California  academic  libraries                          Survey  Results  
  16. 16. 59   14   0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   Yes   No     Q2.  Is  service  to   diverse  populaBons  a   priority  for  your   library?  (n=72)   18   39   16   0   5   10   15   20   25   30   35   40   45   Yes   No     I  don't  know   Q3.  Does  your  library   have  a  Diversity   Statement  or   something  similar?   (n=72)   60   1   12   0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   Yes   No     I  don't  know   Q4.  Does  your  college  or   university  have  a  campus-­‐ wide  Diversity  Statement  or   something  similar?  (n=72)   Ins)tu)onal  Approaches  to  Diversity  
  17. 17. 34   39   0   5   10   15   20   25   30   35   40   Yes   No     Q5.  Had  you  heard  about   ACRL’s  Cultural  Competency   Standards  for  Academic   Libraries  before  taking  this   survey?  (n=72)   6   42   25   0   5   10   15   20   25   30   35   40   45   Yes   No     I  don't  know   Q6.  Has  your  library  discussed   or  implemented  any  aspect  of   the  ACRL’s  Diversity   Standards?  (n=72)   Knowledge  of  ACRL’s  Diversity  Standards  
  18. 18. 12   61   0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   Yes   No     Q8.  Have  you  changed  any  aspect   of  your  pracBce  as  a  librarian  as  a   result  of  the  Diversity  Standards?   (n=72)   58   15   0   10   20   30   40   50   60   Yes   No     Q7.  Do  you  think  that  ACRL’s   Diversity  Standards  are   something  that  your  library   could  benefit  or  currently   benefits  from?  (n=72)   Impact  of  ACRL’s  Diversity  Standards  
  19. 19. 65   7   0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   Yes   No     Q11.  Do  you  feel  that  you   possess  a  sufficient  amount   of  cultural  competence  to   support  your  day  to  day   interacBons  at  the  reference   desk  or  in  the  classroom?   (n=72)   59   13   0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   Yes   No     Q9.  Do  you  feel  that   you  have  a  strong   knowledge  of  or   familiarity  with   cultures  other  than   your  own?  (n=72)   Personal  Cultural  Competence  in  Reference  and  Instruc)on   38   27   2   5   0   5   10   15   20   25   30   35   40   Very   important   Somewhat   important   Less   important   Not   important   at  all   Q10.  How  important  is   it  to  you  to  have  a   common  cultural   understanding  with   students  that  approach   you  at  the  reference   desk  or  whom  you   teach  in  the  classroom?     (n=72)  
  20. 20. 12   9   6   7   3   0   2   4   6   8   10   12   14   Language  differences  or   barriers   Differences  in  social  cues   and  interac)ons  (body   language,  asking   ques)ons,  etc)   Situa)on(s)  handled   differently  because  of   knowledge  about  a   specific  culture   Library-­‐  or  informa)on-­‐ specific  cultural   differences   teachable  moments  about   diversity  and  cultural   difference   Number  of  Responses     Coded  categories  from  free-­‐text  responses   Q12.  Can  you  give  us  an  example  of  how  cultural  differences  have  presented   themselves  to  you  on  a  day  to  day  basis,  and  how  you  handled  the   situaBon?  (n=43)  
  21. 21. Q12:  Can  you  give  us  an  example  of  how  cultural  differences  have   presented  themselves  to  you  on  a  day  to  day  basis,  and  how  you   handled  the  situa)on?     -­‐  a  sample  of  responses  -­‐   !   “If  you  work  at  an  academic  reference  desk  in  a  community  college  in  California,  you  are   dealing  with  different  cultural  backgrounds  daily.  I  cannot  come  up  with  one  situa)on   specifically  because  I  do  not  think  of  them  as  situaBons,  but  as  reference.”   !   “I  don't  think  I  understand  Japanese,  Korean,  or  Chinese  cultures.  Nor  can  I  (I'm   embarrassed  to  say)  tell  them  apart.  I  deal  with  many  people  of  Asian  descent  at  my   university,  but  lack  any  depth  of  cultural  knowledge.”   !   “I'm  not  sure  this  counts  as  a  ‘cultural  difference,’  but  at  my  last  place  of  work  a  male   student  of  color  asked  to  borrow  a  highlighter.  I  said,  "Sure,  just  be  sure  to  bring  it  back!"   and  he  replied,  "You  think  I'm  going  to  steal  it?"  and  I  realized  this  was  probably  yet   another  microaggression  in  his  life,  as  he  probably  ogen  encounters  people  who  treat  him   like  he's  going  to  steal  something  because  of  his  age,  gender,  race,  and  manner  of  dress.   Ader  that,  I've  been  more  sensiBve  to  how  I  say  things  like  that.”  
