Transport -                     The                   Human                 Circulatory                   System03/14/12 2...
General Functions of Transport                Systems...     Maintain internal homeostasis     Deliver oxygen, food and ...
Blood                 Vessels03/14/12 23:09     cottingham
Arteries are adapted to deal                                                 Thick outer wall  with blood under HIGH      ...
Which is the Artery and Vein???03/14/12 23:09        cottingham
Veins also have valves to… …keep blood flowing in the right direction Valves open to allow blood to                       ...
Capillaries are adapted for … …exchange of materials.Gaps between                                 The capillaries are very...
The Smallest Blood Vessels03/14/12 23:09    cottingham
Arteries   Vessels that carry blood    AWAY from the heart.   Blood High in oxygen    (except Pulmonary    Artery)    03...
03/14/12 23:09   cottingham
Veins   Vessels that carry    blood TOWARD    the heart from    body tissues. One    direction.   Blood Low in    Oxygen...
Capillaries   Smallest blood    vessels.   1 layer of    endothelial cells    thick. HAVE ONE    WAY VALVES.   Red bloo...
03/14/12 23:09   cottingham
Major Veins and Arteries   Inferior and Superior Vena Cava –    return blood to the right atrium    (BLUE)   Pulmonary A...
THE HEART03/14/12 23:09   cottingham
The Heart and Blood Flow in                 Mammals                          General:                           Double-si...
03/14/12 23:09   cottingham
The Mammalian Heart                                     INNER BODY03/14/12 23:09          cottingham
The Human Heart03/14/12 23:09        cottingham
Valves and Nodes03/14/12 23:09         cottingham
Valves and NodesVALVES Atrioventricular – allows blood to flow  between atria and ventricle Semilunar – allows blood to ...
• The “pacemaker” sets the tempo of  the heartbeat.03/14/12 23:09   cottingham
CARDIAC CYCLE – Control of          the Heartbeat!!!         The Heart is MYOGENIC!!!03/14/12 23:09     cottingham
MyogenicABILITY OF THE HEART TO CONTRACT WITHOUT BEING STIMULATED BY AN “OUTSIDE” NERVE03/14/12 23:09     cottingham
Cardiac Cycle03/14/12 23:09       cottingham
The Cardiac Cycle    The heart is composed of cardiac muscle     and each beat is a sequence of muscle     contraction (s...
CONTROL OF HEARTBEAT1.    Myogenic2.    Pacemaker – region of the heart (wall of      R.A.) responsible for initiating con...
Pathway of Circulation                              You must be able to trace                              blood from anyw...
BLOOD03/14/12 23:09   cottingham
Transported by the                       Blood   Nutrients – CFP’s   O2 and CO2   Hormones   Antibodies   Urea   Hea...
The Blood is made up of four components… Red Blood         White Blood                   Cell         A straw-   Cells    ...
Red Blood Cells are adapted for carrying oxygen                               Shape: Biconcave disc                       ...
PLASMA    50% - 60% of blood volume    Composed of:         Water, Glucose, hormones,          ions, gases dissolved in...
Erythrocytes   5 to 6 million/cmm   40% of blood    volume   Made in bone    marrow03/14/12 23:09       cottingham
Leucocytes   Larger than RBC   Made in bone    marrow.   6000 – 8000/    cmm   2% to 3% of    blood   Contain nuclei...
Platelets   200,000 to    400,000 /cmm   Smaller than RBC    or WBC   No nucleus   Made of bits of    cytoplasm   Mad...
Blood Clotting03/14/12 23:09      cottingham
   end03/14/12 23:09   cottingham
Blood Typing03/14/12 23:09       cottingham
Blood Typing       BLOOD TYPE        CAN RECEIVE FROM       CAN DONATE TO           AB                AB,A,B,O            ...
Evolution of Vertebrate                  Circulatory Systems03/14/12 23:09            cottingham
Human circulation ib master
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Human circulation ib master

