BAS Master courses
BAS Cross courses
By Gaute Aas
BAS: Bergen School of Architecture, Norway, 2008 - 2010
BAS Master course 3. Autumn 2009
Name: the city as biotope – mindfield malmö
By Gaute Aas
Bergen School of Architecture, Norway, Autumn 2009
BAS Master course 2. Autumn 2009
Name: “the city as biotope – mindfield malmö”
Magdalena Haggärde, Gisle Løkken, Kjerstin Uhre, Knut Eirik Dahl
DAV teacher: Well recognized artist from Copenhagen.
Study trip: Malmö and Paris
Openness as method.
This studio aims at developing a universe of ideas for readings, voices and invited guests, and we can consider the studio
as a receiver of surprising approaches. Early in the course the students will be introduced to strategies that will enable
them to establish an editorial readiness for their production so that the concepts throughout the whole period will be operative and developing.
The studio kicks off from the teacher’s shared discoveries made during The Year of City development, Tromsø (2005), the 1. Prize project
in The Øresund Visions 2040, Mosaïc::Region, and the 1. Prize project in the Nordhavnen Competition in Copenhagen, Excentral
Park - Edge Dynamics. The field of exploration is the city of Malmö materialized by means of one or two areas of study.
The liminal zones of Malmö meet the best agricultural landscape of Sweden, which both represent experience and survival, and the Strait of
Øresund that in itself is a biotope in need of salvaging. The competence within the expanded mind field of Malmö includes SLU with research
on landscape and the university town of Lund, which is in the forefront on a number of subjects. Malmö is moreover endowed with an alert and
ambitious urban planning management in a city which has the most complex urban population pattern in the Nordic countries.
The dynamics of small cultures versus the codex of planning
Planning is by nature reductionist and limits itself from a number of important statements, voices and realizations. We enter into a field of thought
of existing voices and explorations that may make entirely new statements about the city and its landscape. It is the task of the studio to grasp
and discover these voices. In MosaÏc::Region we launched the concept of vulnerability in the mapping of conditions. We developed a new attention
to a changing nature. Implied is the realization that the landscape needs to be discovered over and over again, that it never enters a final stage,
never a finished picture. The metaphor of the mosaic encircles and explores the present and the future landscape from the smallest biotope to the larger landscape.
Initial phase will be in Bergen to introduce basic investigations of the methods and the landscape in Malmö. There will be lectures given in methodical
investigation and planning theory. Second phase will be on-site investigations in Malmö. A program will be given for implementation on the different sites
in Malmö. Five sites are given (see illustration ‘Malmö DNA’). There will be given lectures from experts and key persons in the region.
This phase will also include DAV in Malmö or/and in Bergen.
Third phase will include a study trip to Paris investigating urban acts and urban strategies – also including lectures from architects and key persons in Paris.
Fourth phase will be concluding the project.
During the whole process there will be challenging discussions around methods, strategies, theory and projects. It is an intention to develop and use blog
both as communication tool and as an operative working method.
My work during the autum is individual with supervision from the different teachers in the project. I first analyzed many maps to
find water/ponds in the traditional agricultural landscape. My second task was to analyzing the city to better understand how the
city borders meets more rural areas. This is important to understand if we want to expand the city of Malmø in the future.
Then I made my project in the meeting points of these two strategies, and tried to define and transform the
landscape in to a sustainable landscape with possibilities of multiple food production and combine new residential areas
with the water and gardens for sustainable food-production.
During our visit in Malmø
we had lectures and DAW
tasks by two artists from WALK During our days in Malmö we got a
Copenhagen. The DAW- task that should show an approach
work was made in group.
to the site colored by a presence.
The interpretation was free and
challenged our method. Our work
resulted in a mental map and was
base on a walk (6 hour) at the
surface of Malmö. Borders and
physical obstacles moved us
trough a path of layers.
Simultaneously working/downloading our empiric
knowledge to a canvas and freedomly expressing
scale,movement and the most important impressions
- a collage appear during 3 days of work. The collage
intended to reflect a dynamic hands on process and
developement. In this phase we had the same
attitude as when we was making the walk – following
paths and tracks – distorbable and vulnerable.
The canvas (1) content is a
mixture. Real facts in
harmony with abstractions.
Free float of impressions.
By this process - another
documentation emerged (2).
A bi-product of the original
working method. Still, this
collage is the starting point
of the end.
The water-diviner is capable of finding water under stones.
