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Expanding Vocabulary Activities: A Vocab Share Focusing on Classroom Application


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*Updated PPT - Teachers are constantly looking for new ways to introduce, review and assess vocabulary acquisition and retention. With Vygotzky’s theory of language acquisition as the framework, activities covering the noticing, recognition and production stages will be demonstrated. Participants will further develop activities, expanding the experienced teacher’s repertoire of practical classroom activities.

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Expanding Vocabulary Activities: A Vocab Share Focusing on Classroom Application

  1. 1. Expanding Vocabulary: a Vocabulary Share Focusing on Classroom Application Susanne Rizzo ( & Julie Hanks (
  2. 2. Today’s Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Content vs. Function and Counterbalance </li></ul><ul><li>Vygotzky’s Stages to Language Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation of Activity Chart </li></ul>
  3. 3. Today’s Agenda <ul><li>Demonstration of Noticing Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Group Share: Noticing </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration of Recognition Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Group Share: Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration of Production Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Group Share: Production </li></ul>
  4. 5. Resources <ul><li>Lewis, 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Nattinger and DeCarrico, 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Sinclair, 1991 </li></ul>
  5. 7. Resources <ul><li>Nation, 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Nation, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Rott, 1999 </li></ul>
  6. 8. Approach <ul><li>Dilemma </li></ul><ul><li>1. Ways to include </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ways to recycle </li></ul><ul><li>Solution = follow language acquisition process </li></ul>
  7. 9. Framework <ul><li>Content-based approach vs. Function-based approach </li></ul><ul><li>Brinton, Snow, & Wesche, 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Approaches intertwined </li></ul>
  8. 10. Content-Based Approach <ul><li>Vocabulary relates to theme </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary in context more meaningful than word lists </li></ul>
  9. 11. Function-Based Approach <ul><li>Focuses on purpose of communication and how word operates in the overall structure of the language </li></ul><ul><li>Word Forms, Word Associations, Collocations </li></ul><ul><li>Word function knowledge is a key component to reading competency (Carrell et al 1988) </li></ul>
  10. 12. Content vs. Function <ul><li>Standard practice in communicative instruction--emphasis on content over function </li></ul><ul><li>Function needs to be included—lack of word function identification is an impediment to L2 learner’s acquisition of the language </li></ul>
  11. 13. Counter-balance <ul><li>Lyster and Mori 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Counter-balance = supplement what’s missing in content and function </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis – learners pushed in opposite direction of classroom learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Increases word retention </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple approaches needed </li></ul>
  12. 14. Stages of Language Acquisition <ul><li>Vygotzky (1978) </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 1: Noticing </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2: Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3: Production </li></ul>
  13. 15. Activity Chart <ul><li>Integrate 3 stages of language acquisition with the 2 approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom vs. independent learning </li></ul><ul><li>Creative ways to include vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful ways to recycle </li></ul>
  14. 16. Noticing: Content-Based Classroom Learning <ul><li>Running Dictation with Target Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Students are in groups </li></ul><ul><li>Member of each group reads sentence with targeted vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Member runs to back to group on other side of the room </li></ul><ul><li>Member says sentence to group and group writes it down </li></ul><ul><li>After dictation completed, students guess meaning of target words using context </li></ul>
  15. 17. Noticing: Content-Based Independent Learning <ul><li>Ranking Words </li></ul><ul><li>Have students complete graphic organizer of the important areas of their life </li></ul><ul><li>Give students list of unknown vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Have students rank words in order of what they think is most important for them </li></ul>
