A COLONIAL  HISTORY LESSON
Goals/Themes of the Chapter <ul><li>The battle of colonial powers for control of America </li></ul><ul><li>The process of ...
History <ul><li>Lots going on in this chapter! </li></ul><ul><li>Foundations of the country and the Constitution.  </li></ul>
History <ul><li>And remember, whenever we talk about history that we must learn to separate myth from reality in our histo...
First Settlements <ul><li>Where? When? And Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was living here? </li></ul><ul><li>Shouldn’t you all...
 
 
 
English Settlers <ul><li>What was the original role of the “American” colonies? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did these people lea...
Colonial Political System  <ul><li>Political participation  </li></ul><ul><li>Property qualifications for voting </li></ul...
 
 
Split from England <ul><li>French-Indian War and its consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Changing ideas about politics—more dem...
Split from England <ul><li>In the 1760s, the British began to interfere in the political life of the colonists, thus plant...
Split from England <ul><li>British perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinate position of colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Obliga...
Split from England <ul><li>American perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Equality of colonies and mother country </li></ul><ul><l...
Split from England  <ul><li>Denunciation of hereditary rule, monarchical government, colonial subordination </li></ul><ul>...
Split from England <ul><li>September 1774, the First Continental Congress met to protest British actions. By the Second Co...
Split from England <ul><li>Who is entitled to representation?  </li></ul><ul><li>Who started this war? (what social classe...
Split from England <ul><li>Declaration of Independence </li></ul><ul><li>“ all men are created equal”—what does that mean?...
Eve of Revolution <ul><li>Population: colonists no longer British </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of frontier (movement) </li>...
 
Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>a. Grievances against crown </li></ul><ul><li>b. Defining pr...
Life after the Revolution <ul><li>African Americans   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Still remained enslaved in the South </li></ul...
Articles of Confederation <ul><li>Established a “firm league of friendship” </li></ul><ul><li>Created a confederacy giving...
Articles <ul><li>The vote of nine states to pass any measure—amendments had to be unanimous </li></ul><ul><li>Delegates se...
Problems with Articles <ul><li>No executive to administer the government (no real leader) </li></ul><ul><li>No power to ta...
 
Constitutional Convention <ul><li>“ An assembly of Demigods” (the wealthy) </li></ul><ul><li>How strong a central governme...
Ratification <ul><li>Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>The Federalist Papers </li></ul><ul><li>Bill of Ri...
Conflicting Interests <ul><li>Founders </li></ul><ul><li>Large states </li></ul><ul><li>Small states </li></ul><ul><li>Nor...
Two competing plans <ul><li>The Virginia Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Bicameral legislature  </li></ul><ul><li>Representation in...
The Great Compromise <ul><li>Bicameral legislature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House of Representatives based on population and ...
The Battle over Ratification <ul><li>Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>Supported ratification of the Constitution </li></ul><u...
The Federalist Papers <ul><li>Written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay under the pen name Publius </li></ul><ul><li>Called fo...
 
 
Ratification of the Constitution <ul><li>Required support of nine of the thirteen state legislatures </li></ul><ul><li>Sma...
Principles <ul><li>The Constitution was built on five principles that have been central to the stability and endurance of ...
Principles <ul><li>The  rule of law , although never mentioned directly, is an important legacy of the Constitution. The r...
Principles <ul><li>By advocating the principle of  republicanism , the framers were calling for a government in which deci...
Principles <ul><li>In the  separation of power  principle , the framers tried to minimize the possibility of one faction g...
Principles <ul><li>The principle of  checks and balances   makes it possible for the executive and legislative branches to...
Principles <ul><li>In the American constitutional system, the principle of  national supremacy   makes the Constitution th...
Three Elements of Citizenship <ul><li>Citizenship should rest on consent. </li></ul><ul><li>There should not be grades or ...
 
