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Neuroprotective responses of propolis and select flavonoids

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The beneficial effects of propolis on human health and neurological diseases. Table describes the neuroprotective properties and biological activity of propolis and select flavonoids commonly found in propolis.

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Neuroprotective responses of propolis and select flavonoids

  1. 1. Beneficial effects of propolis on human health and neurological diseases Tahira Farooqui1, Akhlaq A. Farooqui2 1Department of Entomology, 2Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA Table 1.Neuroprotective responses of propolis and its selected flavonoid constituents Propolis and its Biological activity constituents Propolis Anti-oxidative WSDP Anti-oxidative, CAPE anti-inflammatory Anti-oxidative CAPE CAPE Anti-oxidative Anti-oxidative Apigenin Anti-inflammatory CAPE Anti-inflammatory Chrysin Quercetin Anti-inflammatory Anti-inflammatory Luteolin Anti-inflammatory, Kaempferol anti-oxidative Anti-oxidative, Kaempferol anti-apoptotic Anti-oxidative, Quercetin anti-apoptotic Anti-oxidative Pinocembrin Propolis Anti-oxidative Immunomodulatory Apigenin and Anti-inflammatory, Luteolin immunomodulatory CAPE, Chrysin Anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, immunomodulatory Pharmacological response Reference Attenuates KA-induced seizures Mitigates scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment (60) (53) Neuroprotection against I/R injury (focal cerebral ischemia and permanent focal ischemia) Blocks 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity Protects CGNs against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting phosphorylation of p38 and caspase-3 activation Inhibits NO and PGE2 synthesis by suppressing the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in microglia Prevents inflammatory stress in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures Blocks NF-кB and JNK activations in microglia Decreases iNOS gene expression by inhibiting IκB kinase, NF-кB and STAT1 Attenuates PS-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss by blocking NO generation in cultured rat microglia (49, 50, 51) Protects from striatal glutamatergic response in rat brain slices by autophagy (58) (48) (18) (52) (55, 69) (54) (68) (60) Protects from rotenone-induced acute toxicity in (58) SH-SY5Y cells and primary neurons by autophagy Improves memory impairment by inhibiting the oxidative damage in hippocampus Protects brain against oxidation and apoptosis Modulates innate immunity by upregulating the expression of TLRs and producing proinflammatory cytokines CD40 immunomodulators and suppress TRIFdependent signaling pathway of TLRs Specific inhibitor of activation of NF-кB (59) (57) (65) (66,67) (13, 36, 37)

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