  16. 18. Me Ranking Words <ul><li>UM Classes </li></ul><ul><li>tardiness </li></ul><ul><li>grading scale </li></ul><ul><li>UM Life </li></ul><ul><li>policies </li></ul><ul><li>forbidden </li></ul><ul><li>Friends </li></ul><ul><li>classmates </li></ul><ul><li>socializing </li></ul><ul><li>Free Time </li></ul><ul><li>extra-curricular </li></ul><ul><li>involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting Girls </li></ul><ul><li>opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>communication </li></ul>
  17. 19. Noticing: Function-Based Classroom Learning <ul><li>Skim and scan text </li></ul><ul><li>Look for particular word functions </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. parts of speech, prefix/suffixes </li></ul>
  18. 20. Noticing: Function-Based Independent Learning <ul><li>Students look at a list of words and identify word forms </li></ul><ul><li> ex. Preview vocabulary for the next chapter and students identify word forms </li></ul>
  19. 21. Noticing Group Share <ul><li>Lower-mid intermediate divide newspaper into section groups choose unknown words, compare lists, ask other groups for meanings, discuss rest as a class Variation- garden teaching as a class discuss word associations </li></ul><ul><li>Visual-kinesthetic prepositions (beginner) draw preps or physical objects </li></ul><ul><li>Word list: students draw word meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Students make up short stories </li></ul><ul><li>Vocab cards 50/wk word front/defn back </li></ul>
  20. 22. Noticing Group Share Cont’d <ul><li>Dictionary use- new words from reading look up meanings write example from dictionary also example from reading and then give their own examples go over as a class </li></ul><ul><li>Chart- 6 boxes from 1 never seen word to 6 know this word and how to use it writing and speaking—students can choose word or word list </li></ul>
  21. 23. Recognition: Content-Based Classroom Learning <ul><li>Student Created Gap-fill </li></ul><ul><li>Take student sentences that they have already written </li></ul><ul><li>Blank out target word </li></ul><ul><li>Create a gap-fill – have students complete each other’s sentences </li></ul>
  22. 24. Recognition: Content-Based Independent Learning <ul><li>Vocabulary Journal </li></ul><ul><li>Have students keep a vocabulary journal: how/when came across word and include context </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. healthcare Nightly newscast TVB Pearl the healthcare vote passed </li></ul>
  23. 25. Recognition: Function-Based Classroom Learning <ul><li>Word Form Chart </li></ul><ul><li>Give students incomplete word form chart </li></ul><ul><li>Students fill in missing cells </li></ul><ul><li>Ask students to recognize spelling patterns for nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs </li></ul>
  24. 26. Word Form Chart competitive compete competition X X communication X qualified qualify X obsess obsession Adverb Adjective Verb Noun
  25. 27. Word Form Chart -ly -ive, -ed -e, -ate, -y -ion, -tion competitively competitive compete competition X X communicate communication X qualified qualify qualification X obsessive obsess obsession Adverb Adjective Verb Noun
  26. 28. Recognition Group Share <ul><li>Adults & kids – cards with vocab, turn over and draw picture of word – can be abstract – Ss look at pictures and choose word </li></ul><ul><li>Take new vocabulary word and write poem with the 1 st letter – write sentence about word </li></ul><ul><li>Game – write each word on separate card – 2 groups – competition – show representative from one team must describe word to his/her group – can’t say word – can give specific rules – get points if guess word, then other team can guess – can describe with sentences </li></ul>
  27. 29. Recognition Group Share Cont’d <ul><li>Variation – adapt game Cranium, put on different colored cards – so on red card, act it out, on purple card, act it out </li></ul><ul><li>4 teams – teacher say word, a representative from each team has to run to board and write word correctly in sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Words on walls, do graphic representation of word – can do for their group’s words </li></ul><ul><li>Jigsaw reading, mutual reading – divide text into sections, read together in groups, explain section to class as whole </li></ul>
  28. 30. Recognition Group Share Cont’d <ul><li>Academic vocabulary – make flashcards , one card has word, other has definition – then find picture in magazine and make flashcard from picture </li></ul>
  29. 31. Production: Content-Based Classroom Learning <ul><li>Story Time </li></ul><ul><li>Student #1 draws word card from pile </li></ul><ul><li>Student #1 writes one sentence with the word </li></ul><ul><li>Student #2 draws word card from pile </li></ul><ul><li>Student #2 uses vocabulary to write the next sentence in the story </li></ul><ul><li>Continue with rest of the group/class </li></ul>
  30. 32. Story Time <ul><li>Prompt: </li></ul><ul><li>It was a cold and rainy day </li></ul><ul><li>in Boston. </li></ul><ul><li>Student #1: significant </li></ul><ul><li>Student #2: impact </li></ul>
