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Chapter 3 reference & inference

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Chapter 3 reference & inference

  1. 1. REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  2. 2. PRESENTED TO: PROF. KASHIF PRESENTED BY: SHUMAILA JAN TAHIRA MUNIR NOREEN AKHTAR 2 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  3. 3. TOPICS TO BE COVERED  LAYER 1: SETTING THE BACKGROUND  NOREEN AKHTAR  LAYER 2: REFERENCE  SHUMAILA JAN  LAYER 3: INFERENCE  TAHIRA MUNIR  LAYER 4: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO  NOREEN AKHTAR
  4. 4. • MICROPRAGMATICS • RELATION WITH REFERENCE • RELATION WITH INFERENCE LAYER 1: Setting The Background
  5. 5. MICROPRAGMATICS The term 'micropragmatics' is used by some pragmaticians to refer to the pragmatics of lesser units of human language use, such as questions of deixis, REFERENCE, anaphora, speech acts, in other words micropragmatic contexts. 5 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  6. 6. REFERENCE & INFERENCE  REFERENCE COMES UNDER MICROPRAGMATICS  THERE ARE TWO KINDS OF REFERENCES:  DIRECT REFERENCE Eg. : “Who is it?” “it‟s George”  INDIRECT REFERENCE Eg. : “Who is it?” “It‟s me.”  INFERENCE COMPLETES THE PURPOSE OF REFERENCE  Eg: “If I had a yatch.” George me Reference: Yatch (direct) Inference: the speaker has no yatch/ The speaker wishes to have a yatch.
  7. 7. ACTIVITY: 7 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  8. 8. LAYER 2: REFERENCE
  9. 9. REFERENCE According to dictionary .com , Reference is  a noun which means an act or instance of referring.  something for which a name or designation stands; denotation. 9 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  10. 10. There was an assumption that the use of words to refer to people and things was a relatively straightforward matter. 10 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  11. 11. Words themselves don’t refer to anything. People refer. Clearly tied to the speaker’s goal. 11 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  12. 12. What is reference then?  Reference is an act in which a speaker, or writer, uses linguistic forms to enable a listener, or reader, to identify something. 12 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  13. 13. Linguistics forms = Referring expressions 13 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  14. 14. Categories of referring expressions are: 14 REFERENCE & INFERENCE Proper Nouns Definite Nouns Indefinite Nouns Pronouns
  15. 15. EXAMPLES:  Proper nouns; example: Shakespeare, Lahore, Nawaz Sharif  Definite nouns; example: the author, the city, the prime minister  Indefinite nouns; example: a place, a man  Pronoun; example: it , he, she 15 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  16. 16.  The choice of one type of referring expression rather than another seems to be based, to a large extent, on what the speaker assumes the listener already knows. 17 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  17. 17.  It is important to recognize that not all referring expressions have identifiable physical referents. 1. Indefinite noun phrases can be used to identify a physically present entity, 2. they can also be used to describe entities that are assumed to exist, but are unknown, 3. or entities that, as far as we know, do not exist. 18 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  18. 18. EXAMPLES  a) There’s a man waiting for you.  b) He wants to marry a woman with lots of money.  c) We would love to find a nine- foot-tall basket ball player. 19 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  19. 19. Attributive Use / Referential Use  A man waiting for you  A woman with lots of money  This is sometimes called an attributive use, meaning 'whoever/whatever fits the description'. It would be distinct from a referential use: a specific person is referred to, although his/her name or some other description is not used. 20 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  20. 20. Kinds of Reference  Anaphoric reference  Antecedent  Cataphora  Zero anaphora or Ellipsis
  21. 21. Anaphoric Reference and Antecedent Example  In the film ,a man and a woman were trying to wash a cat. The man was holding the cat while the woman poured the water on it . He said something to her and they started laughing . A man a woman and a cat/initial expression =antecedent Subsequent expression =anaphor
  22. 22. Cataphora  Example  I truned the corner and almost stepped on it.there was a large snake in the middle of the path .  A cataphoric reference unit refers to another unit that is introduced later on in the text/speech.
  23. 23. ZERO ANAPHORA  EXAMPLE: Cook for three minutes.  No linguistic expression like noun pronoun etc
  24. 24. POINT TO PONDER… For successful reference to occur, we must also recognize the role of ??? 25 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  25. 25. • DEFINITION LAYER 3: INFERENCE
  26. 26. Elkhart Community Schools28 “Art is so much more interesting if everything isn’t in the picture. And so it is with inferring.” From: I Read It But I Don’t Get It ~ Cris Tovani
  27. 27. Elkhart Community Schools29 Inference Background Knowledge Making Connections Questioning Predictions Imagination/ Visualization Analysis of Text/speech: Interpretation/ Judgment Drawing Conclusions
