There and Back Again<br />O’Hara<br />Muller<br />Harvey<br />Gholami<br />Hinds<br />Townshend<br />Cavaliere<br />Cremer...
Falcon 9 Heavy Lifter<br />Ares V<br />Spacecraft Design<br />Total Launch Cost: $2.5 billion<br />Mass of payload: 29,610...
Estimated Construction Cost: $10.5 billion<br />Dimensions: (metres)<br />Living Quarters: 10 x 3.25<br />Command Module: ...
Charitum Montes <br />Landing Site<br />56⁰ 59’ 31.12” S<br />31⁰ 29’ 32.44” W<br />
Reasons for Landing Site<br />Protected from Martian Storms<br />In close proximity to a mountain range and gullies which ...
Propulsion <br />Additional Topics<br />Landing Craft<br />Spacecraft Design<br />
V A S I M R<br />Propulsion Systems<br />
Landing Craft Design<br />
Spacecraft Design-Interior<br />
References<br />Ball, A. J. (2007).   Planetary Landers and Entry Probes.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.<br />Bar...
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There And Back Again


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Red Team Presentation for United Space School 2009

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  • Good afternoon ladies and gentlemen. We are the Red team, and our mission was to design a spacecraft to take humans to Mars and back again. We were given set parameters before we began; we would spend thirty days on Mars, we would take 6 astronauts, and we would land in a mountainous area somewhere between the poles and the equator.Some of the mandatory topics we have covered over the course of our project include: designing the spacecraft (including dimensions and a budget), choosing a suitable propulsion system for the spacecraft, designing a landing craft and propulsion system, creating a timeline, finding ways to communicate to mission control from Mars, researching ways of making sure we do not contaminate Mars in any way, and finding a way to return the astronauts and any Martian samples to Earth. We were also in charge of choosing the landing site, and giving a rationale to show why it is safe, habitable and how it supports the scientific goals.Now I will hand over to Patrick, who will talk a little about spacecraft design.
  • The first issue we had to cover was getting the spacecraft off of the ground. In order to do this as efficiently as possible we decided to launch supplies to Mars in approximately 2033. (click) An Ares V rocket will be used to launch a payload of (click) approximately 71,100 kg. This will include a rover, additional supplies and scientific experiments, an additional communication satellite. The supplies will land unmanned using an aero braking and bounce down system to land safely on the surface. (click) Starting in the year 2030 we will begin taking up components of the manned craft (click) using the falcon 9 heavy lifter rocket. (click) Each payload will have a mass of approximately 29,610 kg and we hope to get all components into orbit (click) using only five launches which should (click) cost roughly half a billion dollars. The five launches will carry up the command module and VASIMR engine, the two living modules, additional supplies and components for the nuclear reactor. (click) The Martian Lander will be sent up on an Ares V and docked to the finished spacecraft. (click) The crew will be sent up on an Ares 1 in the year 2035 and dock to the craft. The Orion capsule will be left in Earth orbit for future use or decommissioned. (click) The spacecraft, designated Thor, will be constructed roughly in this shape with the two living modules docked to the central command module which will function as the central node. (click) The crew will board threw here and finally the landing craft will be docked at the front . Now here is Alyssa to discuss the orbital construction of the craft and how it’s going to get to Mars.
  • Our spacecraft, which we named Thor will be assembled by docking several different components in Earth’s orbit. The command module, living modules and VASIMR engine will be built on Earth. Parts of the Nuclear Power Plant (which will provide power to the engine) will be sent to the Moon, where the remainder will be constructed of moon regolith. It will hopefully be fuelled with uranium mined from the moon, although the quantity of Uranium that can be mined form the moon is currently unknown.The first section to be sent up will be the command module with the hydrogen tank and VASIMR engine. Next, a living module will be sent, followed by a second living and storage module.The diagram shows a side view of Thor so far. Allow me to draw your attention to the robotic arm on the top of the spacecraft. It can be used for assembling Thor as well as for repairs to the outside of the spacecraft.The competed nuclear power plant will then be sent into Earth’s orbit from the Moon using the Yellow team Moon base launch facilities. Thor will be assembled using universal docking ports like in the ISS. Thor’s estimated cost of construction is $10.5 billion. The dimensions of the craft are as follows.Using the VASIMR engine, Thor will be accelerated about halfway to Mars, then turned around and decelerated for the rest of the way. Aidan will further explain this concept later in the presentation.Now Simon will discuss the landing site on Mars.
