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First Language Acquisition Part 2


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First Language Acquisition Part 2

  2. 2. Cooing and babbling  Crying: the first stage for some specialists  First: vowel-like sounds-high vowels [i] [u]  Around 4th month: velar consonants [k] [g] ( „cooing‟ / „gooing‟)  Babies differentiate between vowel sounds [i] and [a] and syllables [ba] [ga]
  3. 3. Cooing and babbling  6th to 8th month: ba-ba-ba; ga-ga-ga (babbling)  9th to 10thmonth: Later babbling; variation of syllables; intonation patterns  10th to11th month: emotions and emphasis  The pre-language use of sounds
  4. 4. One-word stage  12th to 18th month: single-unit utterances  Speech in single terms and everyday items: „milk‟, „cookie‟, „cat‟, „cup‟, „mama‟  Holophrastic = a single form that functions as a phrase or sentence. Example: „Milk!‟ = “Give me milk!”  Generally used to name objects  Extension of its use to more complex circumstances
  5. 5. Two-word stage  18th to 20th month  Child‟s vocabulary: around 50 words  Baby chair, mommy eat, cat play  Communication: after production of speech child receives feedback. This is interaction  24th month: 200 to 300 words
  6. 6. Telegraphic Speech  Strings of words in phrases or sentences  Almost complete sentences  Correct word order  Inflections (wants, cats) and prepositions (in, on)  Between 2 and 2 ½ years old: multiple word speech  Variation in word-forms  Physical development: running and jumping  Adult‟s influence in child‟s speech development
  7. 7. Children do not simply imitate adults; they actively construct words and phrases based on the rules they pick up intuitively. Do children learn or acquire language?
  8. 8. Correction/Repetition don‟t work!  Child: Want one other spoon, Daddy.  Father: You mean, you want the other spoon.  Child: Yes, I want one other spoon, please Daddy.  Father: Can you say “the other spoon”?  Child: Other…one…spoon.  Father: Say “other.”  Child: Other.  Father: “Spoon.”  Child: Spoon.  Father: “Other spoon.”  Child: Other…spoon. Now give me one other spoon? Quoted in Braine, 1971
  9. 9. Verb “to Woodstock” Noah: This is Woodstock. (bobbing a stuffed Woodstock toy in Adam‟s face) Adam: Hey Woodstock, don’t do that. (Noah persists) Adam : I’m going home so you won’t *Woodstock me.
  10. 10. How First Language Develops • ~ing form: Cat sitting, mommy reading book. Normally this is the first to appear • Regular plurals with ~s form: boys, cats. •Overgeneralization process = foots, mans, mouses •Irregular past forms: went, came •Regular past forms: walked, played •Overgeneralization: walkeded, wented, goed
  11. 11. “I *holded the baby.” “We *goed to the store.” “My *foots are big.”
  12. 12. *Holded, wented, goed…  Child: My teacher *holded the baby rabbits and we patted them.  Mother: Did you say your teacher held the baby rabbits?  Child: Yes.  Mother: What did you say she did?  Child: She *holded the baby rabbits and we patted them.  Mother: Did you say she held them tightly?  Child: No, she *holded them loosely. 4 year old quoted in Cazden, 1972
  13. 13. Children‟s speech is creative and shows comprehension, even when the child is unable to repeat exactly what has been said: Father: “The owl that eats candy runs fast.” Child: “Owl eat candy and he run fast.”
  14. 14. Syntax Syntax is the arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language. (Proper placement of nouns, verbs, etc.)
  15. 15. Syntax: Acquisition of Questions Questions: 1- Add a Wh form/rise intonation: “Where kitty?” “Why go?” 2- More complex form, still relying on intonation: “What book name?” “See my doggie?” 3- Inversion of subject/verb: “Can I have a piece?” “What did you do?” “Will you help me?”
  16. 16. Syntax: Acquisition of Negatives  1- No or Not at the beginning of sentences: no mitten; not teddy bear; no fall; no sit here  2- Don‟t and can‟t appear : You can’t dance; I don’t want eggs  3- Didn‟t, won‟t Later: isn‟t I didn’t caught it; She won’t let go; This isn’t ice cream
  17. 17. Overextension  Overextension: extension of meaning based on similarities of shape, sound, size, color (also movement and texture) Examples:  Child uses the word apple to mean apple, tomato, and ball  Child uses the word cat to mean cat and dog 
  18. 18. Steven Pinker: How Children Learn Language Steven Pinker is a Psychologist and Linguist at Harvard.