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Astronauts and Robots 2015: John Guidi, NASA

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American Astronautical Society, Astronauts and Robots: Partners in Space Exploration, May 12-13, 2015 - http://astronautical.org/event/astronauts-robots

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Astronauts and Robots 2015: John Guidi, NASA

  1. 1. National Aeronautics and Space Administration The Evolvable Mars Campaign John Guidi Advanced Exploration Systems NASA/HEOMD May 12, 2015
  2. 2. Going to Stay 2  
  3. 3. NASA Strategic Plan Objective 1.1 3 Expand human presence into the solar system and to the surface of Mars to advance exploration, science, innovation, benefits to humanity, and international collaboration.
  4. 4. NASA Strategic Plan Objective 1.5 4 Ascertain the content, origin, and evolution of the solar system and the potential for life elsewhere. 4  
  5. 5. Achieving Alignment for Pioneering Space HUMAN EXPLORATION & OPERATIONS (HEOMD) SCIENCE (OCS/SMD) TECHNOLOGY (OCT/STMD) AERO (ARMD) EXTERNAL PARTNERSHIPS Office of Communications Legislative Affairs Commercial & International Partners • Other Government Agencies • Citizen Innovators
  6. 6. Human  Explora-on  Studies  Beyond  LEO  -­‐  Toward  Mars     1980   1990   2000   2010   Leadership   and   America’s   Future  in   Space   Na-onal   Commission   on  Space   NASA  Case   Studies   NationalA er onauticsand SpaceAdministration Report ofthe 90-Day Study on Human Exploration of the Moon andMars November 1989 America  at   the   Threshold   90-­‐Day   Study   First  Lunar   Outpost   Mars  Design   Reference   Mission  1.0   Mars  Design   Reference   Mission  3.0   DPT  /  NEXT   Explora-on   Blueprint   Mars  Design   Reference   Architecture   5.0   Review  of  U.S.   HSF  Plans   CommiRee   Challenger   Constella-on   Program   Lunar   Architecture   Team   Global  Explora-on   Roadmaps,  V1,  V2  Explora-on   System   Architecture   Study   Bush  41   Speech   Bush  43   Speech   Columbia   Obama   Speech   6  Slide  credit  –  B  Drake,  JSC   2013   2015  
  7. 7. Common  Findings  from  Mul-ple  Studies   7   Key  Capabili-es  for  the  Human  Explora-on  of  Mars   Common  Findings  from  Mul-ple  Studies   500 Days 1,100 Days Maximum  surface  stay   for  any  given  mission   Total  -me  crew  is   away  from  Earth   Heavy-­‐LiZ  Mass   130 t Highest  Orion  Earth   entry  speed   12 km/s Ability  to   land  large   payloads   20-30 t Multiple Launches  per   mission   Total   con-nuous   transporta-on   power   100-200 kWe Oxygen   produced  for   ascent  to  orbit   20 tDistance  for   long-­‐range   rou-ne   explora-on   100 km Maximum  two-­‐   44 min way  communica-on   -me  delay  
  8. 8. Capabilities for Pioneering Space: Steps on the Journey to Mars ISS   Cis-­‐lunar   Short   Stay  (e.g.   ARM)   Cis-­‐lunar   Long   Stay   Mars   Orbit   Mars   Surface,   Short   Stay   Mars   Surface,   Long   Stay   Working  in  Space   and  On  Mars   In  Situ  Resource  UJlizaJon  &  Surface   Power   X   Surface  Habitat  &  Mobility   X   X   Human/RoboJc  &  Autonomous  Ops   X   X   X   X   X   ExploraJon  EVA   X   X   X   X   X   Staying  Healthy   Crew  Health   X   X   X   X   X   X   Environmental  Control  &  Life  Support   X   X   X   X   X   X   RadiaJon  Safety   X   X   X   X   X   TransportaJon   Ascent  from  Planetary  Surfaces   X   X   Entry,  Descent  &  Landing   X   X   In-­‐space  Power  &  Prop  (incl.  SEP,  Hybrid)   X   X   X   X   X   Beyond  LEO:  SLS  (w/  EUS)  &  Orion   X   X   X   X   X   To  LEO:  Commercial  Cargo  &  Crew   X   Comm  &  NavigaJon   X   X   X   X   Capability   Mission             8
  9. 9. Evolvable Mars Campaign EMC Goal: Define a pioneering strategy and operational capabilities that can extend and sustain human presence in the solar system including a human journey to explore the Mars system starting in the mid-2030s. •  Identify a plan that: –  Expands human presence into the solar system to advance exploration, science, innovation, benefits to humanity, and international collaboration. –  Provides different future scenario options for a range of capability needs to be used as guidelines for near term activities and investments •  In accordance with key strategic principles •  Takes advantage of capability advancements •  Leverages new scientific findings •  Flexible to policy changes –  Identifies linkages to and leverage current investments in ISS, SLS, Orion, ARM, EAM, technology development investments, science activities –  Emphasizes prepositioning and reuse/repurposing of systems when it makes sense •  Use location(s) in cis-lunar space for aggregation and refurbishment of systems 9 Internal analysis team members: –  ARC, GRC, GSFC, HQ, JPL, JSC, KSC, LaRC and MSFC –  HEOMD, SMD, STMD, OCS and OCT External inputs from: - International partners, industry, academia, SKG analysis groups