Everybody looks at him in amazement, completely confused
And he, armed with a simple wooden mechanism, scours the
territory until he point out- with complete certainty - the place
to dig the well. The people around him look at each other in
disbelief, but after he has solved the task, everyone locks
at each other with admiring.
The water-diviner is not a magician, he doesn’t have
Supernatural talents. The water-diviner has a technique.
He respect certain strategies when he walks around a piece
of land. He follows clues and he isn’t the one who
digs the well, but the one who point out the place.....
Sege aa catchment area lies in the southwest of Sweden.
Sege aa catchment area covers a total of 333 km2.
Risabergabecken further west, cover about 30 km2.
Sege aa and its tributaries has over the past 150 years
been subjected to increased emission of nitrogen and
phosphorus from both communities and agriculture.
Meanwhile, a radical change of the landscape has led too
a lost of self-purifying capability. Much of the water has
been led trough water pipes and has been straightened,
and the wetlands has been covered up. The
consequences has been that natural conditions for the
digestion of nutrients has decreased. Since the early
1900s, the area of wetland in the catchments area has
decreased by about 90% and distance open water has
decreased by about 50%.
Nutrients causes problems not only in the rivers
and lakes, but also in the sea. The pollution of the sea,
results in a sharp growth of algae’s. Dead algae fall down
to the bottom and decomposition leads to oxygen deficiency.
As a result, it could lead to fish death in big scale.
Phosphorus transport to the Øresund is about 10 tons pr.
year (average for period 1990-2006).
Smaller streas in the area
The streams catchment area, and sub-catchment area
During the process of evaluating and searching for pound and wetland loca-
tions in Seges catchment area has the need for a detailed breakdown of sub-
catchment areas become
clear, this by a systematic review of maps.
The work is exemplified below with bigger and smaller catchment areas, di-
vided into smaller areas in the most detailed level.
With the protection zone means a zone between water and arable land with grass and herbs,
and preferably also shrubs and trees. The with of the zone should be at least 5 meter and no
fertilizer or pesticide may be used in this area. The with of the protection zone varies between 5
and 10 meters
(today usually 6 m, according to EU directive).
- The transportation of soil particles and nutrients ( mainly phosphorus) from arable land to
- Decreased erosion in the water-ditches.
- The potential for direct deposit of fertilizer and pesticides in water decreases.
- Trees and shrubs shade the stream, which prevents overgrowth and reduce the need for
cleaning, by lowering the water temperature.
- Important corridors for the animals in the agricultural landscape are being created.
- Availability for people will increase.
Examples of protections zones between the arable land and the stream/water.
Smaller streams in the area
Pounds and wetlands
Pounds and wetlands have an important function when it comes to natural purification processes.
The processes that make the water cleaner is sedimentation (nutrient-rich particles sink to the bottom),
denitrification (water soluble nitrogen is converted by bacteria into the air nitrogen, which is harmless to
the environment) and through absorption of nutrients (plants take up nutrients in the pond).
Ponds and wetlands are effective nutrient traps in the area. The degree of purification depends among
others on the ponds design and age, and water retention in the pond.
Concept of pond and wetland.
The term pond in this context is a permanent body of water that is created to purify incoming water,
and is beneficial to plants, animals and humans.
The typical pond is made of a flat slope and has often an irregular shape, which is shaped by
the landscape. The depth can vary between one (1,0) and three (3,0) meter. And the size is usually
from 0,3 ha. till 5 ha. In periods of little rain the water level may be just beneath ground level. Aqua
vegetation plays a prominent role in our wetlands. Wetlands is typical in the ponds edge zone, which
means that the pond and habitats in our wetlands often are connected to one another.
The environmental benefits on ponds and wetlands.
- The water is cleaned when it comes to soil particles, nutrients, metals, pesticides and
other harmful substances.
- Habitat for wetlands-related plants and animals increases.
- Recreation potential for people in the agricultural landscape increases.
- Flood variations in the water can be reduced locally.
- Environmental damage at the temporary discharges of oil, urine or other harmful
substances can be limited.
- Biotopes in the local area will increase.
Smaller streams in the area
Sub- catchment area
To determine the size and boundaries of a catchment area, a map with elevation where
the state of water is clear. in order to get better glance, you may want to first draw the
arrows perpendicular to the height of the curves from higher to lower levels. These arrows
indicate direction of movement of rainfall water.
Water components can then gradually link together into coherent strings. In this way, the
catchment areas approximate boundary and size are identified.
