Kuliah biokima hormon

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  • Kuliah biokima hormon

    1. 1. Hormone Santoso
    2. 2. Regulation of homeostasis <ul><li>Nerves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>governing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mainly metabolism, growth, differentiation, reproduction </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Hormone <ul><li>Substance produced by a specific cell type usually accumulated in one (small) organ </li></ul><ul><li>Transport by blood to target tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypical response (receptors) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Hormone production: “Classic” glands <ul><li>Hypothalamus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GHRH, CRH, TRH, GnRH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Somatostatin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADH </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pituitary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prolactin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ACTH, MSH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TSH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FSH & LH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxytocin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADH </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pancreas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucagon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ovaries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progesterone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Epiphysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Melatonin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thyroid gland: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T3, T4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcitonin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parathyroid glands: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parathyroid h. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adrenal cortex: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cortisol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aldosterone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Androgens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adrenal medulla: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catecholamines </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Hormone production: Less traditional sources <ul><li>E ndothelium: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endothelins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prostanoids,... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immune system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytokines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Platelets, mesenchyme: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>P lacenta : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A dipocytes : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>L eptin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C ardiocytes : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ANP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kidney : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E rythropoietin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RAS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GIT : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gastrin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cholecystokinin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretin,... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gonads : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activins </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Hormones, cytokines, growth factors <ul><li>Common aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>small quantities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regulate other cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>act through receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tight interactions between immune and endocrine systems </li></ul>