STUDY QUESTIONS
Study Questions <ul><li>What were the key issues that strained the relationship between the colonies and Great Britain and...
Study Questions <ul><li>Who/what groups might have benefited from the separation between the colonies and Great Britain? H...
Study Questions <ul><li>Describe and evaluate the government established by the Articles of Confederation. What were its s...
Study Questions <ul><li>What parts of the country finally voted for ratification of the Constitution? What sections voted ...
Study Questions <ul><li>Why were there property qualifications for voting in colonial America? Why did they need voting ru...
Study Questions <ul><li>Discuss the Great Compromise. What problems was it trying to address? </li></ul><ul><li>What peopl...
Study Questions <ul><li>Who were the anti-Federalists and what kind of government did they want? How did they differ from ...
Study Questions <ul><li>How can governments be strong enough to govern without threatening freedoms? Is this dilemma cover...
Study Questions <ul><li>How might the problems between GB and the colonies have been solved without separation?  </li></ul>
Study Questions <ul><li>Who were the main actors in the decision to split from England? What did each one want? How did th...
Study Questions <ul><li>Many actors had something at stake in the formation of the Constitution. Focus specifically on wha...
Study Questions <ul><li>Discuss the possible negative effects of the Great Compromise today. Are all states fairly represe...
Study Questions <ul><li>Discuss the battle for control of the New World. Who was involved and why did each want to be the ...
Study Questions <ul><li>Explain the nature of the conflict between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists. Who were likely t...
Study Questions <ul><li>What were the two major plans presented at the Philadelphia Convention, and what were the major pr...
Terms <ul><li>Federalism </li></ul><ul><li>Great Compromise </li></ul><ul><li>James Madison </li></ul><ul><li>New Jersey P...
Terms <ul><li>French-Indian War </li></ul><ul><li>anti-Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>Articles of Confederation </li></ul><...
Terms <ul><li>Shay’s Rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Common Sense </li></ul><ul><li>faction </...
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  1. 1. A COLONIAL HISTORY LESSON
  2. 2. Goals/Themes of the Chapter <ul><li>The battle of colonial powers for control of America </li></ul><ul><li>The process of settlement by the English </li></ul><ul><li>The break with England and the Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>The Articles of Confederation </li></ul><ul><li>The Constitutional Convention </li></ul><ul><li>The ratification of the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>The role of everyday citizens in the founding </li></ul>
  3. 3. History <ul><li>Lots going on in this chapter! </li></ul><ul><li>Foundations of the country and the Constitution. </li></ul>
  4. 4. History <ul><li>And remember, whenever we talk about history that we must learn to separate myth from reality in our history. We don’t need to learn “patriotic” history, especially if it is inaccurate. Even if it makes us feel good. </li></ul>
  5. 5. First Settlements <ul><li>Where? When? And Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was living here? </li></ul><ul><li>Shouldn’t you all know this? </li></ul>
  6. 9. English Settlers <ul><li>What was the original role of the “American” colonies? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did these people leave England? What did expect to get here that they couldn’t get in England? </li></ul>
  7. 10. Colonial Political System <ul><li>Political participation </li></ul><ul><li>Property qualifications for voting </li></ul><ul><li>Religious qualifications for voting (did they want religious freedom?) </li></ul><ul><li>Women/Gender roles </li></ul><ul><li>African-Americans and slavery </li></ul>
  8. 13. Split from England <ul><li>French-Indian War and its consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Changing ideas about politics—more democracy and less deference and/or respect </li></ul><ul><li>Until the 1760s, American colonies operated without much oversight by the British, which gave them experience with self-governance </li></ul>
  9. 14. Split from England <ul><li>In the 1760s, the British began to interfere in the political life of the colonists, thus planting the seeds for revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>The Stamp Act of 1765, the first tax directly levied against the colonists, led to the cry of “taxation without representation.” </li></ul>
  10. 15. Split from England <ul><li>British perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinate position of colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Obligation of colonies to share in cost of empire </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Virtual representation“ </li></ul><ul><li>GB were not treating colonies poorly </li></ul><ul><li>Standard of living was high in the colonies </li></ul>
  11. 16. Split from England <ul><li>American perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Equality of colonies and mother country </li></ul><ul><li>No taxation without representation </li></ul><ul><li>Could be doing better </li></ul><ul><li>Trade with other nations </li></ul>
  12. 17. Split from England <ul><li>Denunciation of hereditary rule, monarchical government, colonial subordination </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of independence, political democracy, citizens' rights, free trade, insulation from imperial wars </li></ul>
  13. 18. Split from England <ul><li>September 1774, the First Continental Congress met to protest British actions. By the Second Continental Congress, in May 1775, colonists and British troops had exchanged gunfire at Concord and Lexington. </li></ul>
  14. 19. Split from England <ul><li>Who is entitled to representation? </li></ul><ul><li>Who started this war? (what social classes?) </li></ul><ul><li>Were the colonists British or Americans by 1763? </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution </li></ul>
  15. 20. Split from England <ul><li>Declaration of Independence </li></ul><ul><li>“ all men are created equal”—what does that mean? </li></ul><ul><li>African-Americans, American Indians, and women—were they part of this Revolution? </li></ul>
