Basic math

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Basic math

  1. 1. BASIC MATH : NOMINAL AND ORDINAL DATA MOHD SABIQ B. MOHD NOR ALI KHAIRI B MAZLAN.
  2. 2. TYPES OF DATA <ul><li>Ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Interval  </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinal   </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal </li></ul>
  3. 3. WHAT IS NOMINAL DATA? <ul><li>The name 'Nominal' comes from the Latin nomen . </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning 'name' and nominal data are items which are differentiated by a simple naming system. </li></ul><ul><li>The data related to gender, race, religious affiliation, political affiliation etc; are the examples for Nominal data. </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal data are categorical data where the order of the categories is arbitrary. </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal data have no order and thus only gives names or labels to various categories. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>A set of data is said to be nominal if the values / observations belonging to it can be assigned a code in the form of a number where the numbers are simply labels. You can count but not order or measure nominal data. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nominal Data <ul><li>Data characterized as nominal has: </li></ul><ul><li>Data groups that do not have a specific order. An example of this could be country names, or individuals, or, as shown on the right, Courses by name. These don't need to be placed in any order. </li></ul><ul><li>With nominal data you can only make statements about the difference between groups, and comment on patterns, such as in the example on the right. </li></ul><ul><li>Note that the inferences we draw from the data are different for ordinal and nominal data. For example, with ordinal data you can look at trends. </li></ul><ul><li>Enrollment in Introductory Courses at Union University </li></ul>
  6. 6. WHAT IS ORDINAL DATA? <ul><li>Items on an ordinal scale are set into some kind of order by their position on the scale. </li></ul><ul><li>This may indicate such as temporal position, superiority. </li></ul><ul><li>The order of items is often defined by assigning numbers to them to show their relative position. </li></ul><ul><li>Letters or other sequential symbols may also be used as appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinal items are usually categorical, in that they belong to a definable category, such as '1956 marathon runners'. </li></ul><ul><li>You cannot do arithmetic with ordinal numbers -- they show sequence only. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>In computer programming , an ordinal data type is a data type with the property that its values can be counted. That is, the values can be put in a one-to-one correspondence with the positive integers . </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinal data have order , but the interval between measurements is not meaningful. </li></ul><ul><li>A set of data is said to be ordinal if the values / observations belonging to it can be ranked (put in order) or have a rating scale attached.You can count and order, but not measure, ordinal data. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ordinal Data <ul><li>Data characterized as ordinal has: </li></ul><ul><li>Groups that should be listed in specific order. The order may be either increasing or decreasing. </li></ul><ul><li>The data could have numeric values, or values such as high, medium, low. One example would be exam grades, another example could be price levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinal data allows us to look at trends as we move along this axis. </li></ul><ul><li>As we can see, in this graph, the data has a numerical order. The data groups are numerical amounts that go from a low of $1 to a high of $5. </li></ul>
  9. 9. EXAMPLE
  10. 10. EXAMPLE OF NOMINAL DATA <ul><li>Example 1 </li></ul><ul><li>The number pinned on a sports person. </li></ul><ul><li>A set of countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Example 2: Colors To most people, the colors: black, brown, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, gray, and white are just names of colors. </li></ul><ul><li>To an electronics student familiar with color-coded resistors, this data is in ascending order and thus represents at least ordinal data. </li></ul><ul><li>To a physicist, the colors: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet correspond to specific wavelengths of light and would be an example of ratio data. </li></ul>
  11. 11. EXAMPLE OF ORDINAL DATA <ul><li>Example 1: </li></ul><ul><li>The first, third and fifth person in a race. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay bands in an organization, as denoted by A, B, C and D. </li></ul><ul><li>Example 1: </li></ul><ul><li>a group of people were asked to taste varieties of biscuit and classify each biscuit on a rating scale of 1 to 5, representing strongly dislike, dislike, neutral, like, strongly like. A rating of 5 indicates more enjoyment than a rating of 4, for example, so such data are ordinal. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the distinction between neighbouring points on the scale is not necessarily always the same. For instance, the difference in enjoyment expressed by giving a rating of 2 rather than 1 might be much less than the difference in enjoyment expressed by giving a rating of 4 rather than 3. </li></ul>
  12. 12. REFERENCES <ul><li>http://changingminds.org/explanations/research/measurement/types_data.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://msg.calsnet.arizona.edu/icyf/docs/basic_stats.ppt#266,13,More data reduction </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.andrews.edu/~calkins/math/edrm611/edrm13.htm </li></ul><ul><li>[http:// www.neurophys.wisc.edu/www/comp/docs/ascii.html ] </li></ul>

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