    7. 8. Endocrine and nervous systems <ul><li>Many common aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>small quantities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regulate other cells & tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>act through receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>functional overlap between some hormones & neurotransmitters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>excitability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>both can secrete into blood </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Types of humoral signalization <ul><li>Endocrine </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>from gland via blood to a distance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Neurocrine </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>via axonal transport and then via blood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Paracrine </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>neighboring cells of different types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Autocrine </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>neighboring cells of the same type or the secreting cell itself </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 10. Chemical characteristics of hormones <ul><li>Amines (from tyrosine) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hydroxylation - catecholamines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>iodination - thyroid hormones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Peptides/proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Steroids (from cholesterol) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adrenocortikoids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sex hormones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>active metabolites of vitamin D </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 11. Genetic disorders <ul><li>Peptides/proteins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often gene coding the hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>->  activity (e.g. insulin) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Amines & steroids: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gene coding enzyme catalyzing the synthesis ->  hormone level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and/or  precurzor level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g.  androgens in deficient estrogen synthesis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 12. Hormone release <ul><li>Proteins & catecholamines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>secretory granules, exocytosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for incorporation into granules often special sequences cleaved off in granules or after release </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stimulus   [Ca 2+ ] i (influx, reticulum)  granules travel along microtubules towards cell membrane (kinesins, myosins)  fusion </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Hormone release <ul><li>Thyroid hormones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>made as part of thyroglobulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stored in folicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T3 & T4 secreted by enzymatic cleavage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steroid hormones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>leave the cell across cell membrane right after synthesis (no storage) </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. Regulation of hormone release <ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul></ul>Gland Target tissue  hormone product inhibition
    14. 15. Regulation of hormone release <ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive (only narrow dose range) </li></ul></ul>Gland Target tissue  hormone product
    15. 16. Regulation of hormone release <ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive (only narrow dose range) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nerve regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pain, emotions, sex, injury, stress,... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g.  oxytocin with nipple stimulation </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. Combined feedback Stress etc. CRH secretion in hypothalamus ACTH secretion in pituitary  plasma ACTH cortisol secretion in adrenals  plasma cortisol stimulation inhibition
    17. 18. Regulation of hormone release <ul><li>Rhythms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>circadian </li></ul></ul>Cortisol (nM) Time of day 09 09 21