  10. 10. Strategic Principles for Sustainable Exploration •  Implementable in the near-term with the buying power of current budgets and in the longer term with budgets commensurate with economic growth; •  Exploration enables science and science enables exploration, leveraging robotic expertise for human exploration of the solar system •  Application of high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) technologies for near term missions, while focusing sustained investments on technologies and capabilities to address challenges of future missions; •  Near-term mission opportunities with a defined cadence of compelling and integrated human and robotic missions providing for an incremental buildup of capabilities for more complex missions over time; •  Opportunities for U.S. commercial business to further enhance the experience and business base; •  Multi-use, evolvable space infrastructure, minimizing unique major developments, with each mission leaving something behind to support subsequent missions; and •  Substantial international and commercial participation, leveraging current International Space Station and other partnerships. 10 10  
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  13. 13. 13   EMC  Split  Mission  Concept  
  14. 14. Pre-­‐Deploy  Cargo  First   14   Split  Mission  Concept  
  15. 15. Crew  to  Mars  Orbit   15   Split  Mission  Concept  
  16. 16. Crew  Return  to  Earth   16   Split  Mission  Concept  
  17. 17. EMC  –  Major  Results  to  Date     • Regardless  of  Mars  vicinity  des-na-on,  common  capability  developments  are  required   -  Mars  vicinity  missions  selecJon  not  required  before  2020   • ISS  provides  cri-cal  Mars  mission  capability  development  placorm   • Lunar  DRO  is  efficient  for  aggrega-on  and  poten-al  refurbishment  due  to  stable   environment   -  Use  of  gravity  assist  trajectories  enable  use  of  DRO   • Orion  Block  1  is  sufficient  for  Mars  architectures  with  reusable  habitats   • SLS  co-­‐manifested  cargo  capability  increases  value  of  crewed  missions  and  improves   cadence     • Deep-­‐space  habita-on  serves  as  ini-al  star-ng  point  regardless  of  des-na-on   • ARV  derived  SEP  vehicle  can  serve  as  an  effec-ve  tool  for  human  Mars  missions   -  Reusability  can  enable  follow-­‐on  use  in  cis-­‐lunar  space   - Refuelability  under  study  to  enable  Mars  system  follow-­‐on  use   - Current  SEP  evolvability  enables  Mars  system  human  missions     • Mars  Phobos  /Deimos    as  ini-al  Mars  vicinity  mission  spread  out  development  costs   and  meets  policy  objec-ves  of  Mars  vicinity  in  2030 s   -  Common  crew  transportaJon  between  Mars  Phobos  /  Deimos  and  Mars  Surface   staging   -  Phobos  provides  35%  reducJon  of  radiaJon  exposure  compared  to  other  Mars  orbit   missions   -  Provides  ability  to  address  both  exploraJon  and  science  objecJves     17  
  18. 18. Human  Explora-on  Studies  Beyond  LEO  -­‐  Toward  Mars     1980   1990   2000   2010   Leadership   and   America’s   Future  in   Space   Na-onal   Commission   on  Space   NASA  Case   Studies   NationalA er onauticsand SpaceAdministration Report ofthe 90-Day Study on Human Exploration of the Moon andMars November 1989 America  at   the   Threshold   90-­‐Day   Study   First  Lunar   Outpost   Mars  Design   Reference   Mission  1.0   Mars  Design   Reference   Mission  3.0   DPT  /  NEXT   Explora-on   Blueprint   Mars  Design   Reference   Architecture   5.0   Review  of  U.S.   HSF  Plans   CommiRee   Challenger   Constella-on   Program   Lunar   Architecture   Team   Global  Explora-on   Roadmaps,  V1,  V2  Explora-on   System   Architecture   Study   Bush  41   Speech   Bush  43   Speech   Columbia   Obama   Speech   18  Slide  credit  –  B  Drake,  JSC   2013   2015   EMC  
  19. 19. The  First  Step  in  Explora-on   19   Interna-onal  Space  Sta-on   Advanced  Life  Support  Human  Health  Research   Technology  Demonstra-on   Logis-cs  Management   Maintenance  &  Repair   Interna-onal  Collabora-on  
  20. 20. Making  Real  Progress   20   SLS,  Orion,  and  Ground  Opera-ons   Orion   Space  Launch  System   Ground  Opera-ons  
  21. 21. Documen-ng  the  J2M/EMC:  Pioneering  Space   • Integrated  agency-­‐level  document  that  ar-culates  NASA’s  top-­‐ level  explora-on  strategy,  encompassing  robo-cs,  human   opera-ons,  and  technology  developments  over  the  near-­‐  and  far-­‐ term.  Purpose  is  to:   — Illustrate  how  the  acJviJes  being  implemented  across  the   agency  contribute  to  an  integrated  exploraJon  strategy   — Succinctly  communicate  our  overall  EMC  strategy  of   sustainable  expansion  of  human  presence  across  the  solar   system.  Leave  details  with  tailored  documents  and   established  processes  within  HEOMD  and  the  Agency   — Show  technically  implementable  ways,  verified  by  the  EMC,   to  achieve  human  exploraJon  beyond  low  Earth  orbit.       21   •  Target Audience is: –  Internal NASA exploration team members – agency-wide – should be able to use this document to explain to an external audience how their work fits in the larger context of PS. –  Informed, nontechnical policy makers and decision makers – White House, Congressional staffers, domestic aerospace industry executives –  International space agencies –  Advisory and special groups •  Pioneering Space document will be used to create other communication tools and techniques for the general public, formal programs and projects and other media  
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