  • Our chosen landing site on Mars is Charitum Montes. We had much debate about the best landing site for our mission as it had already been decided that we would land on a mountainous area and so, this leaves a lot of possibilities of where to land because Mars has massive mountains and a lot of them.We looked at different maps of the Martian surface to find the most suitable landing site such as an elevation map and water source map. The coordinates of Charitum Montes are 56°59’31.12” S, 31°29’32.44”WIn the next part of our presentation, Dennis will explain further why we chose this site.In order to communicate with Mission Control on the Moon, we will send data from our landing site to satellites orbiting Mars. The data will be sent to Earth satellites which will then transfer to the Moon where Mission control will pick it up. Although there are communications satellites already orbiting Mars, they are fairly primitive so in order to improve communication links, we are going to send up a satellite to Mars beforehand. This satellite will cost $500 million and sends between 10 and 30 mission bits per second. However, there would be a delay between transmission and detection of between nine and twenty minutes. During the mission, communication between the Moon and Mars will not be blocked at any time by the Sun. In addition to this, we are going to place equipment on Thor, which will enable us to use it as a communications satellite while it orbits Mars. This equipment could also be used for communication links during our journey to and from Mars.In the next slide, Dennis is going to give our reasons for choosing Charitum Montes as our landing site. 
  • There are three main reasons why we chose Charitum Montes as our landing site. The first reason is that it is protected from sandstorms by the nearby mountains. This shelter is very useful because strong sandstorms could cause problems with our scientific equipment.The second reason is that we will probably find water in the nearby mountains. This is useful for the Green team because it is easier to create a base near water, and also for the Blue Team’s scientific studies. The scientific mission of the expedition is “To collect and test samples from Martian atmosphere and regolith and to search for water and life”, so it is easy to see why it would be useful to land near to water.The third reason is that there is a lot of scientific potential here. The landing site is on the edge of a crater where the chances of finding Martian cruse exposed are relatively high. This offers the opportunity to learn about the geological history or Mars. The same applies for the nearby mountains.To prevent contamination, everything will be steralised before we leave Earth. All samples we would take with us from Mars will be put in an isolation period before returning to earth. The combination of our stringent steralisation program, combined with the fact that the radiation levels on the surface of Mars are very high, means that it is extremely unlikely that any microorganisms could be left to contaminate the surface of Mars.
  • VASIMRMuch fasterVariable IspHigh thrust to change orbitHigh Isp for efficient travelVery real and possibleReliable, no moving partsHydrogen propellentCheap, common, light, efficientWorks by:3 stagesIonizing with Helicon  radio freq. to create plasmaHeating with ICRH (ion cyclotron resonance heating)  radio freq. to heat plasmaConverting to momentum with mag. NozzleMag. Fields guide plasma using magnetic coilsUses MUCH less fuelUses MUCH more energy~200MWNeed nuclear power generation to meet requirementsH and mag. Field can protect from radiation.
  • Thank you Luca.Apart from the Moon’s regolith that was mentioned by Alyssa, the major components of Thor are Beryllium-Aluminium Alloys manufactured on Earth. These alloys are particularly suited because of their low density and high stiffness.As a team, we were also in charge of the interior design of the living quarters of Thor. These living quarters are made up of two cylinders attached to the sides of the command module. Each one is 3.25m in diameter and 10m long, which gave us 82.96m3 of space in each to work with. Because of microgravity effects, we could design the interior with a 3D concept. In the first capsule we have the medical level, and 2 bedroom levels with 2 bedrooms in each. The bathroom and excersise machines are on the next level, and on the last level (right next to the command module) we have the conference/leisure room. Each level is 2 metres long. The second capsule is mainly food and supply storage with a small space where the water station and similar kitchen gadgets can be kept.After the landing craft has been reunited with Thor, we will return to Earth in much the same way as we left. Around midway between Earth and Mars, Thor will turn around and decelerate. When we reach Earth we will dock on the Space Station which will be in orbit in 2036 and the astronauts and samples will be recovered and returned to Earth in an Orion capsule. Thor itself will remain in orbit and be refueled and adapted for future missions.