  28. 28. INFERENCE  Inference is just a big word that means a conclusion or judgment.  You make inferences everyday. Most of the time you do so without thinking about it. Suppose you are sitting in your car stopped at a red signal light. You hear screeching tires, then a loud crash and breaking glass. You see nothing, but you infer that there has been a car accident. We all know the sounds of screeching tires and a crash. We know that these sounds almost always mean a car accident. But there could be some other reason, and therefore another explanation, for the sounds.  Making inferences means choosing the most likely explanation from the facts that reference provides.
  29. 29. ACTIVITY  TASK: DRAW INFERENCES FROM THE TV COMMERCIAL.
  30. 30. SOCIAL DIMENSION  The social dimension of reference may also be tied to the effect of collaboration.  The immediate recognition of an intended referent, even when a minimal referring expression like a pronoun, represents something shared, something in common and hence, social closeness.  Successful reference means that an intention was recognized, via inference, indicating a kind of shared knowledge and hence, social connection.
  31. 31. Example: 33 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  32. 32. SOCIAL DIMENSION  INTENTION TO IDENTIFY follows RECOGNITION OF THE INTENTION  Eg. : Q. Can I borrow your Shakespeare? A. Yeah, it‟s there on the table. Here, thing and person are being identified on the base of recognition of the intention.
  33. 33. Social Dimension  Referents are cultural and situation specific  Eg. : Q. Where is the cheese sandwich sitting? A. He‟s is over there by the window. (waiters‟ conversation in a restaurant)
  34. 34. SOCIAL DIMENSION  Works by artists and writers are referred to by their names.  Eg. 1. Shakespeare takes the whole bottom shelf. 2. Picasso‟s on the far wall. 3. My Rolling Stone is missing.
  35. 35. THE ANAPHORIC CONNECTION  Anaphoric connection requires inference to make sense  Eg. : I just rented a house. The kitchen is really big. Here, inference is: if x has a house, then x has a kitchen.  Inference depends on assumed knowledge  Eg. : We had Chardonnay last night. The wine was the best part. Here, inference is that Chardonnay is a kind of
  36. 36. THE ANAPHORIC CONNECTION ----------------------------------------( CONTINUED)  Anaphor and antecedent need not be in grammatical agreement if the inference is logically made.  Eg. : The bus came on time, but he didn‟t stop. Here, „he‟ stands for the bus driver in connection to the word „bus‟.
  37. 37. DRAW INFERENCE FROM THE FOLLOWING FUNNY HEADLINES:  MINERS REFUSE TO WORK AFTER DEATH  BLIND BISHOP APPOINTED TO SEE  MARCH PLANNED FOR NEXT AUGUST  POLICE CAN’T STOP GAMBLING  SQUAD HELPS DOG BITE VICTIM 39 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  38. 38. 40 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  39. 39. Reference is an act in which a speaker, or writer, uses linguistic forms to enable a listener, or reader, to identify something. Inferring is connecting prior knowledge to text based information to create meaning beyond what is directly stated. 41 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  40. 40. Reference: It is the symbolic relationship that a linguistic expression has with the concrete object or abstraction it represent. Inference: It is the conclusion you draw from what you have observed. 42 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  41. 41. EXAMPLE  43 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  42. 42. The choice of one type of referring expression rather than another seems to be based, to a large extent, on what the speaker assumes the listener already knows. Inferring is to conclude / to guess and to understand the situation after observation. 44 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  43. 43. “It is important to recognize that not all referring expressions have identifiable physical referents. Indefinite noun phrases can be used to identify a physically present entity, but they can also be used to describe entities that are assumed to exist, but are unknown, or entities that, as far as we know, do not exist".  In inference, we must have the object / situation so that we are able to draw conclusion and understanding. 45 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  44. 44. Examples of Reference: a) There's a child calling his mom. b) He wants to get a job with a flat and car. c) She wishes to meet the tooth fairy her mother keeps talking about. 46 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  45. 45. Example of Inference: a)You may observe that a person is running from a shop that may cause you to infer that he robbed it and is trying to get away. It is easy to infer incorrectly so we need to get all the facts.
  46. 46. ACTIVITY 48 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  47. 47. 49 REFERENCE & INFERENCE
  48. 48. ANY QUESTIONS?
  49. 49. PLEASE DRAW SOME INFERENCES  Bill was reading about the sun, the moon, and Mars. It was a book about . . .  At recess the students got their gloves, bats and balls. What were they likely to do?  During a very severe storm, the electricity went off. Dad lit a match. What did he probably want to find.  Maria had a day off school. She looked in the newspaper to find the best sales. Then she left the house. Where did she probably go?  Jess and his father went walking on a warm spring day. There was a nice breeze in the air. What might Jesse and his father do to have fun? Rake leaves, fly a kit or watch TV? 51 REFERENCE & INFERENCE

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