    18. 19. Regulation of hormone release <ul><li>Rhythms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>circadian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>light/dark fine/tune endogenous rhythm of cells & suprachiasmatic nucleus of hypothalamus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>melatonin, cortisol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monthly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seasonal (day length; atavistic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>developmental (puberty, menopause) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pulsations/oscillations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gonadotropins </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 20. Pulsatility in GnRH & LH release 12:00 16:00 14:00 Time of day
    20. 21. Hormone action <ul><li>Receptor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>specificity of a response to a given hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Second messenger) </li></ul><ul><li>∆ activity or concentration of enzymes, transcription factors, or structural proteins </li></ul>
    21. 22. Hormone action
    22. 23. Receptors <ul><li>∆ affinity or expression modulates hormone action </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. phosphorylation, pH, osmolarity,... </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>down-regulation </li></ul><ul><li>up-regulation </li></ul>
    23. 24. Membrane receptors <ul><li>Large glycoproteins, often several subunits </li></ul><ul><li>Typically 7x through membrane </li></ul><ul><li>After activation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dissociation from the hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or endocytosis of the complex, then degradation in lysozomes, recycling </li></ul></ul>
    24. 25. G proteins
    25. 26. G proteins <ul><ul><li>a subunit binds activated receptor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>releases GDP, binds GTP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dissociates from its b subunit & the receptor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>binds & activates/inhibits effector (adenyl/guanylate cyclase, phospholipase C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrolyzes GTP to GDP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>re-associates with its b-g dimer </li></ul></ul>
    26. 27. Intracellular signal transduction (second messengers) <ul><ul><li>cAMP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cGMP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ca/calmodulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tyr kinases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAP kinases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One hormone can use several systems (in various cells or for different functions) </li></ul></ul>
    27. 28. cAMP
    28. 29. Adenylate cyclase - cAMP - protein kinase A <ul><ul><li>PKA phosphorylates target enzymes (in/activation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sometimes complementary (e.g. Ca channel activation + Ca pump inhibition) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can affect gene expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cAMP regulatory element (CRE) on DNA binds transcription factor, CRE binding protein (CREB) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cAMP hydrolysis: phosphodiesterases </li></ul></ul>
    29. 30. cGMP
    30. 31. Ca-calmodulin <ul><ul><li>G proteins activate Ca channels (ROC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ca influx stimulates Ca release from endoplasmic reticulum (CICR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ca, mainly by binding calmodulin, modulates many enzymes, often via protein kinase C </li></ul></ul>
    31. 32. Phospholipase C - IP 3 & DAG <ul><ul><li>from cell membrane phospholipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP 3 activates Ca channel of the endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DAG:  PKC affinity to Ca </li></ul></ul>
    32. 33. Tyrosin kinases <ul><ul><li>Receptor autophosphorylation upon hormone binding unmasks tyr-kinase activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>typically insulin (& growth factors) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or conformational change of the receptor upon hormone binding attracts & activates cytoplasmic tyr-kinases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. growth hormone </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tyr-kinases phosphorylate cascades of tyr & ser kinases & phosphatases </li></ul></ul>
