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Periodontitis has multifactorial causes with the primary being pathogenic bacteria that reside in the subgingival area and possess potent mechanisms of damaging host defences. Inflammatory responses triggered in response to periodontal pathogens are the major events responsible for periodontal destruction.
Propolis has been used for the treatment of aphthous ulcers, candidiasis, gingivitis, periodontitis, and pulpitis. Studies on propolis applications have increased because of its therapeutic and biological properties. A study evaluated the antibacterial action of propolis against certain anaerobic oral pathogens and found it to be very effective.