  16. 21. Eve of Revolution <ul><li>Population: colonists no longer British </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of frontier (movement) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic independence </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual independence </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural independence </li></ul>
  17. 23. Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>a. Grievances against crown </li></ul><ul><li>b. Defining principles </li></ul><ul><li>i. National sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>ii. Human equality </li></ul><ul><li>iii. Natural rights </li></ul><ul><li>iv. Government by consent of governed </li></ul><ul><li>v. Right of revolution </li></ul><ul><li>vi. From property to &quot;happiness&quot; </li></ul>
  18. 24. Life after the Revolution <ul><li>African Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Still remained enslaved in the South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave trade continued </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Native Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued to lose land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost the ability to vote and the previous limited opportunities to participate in politics </li></ul></ul>
  19. 25. Articles of Confederation <ul><li>Established a “firm league of friendship” </li></ul><ul><li>Created a confederacy giving power to the states </li></ul><ul><li>Federal government had few powers and limited ability to carry out those powers </li></ul>
  20. 26. Articles <ul><li>The vote of nine states to pass any measure—amendments had to be unanimous </li></ul><ul><li>Delegates selected to the Congress by their respective state legislatures </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the fear of a tyrannical ruler, no executive was created and the national government was quite weak </li></ul>
  21. 27. Problems with Articles <ul><li>No executive to administer the government (no real leader) </li></ul><ul><li>No power to tax without states’ consent (difficult to do anything like establish a national army without money) </li></ul><ul><li>No authority to regulate commerce (trade between states became chaotic because states were using their own money; continental dollars were worth nothing) </li></ul><ul><li>Congress could pass laws but had little power to execute or enforce them </li></ul>
  22. 29. Constitutional Convention <ul><li>“ An assembly of Demigods” (the wealthy) </li></ul><ul><li>How strong a central government? </li></ul><ul><li>Large states, small states (Virginia vs. NJ) </li></ul><ul><li>North and South (slavery) </li></ul>
  23. 30. Ratification <ul><li>Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>The Federalist Papers </li></ul><ul><li>Bill of Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Freedoms (Bill of Rights) </li></ul><ul><li>final vote (geographical splits) </li></ul>
  24. 31. Conflicting Interests <ul><li>Founders </li></ul><ul><li>Large states </li></ul><ul><li>Small states </li></ul><ul><li>North </li></ul><ul><li>South </li></ul><ul><li>Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Federalists </li></ul>
  25. 32. Two competing plans <ul><li>The Virginia Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Bicameral legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Representation in both based on population </li></ul><ul><li>One house elected by the people; one house elected by state legislatures </li></ul><ul><li>Single executive chosen by Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Favored by large states </li></ul><ul><li>The New Jersey Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Unicameral legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Equal representation </li></ul><ul><li>Representatives elected by state legislatures </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-person executive </li></ul><ul><li>Favored by small states </li></ul>
  26. 33. The Great Compromise <ul><li>Bicameral legislature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House of Representatives based on population and chosen by the people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate based on equal representation and chosen by the state legislatures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Single executive chosen by the electoral college </li></ul><ul><li>Federal court system </li></ul>
  27. 34. The Battle over Ratification <ul><li>Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>Supported ratification of the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted strong central government </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned about security and order </li></ul><ul><li>Madison, Hamilton, Jay </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed ratification of the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted states to have power over the federal government </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption best kept in check at the local level </li></ul><ul><li>Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry </li></ul>
  28. 35. The Federalist Papers <ul><li>Written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay under the pen name Publius </li></ul><ul><li>Called for ratification of the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Published in New York papers to persuade legislators to ratify the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Among the best known: Federalist Nos. 10, 51, and 78 </li></ul>
  29. 38. Ratification of the Constitution <ul><li>Required support of nine of the thirteen state legislatures </li></ul><ul><li>Small states were quick to support the Constitution because of the inclusion of the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually all thirteen states ratified it (Rhode Island the last in 1790) </li></ul>
  30. 39. Principles <ul><li>The Constitution was built on five principles that have been central to the stability and endurance of the American constitutional system. </li></ul>
  31. 40. Principles <ul><li>The rule of law , although never mentioned directly, is an important legacy of the Constitution. The rulers, like the ruled, are answerable to the law. The framers established this principle by limiting the power of government in many of the Constitution’s articles and amendments. </li></ul>
  32. 41. Principles <ul><li>By advocating the principle of republicanism , the framers were calling for a government in which decisions are made by elected or appointed officials ultimately answerable to the people: the people had a voice, but that voice was filtered through their representatives. </li></ul>