    33. 34. Inhibins, activins & TGF system Hormone
    34. 35. Intracellular receptors <ul><li>Lipophilic hormones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steroid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin D </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enter the cell or all the way to nucleus, where they bind the receptor (large oligomeric protein) </li></ul>
    35. 36. Intracellular receptors <ul><li>C-terminal domain binds hormone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hormone specificity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central domain binds DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(HRE, hormone regulatory unit, 8-15 bases) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gene specificity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>N-terminal domain activates RNA polymerase </li></ul>
    36. 37. Function of intracellular receptors <ul><li>Hormone displaces inhibitory protein (e.g. HSP)  translocation to nucleus, DNA binding </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>corticoids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Or hormone binding displaces the receptor from resting, inhibitory association with DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thyroid hormones </li></ul></ul></ul>
    37. 38. Magnitude of response <ul><li>hormone concentration </li></ul><ul><li>number of receptor molecules </li></ul><ul><li>duration of exposure </li></ul><ul><li>intracellular conditions (second messengers, kinases,…) </li></ul><ul><li>synergistic or antagonistic influences </li></ul>
    38. 39. Dose/response max. response ~sensitivity
    39. 40. Decrease in max. response <ul><li>less target cells </li></ul><ul><li>less receptors </li></ul><ul><li>less/lower activity of enzymes activated by hormone </li></ul><ul><li>less substrate for final product </li></ul><ul><li>more non-competitive inhibitor </li></ul>
    40. 41. Drop in sensitivity <ul><li>less receptors </li></ul><ul><li>lower receptor affinity </li></ul><ul><li>modulating factors </li></ul><ul><li>faster hormone degradation </li></ul><ul><li>antagonistic hormones </li></ul>
    41. 42. Transport of hormones <ul><li>Freely in blood: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catecholamines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most peptides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific transport globulins (from liver): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steroids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroid hormones </li></ul></ul>
    42. 43. Transporter binding lengthens hormone halftime Plasma halftime (days) % bound hormone Thyroxin T3 Testosterone Cortisol
    43. 44. Inactivation of hormones <ul><li>Target tissue uptake </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic degradation (plasma, liver , kidney) </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion in urine (  by transporter binding; low for proteins - also re-absorbtion & degradation in kidneys) </li></ul>
    44. 45. Measuring hormones <ul><li>Immunoassay (pM) </li></ul><ul><li>Bioassay (biol. activity can differ from concentration or immunoreactivity - e.g. mutation of the gene for the hormone) </li></ul>
    45. 46. KELENJAR APA SAJA YANG DAPAT MENGHASILKAN HORMON <ul><li>HIPOFISA  HIPOFISA ANTERIOR, MEDULA, POSTERIOR </li></ul><ul><li>THYROID </li></ul><ul><li>PARATHYROID </li></ul><ul><li>ADRENAL  KORTEKS & MEDULA </li></ul><ul><li>PANKREAS  SEL ALPHA, SEL BETA, SEL DELTA, SEL F </li></ul><ul><li>LAMBUNG (GASTER) </li></ul><ul><li>DUODENUM (USUS HALUS = INTESTINUM TENUE) </li></ul><ul><li>OVARIUM </li></ul><ul><li>TESTIS </li></ul><ul><li>THYMUS </li></ul>
    46. 47. KELENJAR HIPOFISA (PITUITARI) <ul><li>TERDIRI DARI HIPOFISA ANTERIOR (DEPAN), MEDULA (TENGAH) & POSTERIOR (BELAKANG) </li></ul><ul><li>ANTERIOR & MEDULA  ADENOHIPOFISA </li></ul><ul><li>POSTERIOR  NEUROHIPOFISA  ADA SINYAL SYARAF BARU DISEKRESIKAN </li></ul><ul><li>KELENJAR HIPOFISA  MASTER GLAND  KARENA DPT MENGHASILKAN HORMON & HORMON YANG DIHASILKAN DAPAT MERANGSANG KELENJAR LAIN UNTUK MENGHASILKAN HORMON LAIN  hipofisa anterior  TSH = tyrosomatotropic hormone  merangsang kelenjar thyroid  untuk menghasilkan thyroksin  thyroksin digunakan untuk metabolisme tubuh (kh, protein, lipid)  berarti jln menuju hipofisa anterior akan terhambat dst </li></ul>
