Types of Poems

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Types of Poems

  1. 1. Types of Poetry Just to make the definition a little more complicated.
  2. 2. Free Verse <ul><li>In free verse there are no rules. </li></ul><ul><li>There can be some rhyme and meter, but there is no regular pattern. </li></ul>
  3. 3. “ Free Verse” by Robert Graves <ul><li>I now delight </li></ul><ul><li>In spite </li></ul><ul><li>Of the might </li></ul><ul><li>And the right </li></ul><ul><li>Of classic tradition, </li></ul><ul><li>In writing </li></ul><ul><li>And reciting </li></ul><ul><li>Straight ahead, </li></ul><ul><li>Without let or omission, </li></ul><ul><li>Just any little rhyme </li></ul><ul><li>In any little time </li></ul><ul><li>That runs in my head; </li></ul><ul><li>Because, I’ve said, </li></ul><ul><li>My rhymes no longer shall stand arrayed </li></ul><ul><li>Like Prussian soldiers on parade </li></ul><ul><li>That march, </li></ul><ul><li>Stiff as starch, </li></ul><ul><li>Foot to foot, </li></ul><ul><li>Boot to boot, </li></ul><ul><li>Blade to blade, </li></ul><ul><li>Button to button, </li></ul><ul><li>Cheeks and chops and chins like mutton. </li></ul><ul><li>No! No! </li></ul><ul><li>My rhymes must go </li></ul><ul><li>Turn ’ee, twist ’ee, </li></ul><ul><li>Twinkling, frosty, </li></ul><ul><li>Will-o’-the-wisp-like, misty; </li></ul><ul><li>Rhymes I will make </li></ul><ul><li>Like Keats and Blake </li></ul><ul><li>And Christina Rossetti, </li></ul><ul><li>With run and ripple and shake. </li></ul><ul><li>How pretty </li></ul><ul><li>To take </li></ul><ul><li>A merry little rhyme </li></ul><ul><li>In a jolly little time </li></ul><ul><li>And poke it, </li></ul><ul><li>And choke it, </li></ul><ul><li>Change it, arrange it, </li></ul><ul><li>Straight-lace it, deface it, </li></ul><ul><li>Pleat it with pleats, </li></ul><ul><li>Sheet it with sheets </li></ul><ul><li>Of empty conceits, </li></ul><ul><li>And chop and chew, </li></ul><ul><li>And hack and hew, </li></ul><ul><li>And weld it into a uniform stanza, </li></ul><ul><li>And evolve a neat, </li></ul><ul><li>Complacent, complete, </li></ul><ul><li>Academic extravaganza! </li></ul>
  4. 4. Blank Verse <ul><li>Unrhymed Iambic Pentameter </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to recognize: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Count each line to ensure most have10 syllables. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then make sure there is NO fixed rhyme scheme. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Blank Verse Example <ul><li>Excerpt from Robert Frost’s “The Mountain” </li></ul><ul><li>The mountain held the town as in a shadow </li></ul><ul><li>I saw so much before I slept there once: </li></ul><ul><li>I noticed that I missed stars in the west, </li></ul><ul><li>Where its black body cut into the sky. </li></ul><ul><li>Near me it seemed: I felt it like a wall </li></ul><ul><li>Behind which I was sheltered from a wind. </li></ul><ul><li>And yet between the town and it I found, </li></ul><ul><li>When I walked forth at dawn to see new things, </li></ul><ul><li>Were fields, a river, and beyond, more fields. </li></ul><ul><li>The river at the time was fallen away, </li></ul><ul><li>And made a widespread brawl on cobble-stones; </li></ul><ul><li>But the signs showed what it had done in spring; </li></ul><ul><li>Good grass-land gullied out, and in the grass </li></ul><ul><li>Ridges of sand, and driftwood stripped of bark. </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Ballad <ul><li>Narrative poem - tells a story. </li></ul><ul><li>Often about universals such as love, honour, courage… </li></ul><ul><li>Connection to songs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very strong rhythm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plain rhymes </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Ballad Example <ul><li>The Rime of the Ancient Mariner </li></ul><ul><li>By Samuel Taylor Coleridge </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The ship was cheered, the harbour cleared, </li></ul><ul><li>Merrily did we drop </li></ul><ul><li>Below the kirk, below the hill, </li></ul><ul><li>Below the lighthouse top. </li></ul><ul><li>The sun came up upon the left, </li></ul><ul><li>Out of the sea came he! </li></ul><ul><li>And he shone bright, and on the right </li></ul><ul><li>Went down into the sea. </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Epic <ul><li>LONG </li></ul><ul><li>Often about a heroic character </li></ul><ul><li>Elevated style to represent religious or cultural ideals </li></ul>