  31. 33. Production: Content-Based Independent Learning <ul><li>Semantic Map </li></ul><ul><li>Have students put vocabulary word in the center </li></ul><ul><li>Have students link target word to related vocabulary they already know </li></ul>
  32. 34. Flood water basement float rain boat Semantic Map boots mold
  33. 35. Production: Function-Based Independent Learning <ul><li>Flashcards </li></ul><ul><li>Have students create flashcards (make sure cards are large enough to write multiple things) </li></ul><ul><li>Have student write word on one side. </li></ul><ul><li>On opposite side, have student write part of speech, definition, sentence using word correctly, synonyms, collocations, etc. </li></ul>
  34. 36. Flashcard <ul><li>success </li></ul><ul><li>Noun </li></ul><ul><li>when you achieve what you want or intend </li></ul><ul><li>Sucsessful (adj); successfully (adv) </li></ul><ul><li>I hope we do well at TESOL and our presentation is a success . </li></ul><ul><li>Synonym: a hit </li></ul><ul><li>Antonym: a failure </li></ul><ul><li>Collocations: </li></ul><ul><li>be a success </li></ul><ul><li>become a success </li></ul><ul><li>a roaring success </li></ul>
  35. 37. Production Group Share <ul><li>Apples to apples – 2 sets of cards, one all adjectives, other all nouns – choose adjective card, this is the judge – choose noun cards that go best with the adjective card – use adjective card to learn definitions – then play game again when understand meaning better – and explain why cards go together </li></ul>
  36. 38. Production Group Share Cont’d <ul><li>Cut out interesting pictures – S chooses picture, write down related words – ask to categorize words – T can get sense of S level </li></ul><ul><li>Give Ss a pile of words written on piece of paper – all synonyms, put words in order by degree – then use words to create sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce vocabulary, provide definitions, then have practice – then have a guest speaker to act as interviewer and have a mock interview – then choose best interview </li></ul>
  37. 40. Conclusion <ul><li>Vocabulary teaching requires a dual approach that is connected to the stages of language acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>To be most effective, vary the types of activities used both in and out of the classroom </li></ul>
  38. 41. Resources <ul><li>Brinton, D. M., Snow, M. A., & Wesche, M. (2003). Content-based second language acquisition. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Carrell, P., J. Devine, and D. E. Eskey. (Eds.) (1988). Interactive approaches to second language reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Carrell, P. and J. Eisterhold. (1988). Schema theory and ESL reading pedagogy. In P. Carrell, J. Devide and D. Eskey (Eds.) Interactive approaches to second language reading . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Ellis, N.C. (1997).Vocabulary acquisition: word structure, collocation, word-class and meaning. In N. Schmidt and M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary: description, acquisition and pedagogy . (pp. 122-139). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Hirsh, D. & Nation, I. S. P. (1992). What vocabulary size is needed to read unsimplified texts for pleasure? Reading in a Foreign Language, 8 , 689-696. </li></ul>
  39. 42. Resources, continued <ul><li>Laefer, B. (1997). The lexical plight in second language reading: Words you don't know, words you think you know, and words you can't guess. In J. Coady & T. Huckin (Eds.), Second language vocabulary acquisition (pp. 20-34). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Lyster, R. (2007). Learning and teaching languages through content: a counterbalanced approach: Vol. 18. Language Learning & Language Teaching Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. </li></ul><ul><li>Lewis, M. (1997) Implementing the lexical Approach. Hove: Language Teaching Publications. </li></ul><ul><li>Nation, I. S. P. (1990). Teaching and learning vocabulary. Boston: Heinle & Heinle </li></ul><ul><li>Nation, I. S. P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Nattinger, J. R. and DeCarrico, J. (1992) Lexical Phrases and Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition, 21 , 589-619. </li></ul>
  40. 43. Resources, continued <ul><li>Rott, S. (1999).  The effect of exposure frequency on intermediate language learners’ incidental vocabulary acquisition and retention through reading.  Studies in Second Language </li></ul><ul><li>Ryan, A. (1997) Learning the orthographical form of L2 vocabulary – a receptive and productive process. In N. Schmidt and M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary: description, acquisition and pedagogy . (pp. 181-198). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Sinclair, J. (1991). Corpus, concordance, collocation . Oxford: Oxford University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Vygotzky, L.S. (1978). Mind in Society: the Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Zimmerman, C. B. (2009). Word Knowledge.: a vocabulary teacher’s handbook . New York: Oxford UP. </li></ul>
  41. 44. Questions?