Allegory <ul><li>A narrative or description that has a second meaning beneath the surface </li></ul>
What’s the Difference? <ul><ul><li>Unlike metaphor an allegory is a system of related comparisons rather than one drawn out comparison. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike symbol an allegory puts less emphasis on the images and more on the ulterior meaning. Also, meaning tends to be fixed. There is a one to one relationship between detail and ulterior meaning. </li></ul></ul>
Allegorical Examples <ul><li>Pilgrim’s Progress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Story of Christian ’s journey through the wilderness. Each element represents the Christian journey through life. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animal Farm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Story of the animals revolt against the oppression of the farmer. Each element represents an aspect of the Russian Revolution and eventual turn to a Communist government. </li></ul></ul>
Redemption By George Herbert Having been tenant long to a rich Lord, Not thriving, I resolved to be bold, And make a suit unto him, to afford A new small-rented lease, and cancell th’ old.. In heaven at his manor I him sought:: They told me there, that he was lately gone About some land, which he had dearly bought Long since on earth, to take possession. I straight return’d, and knowing his great birth, Sought him accordingly in great resorts; In cities, theatres, gardens, parks, and courts: At length I heard a ragged noise and mirth Of thieves and murderers: there I him espied, Who straight, “Your suit is granted,” said, & died
Paradox <ul><li>An apparent contradiction that is somehow true. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be either a situation or a statement </li></ul><ul><li>Paradox is useful because of its shock value. “Its seeming impossibility startles the reader into attention, and by the fact of its apparent absurdity, underscores the truth of what is being said.” </li></ul>
Much Madness is divinest Sense— To a discerning Eye— Much Sense—the starkest madness— 'Tis the Majority In this, as All, prevail— Assent— and you are sane— Demur —you're straightway dangerous— And handled with a Chain—
Hyperbole <ul><li>Exaggeration to highlight a truth. </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperbole can create humor, emphasize a point gently or strongly, create a tone of severity, etc. </li></ul>
New England By EA Robinson Here where the wind is always north-north-east And children learn to walk on frozen toes, Wonder begets an envy of all those Who boil elsewhere with such a lyric yeast Of love that you will hear them at a feast Where demons would appeal for some repose, Still clamoring where the chalice overflows And crying wildest who have drunk the least.
Understatement <ul><li>Saying less than one means for effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Humorist Artemus Ward used understatement when he said that a man who holds his hand in a lighted fire will experience “a sensation of excessive and disagreeable warmth.” </li></ul>
Incident By Countee Cullen Once riding in old Baltimore, Heart-filled, head-filled with glee, I saw a Baltimorean Keep looking straight at me. Now I was eight and very small, And he was no whit bigger, And so I smiled, but he poked out His tongue, and called me, "Nigger." I saw the whole of Baltimore From May until December; Of all the things that happened there That's all that I remember.