Catchment area size:
To get a high nutrient load in the ponds and wetlands, there should be large catchment
areas (at least 100 times larger than the pond/ wetland).
Catchment area of 100 hectares or more is often needed. If the ponds can adjusted
accordingly to the catchment area, of course, we can work with small catchment areas
and still get a good effect.
Ponds and wetlands can be build in most soils, although soils with high clay content are
best because they provide a completely sealed pond.
Sandy soil with permeability involves a risk of leaking that can cause dehydration during
dry periods. The major technical limitation for construction of ponds and wetlands is the
relationship between the soil surface level within the proposed pond area and the level of
the running water. This ratio determines the soil volume it is needed to be excavated out
and thereby how expensive the project becomes. The higher the water level is proportional
to the surface of the soil, the better the conditions for creating a cost-effective pond/wetland.
The streams different sub-catchment areas
The map showes that the topography gives the
smal stream and its catchment areas the
possibility to go into the outer part of the city.
This gives the opportunity to create ponds and
wetlands in the urban landscape.
SEARCHING FOR WATER
1 1,0 hectare
2 2,0 hectare
3 1,0 hectare 11
4 0,75 hectare
5 4,0 hectare
6 0,5 hectare
7 0,5 hectare
8 1,5 hectare
9 1,0 hectare
Ponds in the city zone of Mamø, in the rural area between Oxie and the outer city zone of Malmø city.
Some of the ponds are now visible while others remain buried and must be restored.
Interesting for future development.
The agriculture land in the western Skåne, particularly near the
larger cities such as Malmo, is not seldom the subject of various
explorations plans. This may be the new road route. Wire rolls
and the development of new residential areas or industrial areas.
This has until now been a direct restriction in terms of the
development of ponds and wetlands in the area. But recent years
more people have become aware, and can see the quality of these
natural water areas/resources. As an important resource when it
comes to developing Malmö city in a sustainable ecological way.
To the best, for the people and the environment in Malmo.
Understanding the city
In the past, most attempts to understand the city scientifically have not seen the city’s
most obvious network - its street network – as being of scientific relevance or interest.
But it is the street network that links the aggregations of buildings into a single system,
it is what you see when you look down on a city, and it is what you navigate when you
walk or drive in a city. In all these senses, the street network seems to be the common
ground between the real space of the city and our experience of it. They say something
about how cities are structured spatially, how they work, and how they grow and change.
Networks of space have, in recent years, brought to light a fundamental link between the
structure and functioning of cities: that the configuration of the network is the primary
shaper of the pattern of movement. In shaping movement, it also
shapes the patterns of human co-presence - and of course co-absence – that seems to
be the key to our sense that good cities are human and social things as well as physical
things. This is a far reaching proposition, and, if true, as increasing evidence suggests it
is, it has far reaching implication for how we think about cities and design them. The
large scale architecture of city space, which has been neglected for decades, matters
much more than we thought to the life of the city and how it comes into existence.
In principle, this idea is not really new. Most designers believe that we can manipulate
space to create the emergent human patterns that are the source of our sense that cities
are civilised, safe and pleasurable.
People make trips because the shops are there. But it is maybe not fundamental. Maybe
the space network itself, shapes movement, then the shops are where they are because
they are following the patterns of movement already created by the network. So we can
not start with attraction if we want to understand this city. We should start with the network
which creates the pattern of attraction. So the network view of the city is also a paradigm
It puts everything in the city in a different order. Once we understand the relation between
the network configuration and movement, we can begin to creating a networks of centres
and sub-centres. This is the nature of the organic city which evolves over tens or hun-
dreds of years to form the seamless web of busy and quiet places, where everything
seeming to be in the right place, the organic city. How local places arise in cities depends
as much on how it is embedded in its larger scale context as in its intrinsic properties. In
fact, this is mabye true of space in general, and that the local-global relation has featured
too little in our attempts to reproduce the excellencies of cities through design.