  • There And Back Again

    1. 1. There and Back Again<br />O’Hara<br />Muller<br />Harvey<br />Gholami<br />Hinds<br />Townshend<br />Cavaliere<br />Cremer<br />Red Team<br />
    2. 2. Falcon 9 Heavy Lifter<br />Ares V<br />Spacecraft Design<br />Total Launch Cost: $2.5 billion<br />Mass of payload: 29,610 kg<br />Mass of payload: 71,100 kg<br />Number of Launches: 5<br />Launch: 2033<br />Total Launch costs: $484,567,650<br />
    3. 3. Estimated Construction Cost: $10.5 billion<br />Dimensions: (metres)<br />Living Quarters: 10 x 3.25<br />Command Module: 4.5x5.5x4<br />VASIMR: 9.5x4.5x5<br />Total: 15x22.5x5 <br />
    4. 4. Charitum Montes <br />Landing Site<br />56⁰ 59’ 31.12” S<br />31⁰ 29’ 32.44” W<br />
    5. 5. Reasons for Landing Site<br />Protected from Martian Storms<br />In close proximity to a mountain range and gullies which holds evidence of water<br />Holds promise for scientific research<br />
    6. 6. Propulsion <br />Additional Topics<br />Landing Craft<br />Spacecraft Design<br />
    7. 7. V A S I M R<br />Propulsion Systems<br />
    8. 8. Landing Craft Design<br />
    9. 9. Spacecraft Design-Interior<br />
    10. 10. References<br />Ball, A. J. (2007). Planetary Landers and Entry Probes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.<br />Barlow, N. G. (2008). Mars: An Introduction to its Interior, Surface, and Atmosphere. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.<br />Berger, B. NASA to Test Laser Communications with Mars Spacecraft. Space News.<br />&lt;;<br />Brown, C. D. (1995). Spacecraft propulsion. AIAA education series. Washington, DC: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. <br />Coppingnger, R. (2007). NASA Lunar Lander Design Plans Revealed. Flight Global.<br />&lt;;<br />Forget, F., Costard, F., & Lognonné, P. (2008). Planet Mars: Story of Another World. Springer-Praxis books in popular astronomy. Berlin: Springer.<br />Geological Survey (U.S.), & Kieffer, H. H. (1991). Topographic maps of the polar, western, and eastern regions of Mars. [Reston, Va.]: The Survey. <br />(2009) Google Mars. Google. Retrieved July 31, 2009<br /><br />Greeley, R. (1990). Mars landing site catalog. NASA reference publication, 1238. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Office of Management, Scientific and Technical Information Division. <br />Jahn, R. G. (1968). Physics of electric propulsion. McGraw-Hill series in missile and space technology. New York: McGraw-Hill. <br />Kieffer, H. H. (1992). Mars. Space science series. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.<br />Materials and Manufacturing Directorate. Beryllium-Aluminum Alloy Components Fly on Airforce, NASA spacecraft. &lt;;<br />NASA’s Exploration Systems Architexture Study. NASA. Last modified Dec. 30, 2009. <br />&lt;;<br />NASA’s Human Exploration and Development of Space Enterprise. (2003). NASAexplores. <br />&lt;;<br />Patel, M. R. (2005). Spacecraft power systems. Boca Raton: CRC Press. <br />Petro,A.(2002). VASIMR Plasma Rocket Technology. Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory.<br />&lt;;<br />Russell R. (2004) The Orbit of Mars. Windows to the Universe. <br />&lt;http://www. &gt; <br />Smith, B. Et al. (2008). NASA Propulsion Investments for Exploration and Science. NASA. <br />&lt;;<br />Turner, M. (2009). Rocket and Spacecraft Propulsion: Principles, Practice, and New Developments. NASA.<br />&lt;;<br />Zubrin, R., & Wagner, R. (1996). The case for Mars: The plan to settle the red planet and why we must. New York: Free Press.<br />