  9. 9. Epic Example <ul><li>Homer’s Illiad </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Honor the gods, Achilles; pity him. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of your father; I'm more pitiful; </li></ul><ul><li>I've suffered what no other mortal has, </li></ul><ul><li>I've kissed the hand of one who killed my children.’ </li></ul><ul><li>He spoke, and stirred Achilles' grief to tears; </li></ul><ul><li>He gently pushed the old man's hand away. </li></ul><ul><li>They both remembered; Priam wept for Hector, </li></ul><ul><li>Sitting crouched before Achilles' feet. </li></ul><ul><li>Achilles mourned his father, then again </li></ul><ul><li>Patroculs, and their mourning stirred the house. </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Lyric <ul><li>Short poem. </li></ul><ul><li>Expresses the emotions or thoughts of the writer directly. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sonnets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Odes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elegies </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Lyric Example <ul><li>Dying </li></ul><ul><li>(aka I heard a fly buzz when I died ) </li></ul><ul><li>By Emily Dickinson </li></ul><ul><li>I heard a fly buzz when I died; </li></ul><ul><li>The stillness round my form </li></ul><ul><li>Was like the stillness in the air </li></ul><ul><li>Between the heaves of storm. </li></ul><ul><li>The eyes beside had wrung them dry, </li></ul><ul><li>And breaths were gathering sure </li></ul><ul><li>For that last onset, when the king </li></ul><ul><li>Be witnessed in his power. </li></ul><ul><li>I willed my keepsakes, signed away </li></ul><ul><li>What portion of me I </li></ul><ul><li>Could make assignable,-and then </li></ul><ul><li>There interposed a fly, </li></ul><ul><li>With blue, uncertain, stumbling buzz, </li></ul><ul><li>Between the light and me; </li></ul><ul><li>And then the windows failed, and then </li></ul><ul><li>I could not see to see. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sonnet <ul><li>Fourteen lines long </li></ul><ul><li>Iambic pentameter </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespearean Sonnet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three quatrains (4-line stanzas) and a couplet (two lines) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STRICT end-rhyme scheme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abab cdcd efef gg </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Sonnet Example <ul><li>Sonnet 18 </li></ul><ul><li>By William Shakespeare </li></ul><ul><li>Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? </li></ul><ul><li>Thou art more lovely and more temperate: </li></ul><ul><li>Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, </li></ul><ul><li>And summer's lease hath all too short a date: </li></ul><ul><li>Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, </li></ul><ul><li>And often is his gold complexion dimm'd; </li></ul><ul><li>And every fair from fair sometime declines, </li></ul><ul><li>By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd; </li></ul><ul><li>But thy eternal summer shall not fade </li></ul><ul><li>Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest; </li></ul><ul><li>Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade, </li></ul><ul><li>When in eternal lines to time thou growest: </li></ul><ul><li>So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, </li></ul><ul><li>So long lives this and this gives life to thee. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Ode <ul><li>Expresses lofty emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Often celebrate an event </li></ul><ul><li>Often addressed to nature, person, place, or thing. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ode Example <ul><li>Ode To A Nightingale </li></ul><ul><li>By John Keats </li></ul><ul><li>My heart aches, and a drowsy numbness pains </li></ul><ul><li>My sense, as though of hemlock I had drunk, </li></ul><ul><li>Or emptied some dull opiate to the drains </li></ul><ul><li>One minute past, and Lethe-wards had sunk: </li></ul><ul><li>'Tis not through envy of thy happy lot, </li></ul><ul><li>But being too happy in thine happiness, </li></ul><ul><li>That thou, light-winged Dryad of the trees </li></ul><ul><li>In some melodious plot </li></ul><ul><li>Of beechen green, and shadows numberless, </li></ul><ul><li>Singest of summer in full-throated ease. </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
  16. 16. Elegy <ul><li>A mournful poem </li></ul><ul><li>A lament for the dead </li></ul>
  17. 17. Elegy Example <ul><li>Captain! My Captain! </li></ul><ul><li>By Walt Whitman </li></ul><ul><li>O Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done, </li></ul><ul><li>The ship has weathered every rack, the prize we sought is won, </li></ul><ul><li>The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting. </li></ul><ul><li>While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring; </li></ul><ul><li>But O heart! heart! heart! </li></ul><ul><li>O the bleeding drops of red, </li></ul><ul><li>Where on the deck my Captain lies, </li></ul><ul><li>Fallen cold and dead. </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>

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