  33. 42. Principles <ul><li>In the separation of power principle , the framers tried to minimize the possibility of one faction gaining control over the government by establishing legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government. </li></ul>
  34. 43. Principles <ul><li>The principle of checks and balances makes it possible for the executive and legislative branches to share some responsibility and gives each branch some control over the others’ activities. </li></ul>
  35. 44. Principles <ul><li>In the American constitutional system, the principle of national supremacy makes the Constitution the “supreme law of the land,” providing an authority for settling fundamental disagreements between different levels of government. </li></ul>
  36. 45. Three Elements of Citizenship <ul><li>Citizenship should rest on consent. </li></ul><ul><li>There should not be grades or levels of citizenship. </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship should confer equal rights on all citizens. </li></ul>
  37. 47. STUDY QUESTIONS
  38. 48. Study Questions <ul><li>What were the key issues that strained the relationship between the colonies and Great Britain and eventually caused the Revolution?   </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the situation of the American colonies under British rule. Were the colonists oppressed? Were their human rights violated? Was the situation really that bad?  </li></ul>
  39. 49. Study Questions <ul><li>Who/what groups might have benefited from the separation between the colonies and Great Britain? How exactly did these groups or individuals benefit? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Jefferson mean when he wrote that “all men are created equal?” </li></ul>
  40. 50. Study Questions <ul><li>Describe and evaluate the government established by the Articles of Confederation. What were its strengths? Its weaknesses? How did the government function? Why didn’t the Articles survive? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the Three-Fifths Compromise and what were its implications (both short and long-term)? Why didn't the Founding Fathers simply ban slavery in the United States?  </li></ul>
  41. 51. Study Questions <ul><li>What parts of the country finally voted for ratification of the Constitution? What sections voted against ratification? Why? </li></ul>
  42. 52. Study Questions <ul><li>Why were there property qualifications for voting in colonial America? Why did they need voting rules? Who benefited from these rules?  </li></ul><ul><li>Who called for the Constitutional Convention? What did they expect to gain? </li></ul>
  43. 53. Study Questions <ul><li>Discuss the Great Compromise. What problems was it trying to address? </li></ul><ul><li>What people were allowed to participate in colonial politics? Who was excluded? Overall, discuss and explain the role of &quot;regular citizens&quot; in the early days of the republic.  </li></ul>
  44. 54. Study Questions <ul><li>Who were the anti-Federalists and what kind of government did they want? How did they differ from the Federalists?  </li></ul><ul><li>What were the Federalist Papers ? Who wrote them and what views did they advance about government and politics? </li></ul>
  45. 55. Study Questions <ul><li>How can governments be strong enough to govern without threatening freedoms? Is this dilemma covered in the Constitution?  </li></ul>
  46. 56. Study Questions <ul><li>How might the problems between GB and the colonies have been solved without separation? </li></ul>
  47. 57. Study Questions <ul><li>Who were the main actors in the decision to split from England? What did each one want? How did they try to obtain independence? After the Revolution, how successful were these groups in obtaining their goals? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? What were the biggest benefits of the Constitution over the Articles? Were there any aspects of the Articles that might have been worth keeping? </li></ul>
  48. 58. Study Questions <ul><li>Many actors had something at stake in the formation of the Constitution. Focus specifically on what was at stake in the Three-fifths Compromise. Who had something at stake in this compromise, what did they have at stake, and how did each try to get what they wanted? </li></ul>
  49. 59. Study Questions <ul><li>Discuss the possible negative effects of the Great Compromise today. Are all states fairly represented? Is the bicameral legislature too cumbersome? Does the system of separation of powers provide too much of a check on one branch of government? </li></ul><ul><li>Was Hamilton right or wrong in Federalist No. 78 when he argued that a Bill of Rights was not necessary? If Hamilton had won, what would American rights look like today? (You may need to take Hamilton's position initially to generate discussion.) </li></ul>
  50. 60. Study Questions <ul><li>Discuss the battle for control of the New World. Who was involved and why did each want to be the dominant force in colonial America? What ultimately led the English to gain control? </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the situation faced by women, African Americans, and Native Americans during the colonial era. What rights, if any, did each group have? How did their situations change after the Revolutionary War? </li></ul>
  51. 61. Study Questions <ul><li>Explain the nature of the conflict between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists. Who were likely to be Federalists and Anti-Federalists? How did each group view human nature and the role of government? </li></ul>
  52. 62. Study Questions <ul><li>What were the two major plans presented at the Philadelphia Convention, and what were the major provisions of each? How were the plans reconciled? Who do you think the winners and the losers were at the Constitutional Convention? Why do you think the winners were winners and the losers were losers? </li></ul>
  53. 63. Terms <ul><li>Federalism </li></ul><ul><li>Great Compromise </li></ul><ul><li>James Madison </li></ul><ul><li>New Jersey Plan </li></ul>
  54. 64. Terms <ul><li>French-Indian War </li></ul><ul><li>anti-Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>Articles of Confederation </li></ul><ul><li>Bill of Rights </li></ul>
  55. 65. Terms <ul><li>Shay’s Rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Common Sense </li></ul><ul><li>faction </li></ul>

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