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  1. 1. Words themselves do not refer to anything, people refer. PRAGMATICS: REFERENCE AND INFERENCE By: Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.comDr. Shadia Y. Banjar 1
  2. 2. The words we use to identify things are in some direct relationship to those things. In discussing deixis, we assumed that the use of words to refer to people and things was a simple matter. However, words themselves don’t refer to anything. People refer.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 2
  3. 3. Reference is an act in which a speaker, or writer, uses linguistic forms to enable a listener, or reader, to identify something.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 3
  4. 4. Linguistic referring forms expressionsDr. Shadia Y. Banjar 4
  5. 5. Thecategories (1)of referring properexpressions nouns (2) (4) referring pronouns expressions definite nouns (3) indefinite nounsDr. Shadia Y. Banjar 5
  6. 6. These linguistic forms are called : referring expressions. They can be:(a)proper nouns: ‘HillaryClinton’ ‘Cairo’Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 6
  7. 7. referring expressions can be: (b) noun phrases (definite): ‘The city’ ‘the Secretary of State’Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 7
  8. 8. referring expressions can be:(c) noun phrases (indefinite): ‘A place’ ‘A woman’Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 8
  9. 9. referring expressions can be: (d) pronouns: ‘It’ ‘She, her’Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 9
  10. 10. • The choice of one type of referring expression rather than another seems to be based, to a large extent, on what the speaker assumes the listener already knows.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 10
  11. 11. •Reference is clearly tied to the speaker’s goals and beliefs in the use of language.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 11
  12. 12. It is important to recognize that not allreferring expressions have identifiablephysical referents. Indefinite noun phrasescan be used to identify a physically presententity, but they can also be used to describeentities that are assumed to exist, but areunknown, or entities that, as far as we know,do not exist. YuleDr. Shadia Y. Banjar 12
  13. 13. Examples: a) Theres a man waiting for you. b) He wants to marry a woman with lots of money. c) Wed love to find a nine-foot-tall basketball playerDr. Shadia Y. Banjar 13
  14. 14. Attributive use / referential use• a man waiting for you• a woman with lots of money• a nine-foot-tall basketball player• This is sometimes called an attributive use, meaning whoever/whatever fits the description.• It would be distinct from a referential use: a specific person is referred to, although his/her name or some other description is not used. Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 14
  15. 15. For successful reference to occur, we must also recognize the role of inference. inference. What are inferences? inferences?Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 15
  16. 16. Inferring is connecting prior knowledge to text based information to create meaning beyond what is directly stated.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 16
  17. 17. The role of inference in communication is to allow the listener to identify correctly which particular entity the speaker isreferring to. We can even use vagueexpressions relying on the listener’s ability to infer what is the referent that we have in mind.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 17
  18. 18. • Listeners make inferences about what is said in order to arrive at an interpretation of the speaker’s intended meaning. The choice of one type of referring expression rather than another seems to be based on what the speaker assumes the listenerDr. Shadia Y. Banjar already knows. 18
  19. 19. • Words themselves don’t refer to anything. People refer.• Because there is no direct relationship between entities and words, the listener’s task is to infer which entity the speaker intends to identify by using a particular expression: Mister Aftershave is late today.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 19
  20. 20. Reference & Inference• “Mr. Kawasaki.” • “Can I look at yourUsed to refer to a Chomsky?” man who always “I enjoy listening to rode loud and Mozart.” fast in his This process, where motorcycle. A additional information is needed to connect brand name is what is said to what is used to refer to a meant, is inference. person here.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 20
  21. 21. • "In reference there is a basic collaboration at work: • ‘intention-to-identify’ and • recognition-of-intention’.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 21
  22. 22. Collaboration • This process needs not only work between one speaker and one listener; it appears to work, in terms of convention, between all members of a community who share a common language and culture.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 22
  23. 23. The Role of Co-text “Our ability to identify intended referents has actually depended on more than our understanding of the referring expression".Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 23
  24. 24. Identifying intended referents has been aided by the linguistic material, or co-text, accompanying the referring expression. The referring expression actually provides a range of reference, that is, a number of possible referents.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 24
  25. 25. • In the examples below, the referring expression cheese sandwich‘ provides a number of possible referents. However, the different co- texts lead to a different type of interpretation in each case. a)Cheese sandwich is made with white bread. b)The cheese sandwich left without paying.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 25
  26. 26. The co-text is just a linguistic part of the environment in which a referring expression is used. The physical environment, or context, is perhaps more easily recognized as having a powerful impact on how referring expressions are to be interpreted.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 26
  27. 27. Reference, then, is not simply a relationship between the meaning of a word or phrase and an object or a person in the world. It is a social act, in which the speaker assumes that the word or phrase chosen to identify an object or a person will be interpreted as the speaker intended.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 27
  28. 28. In English, initial reference isoften indefinite. The definitenoun phrases and the pronounsare examples of subsequentreference to already introducedreferents, generally known asanaphoric reference, oranaphora.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 28
  29. 29. Example: Peel and slice six potatoes. Put them in cold salted water.• The initial referring expression six potatoes identifies something different from the anaphoric pronoun them, which must be interpreted as the six peeled and sliced potatoes”. Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 29
  30. 30. Anaphoric reference After the initial introduction of some entity, speakers will use various expressions to maintain reference: “In the film, a man and a woman were trying to wash a cat. The man was holding the cat while the woman poured water on it. He said something to her and they started laughing”.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 30