    47. 48. HIPOFISA ANTERIOR <ul><li>HORMON PERTUMBUHAN = GROWTH HORMONE = SOMATOTROPIN = GH  HORMON INI BEKERJA PD TULANG, OTOT, RAWAN, KULIT & BEKERJANYA SANGAT TERBATAS  PD PRIA  LHR  21 THN  PERTMBUHAN DRASTIS 13-16 THN; SDGKAN PD WANITA  LHR  18 THN  PERTUMBUHAN DRASTIS 9-12 THN </li></ul><ul><li>GH SANGAT DIPENGARUHI KADAR GLUKOSA DLM DRH  BILA SELESAI MAKAN KDR GULA DLM DRH AKAN MENING-KAT, GH TDK MAU BEKERJA; BILA KDR GULA DLM DRH MENU-RUN, GH BEKERJA SECARA MAKSIMAL </li></ul><ul><li>BILA GH BEKERJA NORMAL  TBH AKAN NORMAL, BILA HI-PERSEKRESI  MANUSIA RAKSASA (GIANT), BILA HIPOSEKRE-SI  MANUSIA KERDIL/CEBOL  LORAIN  PENDEK & KURUS; FROLICH  PENDEK, GENDUT, PERUT BUNCIT </li></ul>
    48. 49. LANJUTAN HIPOFISA ANTERIOR <ul><li>THYROTROPIC HORMONE = THYROSOMATOTROPIC HORMONE = TSH  MEMPENGARUHI KEL THYROID  MENG-HASILKAN THYROKSIN (T4), LIOTIRONIN (T3) & KALSITONIN </li></ul><ul><li>ADRENO CORTICO TROPIC HORMONE (ACTH)  ADA 3 KELOMPOK BESAR  1. GLUKOKORTIKOID  PENGHASIL GULA; 2. MINERALOKORTIKOID  MENGATUR KESEIMBANGAN CAIRAN ANTARA ION Na & ION K; 3. GONADO-KORTIKOID  UTK WANITA  ESTRONE & PROGESTRONE;  UTK PRIA  TESTRONE </li></ul><ul><li>PROLACTINE = LACTOGENIC HORMONE = LUTEOTROPIC HORMONE = LTH  PERSIAPAN PRODUKSI AIR SUSU IBU (ASI)  PD SAAT SEORANG WANITA DINYATAKAN MENIKAH & HAMIL; MSH GADIS TDK KELUAR ASI KRN ADA HORMONE YG MENGHAMBAT  ESTROGEN </li></ul>
    49. 50. LANJUTAN HIPOFISA ANTERIOR <ul><li>GONADOTROPIN HORMONE (GTH) tdd: </li></ul><ul><li>FSH  FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE & LH (LUTEINIZING HORMONE) = ICSH = INTERSTITIAL CELL STIMULATING HORMONE </li></ul><ul><li>PDWANITA  FSH  MEMATANGKAN TELUR DALAM FOLIKEL OVARIUM MULAI DR FOLIKEL AWAL – PRIMER – SEKUNDER – TERSIER – DE GRAAF (MATANG) ; LH  MENEBALKAN DDG RAHIM & MEMPERTAHANKAN IMPLANTASI JANIN </li></ul><ul><li>PD PRIA  FSH  MEMATANGKAN SPERMATOGONIUM  SPERMATOZOA MELALUI SPERMATOGENESIS, SPERMIOGENE-SIS, TRANSFORMASI; LH = ICSH  MENGHASILKAN SEL LEYDIG YANG MEMPRODUKSI HORMON TESTOSTERON </li></ul>
    50. 51. HIPOFISA MEDULLA <ul><li>MENGHASILKAN MSH = MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONE  AKAN MENGHASILKAN PIGMEN MELANIN UNTUK WARNA KULIT </li></ul><ul><li>MAKIN BANYAK MELANIN MAKIN HITAM PIGMEN KULIT, MAKIN SEDIKIT MELANIN MAKIN PUTIH PIGMEN KULIT </li></ul><ul><li>ORANG BULE MENJEMUR KULIT TUBUH PD SAAT ULTRA VIOLET MATAHARI TIDAK BAIK (DIATAS JAM 9 PG S/D 15 SORE, SEHINGG PIGMEN KULIT PECAH SHG MENIMBULKAN BERCAK PECAH BER-WARNA COKLAT SPT NODA PADA KULIT </li></ul>
    51. 52. HIPOFISA POSTERIOR = NEUROHIPOFISA <ul><li>OXYTOSIN  REGULASI KONTRAKSI RAHIM SETIAP 3 JAM, 2,5 JAM, 2 JAM, 1,5 JAM, 1 JAM SEKALI S/D 10 MENIT SEKALI; SELAIN ITU JG MEMBANTU DALAM PROSES PENGELUARAN AIR SUSU IBU BILA SETELAH MELAHIRKAN KELENJAR MAMMAE IBU DIHISAP OLEH BAYI </li></ul><ul><li>RELAXIN  MEMBUKANYA SIMPHISIS PUBIS (TLG KEMALUAN) SEHINGGA BAYI MUDAH DILAHIRKAN </li></ul><ul><li>KEDUA HORMON DI ATAS HARUS BEKERJA SAMA AGAR BAYI MUDAH DILAHIRKAN </li></ul><ul><li>ADH = ANTI DIURETIKA HORMONE = PITRESSIN = VASOPRES- SIN  MENCEGAH AGAR URIN YANG KELUAR TIDAK TERLALU BANYAK ( IN PUT = OUT PUT)  BILA TIDAK AKAN MENYE-BABKAN DIABETES INCIPIDUS </li></ul>
    52. 53. KELENJAR THYROID <ul><li>1. THYROKSIN  UNTUK METABOLISME TUBUH BAIK META-BOLISME KH, PROTEIN MAUPUN LIPID </li></ul><ul><li>2. LIOTIRONIN  MERUPAKAN BAHAN BAKU THIROKSIN DGN SYARAT HARUS ADA ION IODIUM  DEKAT LAUT ATAU HASIL DARI LAUT  IKAN, GARAM YG BERIODIUM </li></ul><ul><li>3. KALSITONIN  MERUPAKAN BAHAN BAKU PEMBENTUKKAN PARATHORMON YANG JUGA DISEKRESIKAN OLEH KELENJAR PARATHYROID -- > BERFUNGSI UNTUK MENGATUR KADAR CALCIUM (ION Ca2+) DALAM DARAH </li></ul>
    53. 54. KELENJAR PARATHYROID <ul><li>MENEMPEL PD KELENJAR THYROID SEBANYAK 2 PASANG  SEPASANG PD BAGIAN ATAS & SEPASANG PD BAGIAN BAWAH </li></ul><ul><li>MENGHASILKAN PARATHORMONE = HORMON PARATHYROID YG BERFUNGSI MENGATUR KADAR CALCIUM DALAM DARAH </li></ul><ul><li>CALCIUM DIBUTUHKAN TUBUH: </li></ul><ul><li>1. DALAM PROSES MEMPERCEPAT PEMBEKUAN DARAH APA-BILA TERDAPAT LUKA </li></ul><ul><li>2. DALAM PROSES PEMBENTUKAN & MEMPERKUAT TULANG & GIGI </li></ul>