  22. 22. 11   6   11   10   7   6   2   7   13   0   2   4   6   8   10   12   14   Ethnic/cultural   descent   Other  aspect   of  background   (ie.  Sexual   orienta)on  or   "how  I  was   raised")   Live  in  an   urban/diverse   place   Have  traveled   or  lived   overseas   Professional   development,   associa)ons,   or  training   Educa)on  -­‐   anthro  and/or   other  cultures   Diversity  class   in  library   school   Rela)onships  -­‐   friends  or   family  of   another   culture   Work   experience  -­‐   serving  a   diverse   popula)on   Number  of  responses   Coded  categories  from  free-­‐text  responses   Q  13.  Please  describe  any  aspects  of  your  background,  experience,  or   training  that  you  feel  have  most  impacted  your  sense  of  your  own  cultural   competence.  (n=43)  
  23. 23. Q13:  Please  describe  any  aspects  of  your  background,  experience,  or   training  that  you  feel  have  most  impacted  your  sense  of  your  own  cultural   competence.     -­‐  a  sample  of  responses  -­‐   !   “I'm  a  librarian  of  color  and  have  not  tried  to  be  or  pretend  that  I'm  of  another  race/ ethnicity.  I'm  not  ashamed  of  my  ethnicity  as  some  members  of  my  family  seem  to  be.”   !   “I  have  worked  throughout  my  life  and  my  profession  years  to  develop  cultural   competencies  and  have  commifed  to  working  towards  building  diversity  in   librarianship.  I  am  mul)racial  and  queer  so  within  my  family  and  my  life  I  am  constantly   traversing  through  different  cultures.  I  was  a  Spectrum  Scholar  and  went  through  the   Spectrum  Leadership  InsBtute  which  addresses  some  of  these  issues  as  well.”   !   “Living  in  a  diverse  metropolitan  area  during  college,  world  travel  from  a  young  age,  1   year  of  working  overseas  in  local  business  (not  US  company),  military  spouse  (very  diverse   popula)on  actually),  15  years  of  working  in  CA  community  college  libraries,  diverse   friends  and  colleagues,  generally  an  open  and  kind  person  to  all  people  (something   ins)lled  in  me  by  my  own  family  while  growing  up).  Professional  dialogue  on  these  topics   just  reinforces  all  of  this  for  me.  “  
  24. 24. TentaBve  “To-­‐Do”  checklist   !  Be  ethnically  or  culturally  diverse   !  Have  other  kinds  of  diversity  in  your  background  (ie.   sexual  orienta)on)   !  Live  in  an  urban/diverse  place     !  Travel  or  live  overseas     !  Par)cipate  in  diversity-­‐related  professional   development,  associa)ons,  or  training     !  Study  anthropology  and/or  other  cultures  (ie.  Asian   studies)   !  Take  a  diversity  class  in  library  school     !  Cul)vate  diverse  personal  rela)onships  -­‐  make   friends  with  someone  from  another  culture     !  Serve  a  diverse  popula)on  in  your  workplace  (but   wait  a  minute…)  
  25. 25. A  more  pragmaBc  “To-­‐do”  checklist?   Things  we  can’t  change     !  Be  ethnically  or  culturally   diverse   !  Have  other  kinds  of   diversity  in  your   background  (ie.  sexual   orienta)on)   !  Serve  a  diverse   popula)on  in  your   workplace     Things  we  CAN  change     !  Live  in  an  urban/diverse  place     !  Travel  or  live  overseas   !  Study  anthropology  and/or  other   cultures  (ie.  Asian  studies)   !  Take  a  diversity  class  [in  library   school]   !  Cul)vate  diverse  personal   rela)onships  -­‐  make  friends  with   someone  from  another  culture   !  Par)cipate  in  diversity-­‐related   professional  development,   associa)ons,  or  training    
  26. 26. QuesBon  Time!   Contact  Us:   Katherine  Becvar                   Sarah  Naumann    
  27. 27. Works  Cited   Alexander,  David  L.  “American  Indian  Studies,  Mul)culturalism,  and  the  Academic  Library.”  College  &              Research  Libraries.  74.1  (Jan  2013):  60-­‐68.  Print.     Benne,  Janet  M.  "Cul)va)ng  Intercultural  Competence:  A  Process  Perspec)ve.”  In  The  SAGE              Handbook  of  Intercultural  Competence.  Ed.  Darla  K.  Deardorff.  Los  Angeles:  SAGE,  2009.  121-­‐40.              Print.   Hughes,  Amy  and  Carissa  Tsosie.  “Ya’  at’  eeh!  Serving  American  Indian  Students.”  American  Library              Associa)on  Conference.  Anaheim,  CA.  24  June,  2012.   Mestre,  Lori.  Librarians  serving  diverse  popula:ons:  Challenges  &  opportuni:es.  Chicago:  Associa)on              of  College  and  Research  Libraries,  2010.  Print.   Monteil-­‐Overall,  Patricia.  “Cultural  Competence:  A  Conceptual  Framework  for  Library  and  Informa)on              Science  Professionals.”  Library  Quarterly  79.2  (April  2009):  175-­‐204.   Mon)el-­‐Overall,  Patricia.  "Developing  cultural  competence  to  create  mul)cultural  libraries."  Paper              presented  at  American  Library  Associa)on  annual  conference,  Chicago,  IL,  June  2009.   Oxley,  Rebecca.  “iDiversity  and  LIS  Educa)on:  Student-­‐Based  Groups  Promo)ng  Cultural  Competence                as  a  Vision  for  the  Profession.”  Library  Quarterly  83.3  (July  2013):  236-­‐242.   Ryan,  Marianne,  and  M.  Asim  Qayyum.  "Designing  an  Intercultural  Training  Framework  for              Informa)on  Professionals."  Reference  &  User  Services  Quarterly  51.3  (2012):  226-­‐230.   Shorter-­‐Gooden,  Kumea.  “The  Culturally  Competent  Organiza)on.”  Library  Quarterly  83.3  (July  2013):              207-­‐211.   Tuleja,  Elizabeth,  A.  Intercultural  Communica:on  for  Business.  Mason,  Ohio:  Thomson  South-­‐Western.              2005.