  31. 31. Anaphor and antecedent• In English, initial reference,, or introductory mention, is often indefinite (a man, a woman, a cat). In the example the definite noun phrases (the man, the cat, the woman) and the pronouns (it, he, her, they) are examples of subsequent reference to already introduced referents, generally known as anaphoric reference, or anaphora. Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 31
  32. 32. In technical terms, the secondor subsequent expression is theanaphor and the initial is theantecedent:antecedent • a man → the man → he • a woman → the woman →she • he + she → theyDr. Shadia Y. Banjar 32
  33. 33. When the interpretation requires usto identify an entity, and nolinguistic expression is presented, itis called zero anaphora, or ellipsis. “Peel an onion and slice it. Drop the slices into hot oil. Cook for three minutes.” Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 33
  34. 34. Zero anaphora, or ellipsis Cook for three minutes.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 34
  35. 35. Zero anaphora or ellipsis• The use of zero anaphora clearly creates an expectation that the listener will be able to infer who or what the speaker intends to identify:• 1. Peel an onion and slice it.• 2. Drop the slices into hot oil.• 3. Cook ∅ for three minutes. • ∅ = ‘slices’, ‘them’.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 35
  36. 36. "the key to making sense of reference is that pragmatic process whereby speakers select linguistic expressions with the intention of identifying certain entities and with the assumption that listeners will collaborate and interpret those expressions as the speaker intended".Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 36
  37. 37. “Successful reference means that an intention was recognized, via inference, indicating a kind of shared knowledge and hence social connection”Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 37
  38. 38. Successful reference is necessarily collaborative (‘shared knowledge’). It allows us to make sense of the following sentences: Picasso’s on the far wall. My Rolling Stones is missing.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 38
  39. 39. Any observation of normal conversational behavior makes it immediately clear that people never say exactly what they mean, and people always infer more than what was said. The question becomes, how are we able to accomplish this? How do we manage to say so little yet communicate so much? How do we communicate in spite of a language’s limitations?Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 39
  40. 40. Example: A: Have you seen my Yule? B: Yeah, it is on the desk. Inference – any additional information use by the listener to connect what is said to what must be meant .Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 40
  41. 41. Inference• The key process here is called Inference, it is an additional information used by the listeners to connect what is said to what must be meant . In the previous example, the listener has to infer that name of the writer of a book can be used to identify a book by that writer. Similar type of inferences are necessary t to understand some who says that Picasso is in the museum or I saw Shakespeare in London or I enjoy listening to Mozart.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 41
  42. 42. The examples of inference• (1) a. Where is the fresh salad sitting?• b. He’s sitting by the door.• (2) a. Can I look at your Shakespeare?• b. Sure, it’s on the shelf over there.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 42
  43. 43. Three-dimensional diagram• Speakers------ reference------ intention• Listeners------ inference------ interpretation• Sense---reference---referent• Word---meaning---entityDr. Shadia Y. Banjar 43
  44. 44. Logical understanding between reference and inference• These examples make it clear that we can use names associated with things (salad) to refer to people and names of people (Shakespeare) to refer to things. The key process here is called inference. An inference is any additional information used by the hearer to connect what is said to what must be meant. In example (2), the hearer has to infer that the name of the writer of a book can be used to identify a book by that writer. In pragmatics, the act by which a speaker or writer uses language to enable a hearer or reader to identify something is called reference.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 44
  45. 45. Examples of referential and attributive usesa. There’s a man waiting for you.b. He wants to marry a woman with lots of money.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 45
  46. 46. Anaphora • Anaphora is a subsequent reference to an already introduced entity. Mostly we use anaphora in a text to maintain reference. When we establish a referent( e.g. can I borrow your book?) and subsequently referee to the same object( yeah, it’s on the table) , we have particular kind of referential relationship between book and it. The Second ( and any subsequent ) referring expression is an example of anaphora and the first mentioned is called the “ antecedent”Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 46
  47. 47. • As with other types of reference, the connection between referent and anaphora may not always be direct. For example, In a complaint” I was waiting for the bus, but he just drove by without stopping” Notice that antecedent is bus and he anaphoric expression is “ he” we would normally expect it to be used for a bus. Obviously there is an inference involved here: if someone is taking about a bus in motion , assume that there is a drive. That assumed driver is inferred referent for “ he” .The term “ inference ‘ has been used here to describe what the listener or reader) does.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 47
  48. 48. Anaphora (Anaphoric reference)• In most of our talk and writing, we have to keep track of who or what we are talking about for more than one sentence at a time, we use .Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 48
  49. 49. A: Can I borrow your dictionary? B: Yean, it’s on the table.• Here, word refers back to the word dictionary. The previous word is called the antecedent ,and the second word is called the anaphor or anaphoric expression.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 49
  50. 50. Antecedent & Anaphora A:“Can I borrow and your book?” have a referential relationship. The first B:“Yes, it’s on the mention is called the table.” antecedent. The second and any subsequent reference is called the anaphora.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 50
  51. 51. I turned the corner and almost stepped on it. There was a large snake in the middle of the path.Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 51
  52. 52. Indirect anaphora or bridging referenceI walked into the room. The windows looked out to the bay. ︱ ︱ Antecedent anaphor ︱ Indirect anaphora or bridging reference Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 52
  53. 53. Successful reference means that anintention was recognized, viainference, indicating a kind of sharedknowledge and hence socialconnection. Remember that: • Pragmatics is the study of how more gets communicated than is said. Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 53
  54. 54. HAVE A NICE DAY!Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 54