    54. 55. KELENJAR ADRENAL (ANAK GINJAL) <ul><li>DISEBUT KELENJAR SUPRARENALIS </li></ul><ul><li>ADA BAGIAN KORTEKS (TEPI) & MEDULLA (TENGAH) </li></ul><ul><li>BAGIAN KORTEKS MEMPUNYAI 3 (TIGA) KELOMPOK BESAR: </li></ul><ul><li>1. GLUKOKORTIKOID  MENGHASILKAN KORTISON & HIDRO-KORTISON  UNTUK PEMBENTUKAN GULA BILA TUBUH KEKURANGAN GULA </li></ul><ul><li>2. MINERALOKORTIOD  ALDOSTERON  KESEIMBANGAN CAIRAN TUBUH ANTARA ION Na (NATRIUM = SODIUM) & ION K (KALIUM=POTASIUM) </li></ul><ul><li>3. GONADOKORTIKOID  PEMBENTUKAN HORMON PD WANITA  ESTRONE & PROGESTRONE SERTA PD PRIA  TESTRONE </li></ul>
    55. 56. LANJUTAN KELENJAR ADRENAL <ul><li>BAGIAN MEDULA (TENGAH) </li></ul><ul><li>ADRENALIN & EPINEPHRIN SERTA DERIVATNYA YAITU: NORADRENALIN & NOREPINEPHRIN </li></ul><ul><li>DILATASI (PELEBARAN) PEMBULUH DARAH CORONARIA JANTUNG </li></ul><ul><li>DILATASI PEMBULUH DARAH & OTOT-2 BRONKIOLUS AGAR RESPIRASI BERJALAN NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>KONSTRIKSI (PENYEMPITAN) PEMBULUH DARAH PD DAERAH MUKA (TERUTAMA BILA KITA DIPERMALUKAN)  AKIBAT LAIN TERJADINYA HIPERTENSI (TEKANAN DARAH TINGGI) </li></ul><ul><li>MENGHASILKAN GULA DARI GLIKOGEN OTOT </li></ul>
    56. 57. KELENJAR PANKREAS <ul><li>BERFUNGSI GANDA  DAPAT MENGHASILKAN EKSOKRIN  BGN ACINI (ACINUS) SERTA ENDOKRIN  BGN PULAU-2 LANGERHANS </li></ul><ul><li>1. SEL A = ALPHA  GLUKAGON  MENGHASILKAN GULA BILA TUBUH KEKURANGAN GULA </li></ul><ul><li>2. SEL B = BETA  INSULIN  MENGURAIKAN GULA BILA BERLEBIHAN MENJADI GLIKOGEN DALAM OTOT </li></ul><ul><li>3. SEL D = DELTA  SOMATOSTATIN  TERGANTUNG DR KE-BUTUHAN TUBUH  MEMBANTU SEL A BILA KEKURANGAN GULA & MEMBANTU SEL B BILA KELEBIHAN GULA </li></ul><ul><li>4. SEL F  PANKREOPEPTIDA  MEMBANTU DALAM PROSES PENCERNAAN MAKANAN TERUTAMA PROTEIN </li></ul>
    57. 58. KELENJAR LAMBUNG (GASTER) <ul><li>MENGHASILKAN GASTRIN </li></ul><ul><li>MEMBANTU DALAM PROSES GERAK PERISTALTIK YANG TERATUR SEHINGGA MAKANAN DIANTAR ANTARA LAMBUNG MULAI DARI ESOPHAGUS, KARDIA LAMBUNG, FUNDUS LAMBUNG DAN PYLORUS LAMBUNG </li></ul><ul><li>MEMBENTUK MAKANAN YANG PADAT MENJADI LUNAK ATAU DALAM BENTUK CAIR (KHIME) SEHINGGA MUDAH DICERNA OLEH INTESTINUM TENUE (USUS HALUS) YG TDD: DUODENUM, JEJENUM, ILEUM </li></ul>
    58. 59. KELENJAR DUODENUM <ul><li>MENGHASILKAN SEKRETIN </li></ul><ul><li>MEMBANTU DALAM PROSES GERAK PERISTALTIK DALAM USUS HALUS MULAI DARI DUODENUM, JEJENUM KEMUDIAN KE ILEUM  KE USUS KASAR/BESAR (INTESTINUM CRASSUM) </li></ul><ul><li>MEMPERCEPAT PENGANTARAN NUTRISI KE JARINGAN DAN SEL-SEL SETELAH DALAM BENTUK KHIME </li></ul>
    59. 60. KELENJAR THYMUS <ul><li>MENGHASILKAN THYMOSIN </li></ul><ul><li>BERFUNGSI UNTUK KEKEBALAN TUBUH MANUSIA </li></ul><ul><li>KEKEBALAN ADA 2 (DUA) MACAM: </li></ul><ul><li>1. KEKEBALAN SELULER  KEKEBALAN YANG DIBERIKAN PD SAAT KITA DALAM KANDUNGAN IBU  IBU MAKAN PROTEIN ATAU DISUNTIK  AKAN TERBENTUK ANTIBODI YANG AKAN DIBERIKAN KE ANAK SHG ANAK MENJADI KEBAL </li></ul><ul><li>2. KEKEBALAN HUMORAL  KEKEBALAN YANG DIBERIKAN SETELAH ANAK DILAHIRKAN MELALUI VAKSINASI/IMUNISASI MULAI DARI BCG; DPT 1, 2, 3; POLIO 1, 2, 3, CAMPAK, RUBELLA, HEPATITIS DAN DILAKUKAN PENGULANGAN SETELAH 1 THN, 3 THN, 6 THN </li></ul>
    60. 61. KELENJAR OVARIUM <ul><li>MENGHASILKAN ESTROGEN & PROGESTERON </li></ul><ul><li>ESTROGEN  BERFUNGSI UNTUK MEMATANGKAN TELUR DALAM FOLIKEL-2 TELUR (FOLIKEL AWAL, PRIMER, SEKUN-DER, TERSIER, DE GRAAF), MENEBALKAN DINDING RAHIM UTK PERSIAPAN BILA OVUM KETEMU DG SEL SPERMA </li></ul><ul><li>MENGEMBANGKAN PAYUDARA SECARA MAKSIMAL, MULAI DARI PUTING & AEROLA (bgn berwarna coklat yg mengelilingi puting) </li></ul><ul><li>TANDA SEKS SEKUNDER PD WANITA </li></ul><ul><li>MENSTIMULI PERTEMUAN OVUM DG SEL SPERMA PADA SALURAN TELUR (OVIDUCT) </li></ul><ul><li>PROGESTERON  BERFUNGSI MEMPERTAHANKAN KETEBA-LAN DDG RAHIM SHG BILA TERJADI PERTEMUAN OVUM DG SEL SPERMA AKAN DI IMPLANTASIKAN </li></ul><ul><li>MENGHAMBAT PERTEMUAN OVUM DG SEL SPERMA BILA MELEBIHI KAPASITAS YANG SEHARUSNYA </li></ul>
    61. 62. KELENJAR TESTIS (TESTES) <ul><li>MENGHASILKAN HORMON TESTOSTERON </li></ul><ul><li>SETIAP 3 (TIGA) TUBULUS SEMINIFERUS DLM TESTIS KETEMU AKAN MENGHASILKAN HORMON TSB </li></ul><ul><li>MENINGKATKAN HASRAT LIBIDO PRIA </li></ul><ul><li>SEBAGAI TANDA SEKS SEKUNDER PRIA  SUARA BERAT, TUMBUH JAKUN (ADAM APPLE’S), BAHU MELEBAR, PINGGANG TETAP RAMPING </li></ul>
    62. 63. Terima Kasih

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