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Human circulation ib master

  1. 1. Transport - The Human Circulatory System03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  2. 2. General Functions of Transport Systems...  Maintain internal homeostasis  Deliver oxygen, food and other nutrients, hormones  Remove CO2 and other metabolic wastes (urea)  Maintain cells in a fluid environment that allows exchange of these many materials03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  3. 3. Blood Vessels03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  4. 4. Arteries are adapted to deal Thick outer wall with blood under HIGH pressure Thick layer of Narrow lumen muscle and elastic (space through fibres which blood flows) Veins are adapted to deal with blood under LOW pressure Thinner outer wall than arteries Thinner layer of muscle and elastic fibres than arteries Wide lumen03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  5. 5. Which is the Artery and Vein???03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  6. 6. Veins also have valves to… …keep blood flowing in the right direction Valves open to allow blood to Valves close flow… to stop blood…TOWARDS flowing…heart …AWAY FROM heart 03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  7. 7. Capillaries are adapted for … …exchange of materials.Gaps between The capillaries are very narrow.cells in capillary (They are just large enough forwall… a red blood cell to squeeze…allow through)plasma toleak in and This means that blood in theout capillaries moves very… SLOWLY Oxygen, food molecules and hormones diffuse from the blood to theWall of capillary cellsis very thin… …only one cell thick Carbon dioxide and other wastes diffuse from the cells to the blood 03/14/12 23:09 cottinghamin Cells Body Tissues
  8. 8. The Smallest Blood Vessels03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  9. 9. Arteries Vessels that carry blood AWAY from the heart. Blood High in oxygen (except Pulmonary Artery) 03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  10. 10. 03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  11. 11. Veins Vessels that carry blood TOWARD the heart from body tissues. One direction. Blood Low in Oxygen (Except Pulmonary Vein) .03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  12. 12. Capillaries Smallest blood vessels. 1 layer of endothelial cells thick. HAVE ONE WAY VALVES. Red blood cells pass through in single file Gases diffuse in lungs.03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  13. 13. 03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  14. 14. Major Veins and Arteries Inferior and Superior Vena Cava – return blood to the right atrium (BLUE) Pulmonary Artery – carries blood from heart to the lungs (BLUE) Pulmonary Vein – carries blood from lungs to the heart (RED) Aorta – carries blood from the heart to all body parts. (RED)03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  15. 15. THE HEART03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  16. 16. The Heart and Blood Flow in Mammals General:  Double-sided pump. Blood content:  Right: low in O2, high in CO2  Left: high in O2, low in CO2 Basic Structure:  Right and Left side separated by the SEPTUM.  Atrium – upper chambers.  Ventricles – lower chambers.  Chambers separated by valves  Flow from the heart separated by valves.03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  17. 17. 03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  18. 18. The Mammalian Heart INNER BODY03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  19. 19. The Human Heart03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  20. 20. Valves and Nodes03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  21. 21. Valves and NodesVALVES Atrioventricular – allows blood to flow between atria and ventricle Semilunar – allows blood to flow from ventriclesNODES – control impulse release Sino Atrial – (SAN) – release impulse Atrioventricular (AVN) – connected to Bundle of His connected to Purkinje Tissue Cardiac Angiography 03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  22. 22. • The “pacemaker” sets the tempo of the heartbeat.03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  23. 23. CARDIAC CYCLE – Control of the Heartbeat!!! The Heart is MYOGENIC!!!03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  24. 24. MyogenicABILITY OF THE HEART TO CONTRACT WITHOUT BEING STIMULATED BY AN “OUTSIDE” NERVE03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  25. 25. Cardiac Cycle03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  26. 26. The Cardiac Cycle  The heart is composed of cardiac muscle and each beat is a sequence of muscle contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole).  An average blood pressure is 120/80 (mm Hg) of pressure on artery walls.  The atria contract first, followed immediately by the ventricles.03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  27. 27. CONTROL OF HEARTBEAT1. Myogenic2. Pacemaker – region of the heart (wall of R.A.) responsible for initiating contraction.3. Nerves from the brain carry messages to pacemaker - speed up heartbeat4. Adrenaline – carried to heart in blood --- tells pacemaker to speed up heartbeat. 03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  28. 28. Pathway of Circulation You must be able to trace blood from anywhere in the body and back to that point.  Pulmonary Circulation – involves the LUNGS and ALL parts to the heart except the LEFT VENTRICLE and AORTA.  Systemic Circulation – begins in the LEFT VENTRICLE and ends before entering the RIGHT ATRIUM.  Exchange of gases on the cellular level in capillaries.  Coronary Circulation – supplies blood to the heart.  Hepatic Portal Circulation – from the digestive system to the liver. Excess glucose leaves blood in the liver.  Renal Circulation – carries03/14/12 23:09 cottingham blood to and from the kidney.
  29. 29. BLOOD03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  30. 30. Transported by the Blood Nutrients – CFP’s O2 and CO2 Hormones Antibodies Urea Heat03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  31. 31. The Blood is made up of four components… Red Blood White Blood Cell A straw- Cells Cells fragments coloured called… liquid called… …platelets …plasma Carries dissolvedCarry oxygen Fight Help with substances: infections blood clotting Carbon dioxide Other wastes Food molecules Hormones03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  32. 32. Red Blood Cells are adapted for carrying oxygen Shape: Biconcave disc Dimple on either side of cell increases… … surface area for absorption of oxygen Mature red bloodCell is packed with … cell has no… nucleus…haemoglobin This make s more room for… haemoglobin. In the Lungs Haemoglobin + Oxygen Oxyhaemoglobin In the03/14/12 23:09 BodyTissues cottingham
  33. 33. PLASMA 50% - 60% of blood volume Composed of:  Water, Glucose, hormones, ions, gases dissolved in plasma Blood proteins:  albumin(most abundant, regulates diffusion of plasma),  globulin(transport and immunity),  Fibrinogen and prothrombin (clotting). 03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  34. 34. Erythrocytes 5 to 6 million/cmm 40% of blood volume Made in bone marrow03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  35. 35. Leucocytes Larger than RBC Made in bone marrow. 6000 – 8000/ cmm 2% to 3% of blood Contain nuclei 2 GROUPS  Phagocyte  Lymphocytes (t- cells and B-cells)03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  36. 36. Platelets 200,000 to 400,000 /cmm Smaller than RBC or WBC No nucleus Made of bits of cytoplasm Made in bone marrow03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  37. 37. Blood Clotting03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  38. 38.  end03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  39. 39. Blood Typing03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  40. 40. Blood Typing BLOOD TYPE CAN RECEIVE FROM CAN DONATE TO AB AB,A,B,O AB ONLY (UNIVERSAL RECIPIENT) A A or O A or AB B B or O B or AB O O ONLY O,A,B,AB (UNIVERSAL DONOR) How Does Rh factor affect blood types?????03/14/12 23:09 cottingham
  41. 41. Evolution of Vertebrate Circulatory Systems03/14/12 23:09 cottingham

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