Malmö as fragmented city Malmö high density city
Malmö global structures Malmö local structures
City center Inner city
Outer city Rural area
Buildings and the city of Malmø exist for us in two ways: as the physical
forms that we build and see, and as the spaces that we use and move
So what is space:
The first is that we have to learn to think of space not as the background to
human activity, as we think of it as the background to objects, but as an aspect
of everything human beings do, in the sense that moving through space,
interacting with other people in space, or even just seeing ambient space from
a point in it have a natural and necessary spatial geometry: movement is
Shoving main infrastructure inn and out of Malmø city. These human
essentially a linear activity, interaction requires a convex space in which all
struktures makes spaces and human activity/movement. But creates also points can see all others, from any point
big barriers when it comes to social interaction between people in Malmø. in space we see a variably shaped visual field, and it is by accumulating
these as we move through the complex patterns of space we find in buildings
and cities that we somehow build an enduring picture of the pattern of space as a
whole. This describes some aspect of how we use or experience space,
and for this reason how buildings and cities are organised in terms of these
geometric ideas is a vital aspect of how we create them, use them and understand
them. For example, space in cities is for the most part linear – streets, boulevards,
avenues, alleys and so on are all linear concepts - with occasional convex elements
we call squares or public open spaces. So the language of city space is written in
this geometric language reflecting human behaviour and experience.
By filling these spaces, we see that the spaces are growing as the distance to
the city-senter increase. This indicate different human activities in diffrent
spaces. That means that different kind of people are attracted to their “ favor-
ite space”, or because of financial reasons. This means spaces of segregation
Going in to the different spaces
Shorter lines. Making
2 2 Longer lines. Making
Longest lines. Making
Studying the lines of the different zones in the city of Malmö ( Zone 1 - city center. Zone 2 - inner
city. Zone 3 - outer city).
Different zones in the city have different line structures. Zone 1 -city center have short lines with many crosses. Creating an urban feeling in dense spaces. The
different lines in the city makes different spaces, meaning different urban feelings. The different structures zones 1,2 and 3 makes little connections to the global
structures. The local lines and the global lines are not working together. Few interesting meeting points. The spaces are looking into itself and not interacting with
other spaces. Makes city development difficult. Need to find new structures.
Public green spaces in Malmö
Finding the structure of the DNA
City center Inner city
Outer city Rural area
Mapping different qualities in selected districts; 1. City center, 2. Inner city, 3. Fosie Analyzing the different districts by relations of green spaces, water, building
and 4.Oxie density and open spaces.
Building density and green areas (parks and water), as well as com-
pactness and spaciousness in selected districts in the city of Malmö. Buildings
The most compact unit in the inner city is provided Green space
by high density housing combined with key water
routes and green areas. The parks and water kom-
bined with high density givs “the right” urban felling. Water
CITY CENTER FOSIE
Less green areas, no water spaces, but high den- OXIE
sity. Low spaciousness, indicating that inner city
may have a shortage of outdoor nature. For future
condensation it is needed more green areas, com-
bined with new buildings. This will increase the
INNER CITY compact unit.
Less dens. More open spaces but littel green spaces
In a densification process is the interaction between compactness and spa-
In a densification process is the interaction between ciousness important. When spacious unit is reduced, as it generally does
compactness and spaciousness important. When spa- with densification, the compact unit should increase to maintain the urban
cious unit is reduced, as it generally does with densi- environment more attractive. This is an opportunity that does not appear to
fication, the compact unit should increase to maintain be utilized in the the outer city zones of Malmø. The risk with this develop-
FOSIE- the urban environment more attractive. ment is primarily the single suburban zone reduces the attractiveness to
the point that it runs on more urban sprawl in the spacious periphery. The
decrease in compactness that currently takes place in the outer city zone is
likely to create a less competitive and less space-efficient region as a whole
The lowest compactness, in other words, the low-
est urbanity, is located in areas that are only “green Green structure - an arena of polarization in the urban planning, where there
space”, For example, in rural areas, or no green are contradictions between the green structure and urban development. It is
OXIE space, such as industrial areas. therefore important to study this landscape at the local level in the outer zone
of Malmö city. With the expected continuing high population growth in combi-
nation with national and regional objectives for nature conservation, the city
becomes the arena of conflicting interests - to build or preserve? As I already
have shown, different spaces ( city zones) are isolating the different districts in
The graphs show the basic density and landscape structure in inner and outer the city from each other, and become a driving factor in a social segregation
Malmö city. Malmö is now a relatively green and spacious area, which has a processes. Social segregation and income gaps between rich and poor areas
high compactness of the inner city, but lack the density and compactness of the are increasing, and calls for an development that creates links in and between
suburbs. the inner-outer city urban areas. At the same time, they represent an important
Case study area includes a landscape around the ring road where strong inter- resource as ecological potential areas. As part of the effort to meet national ob-
ests for urban development and different nature- landscape conservation jectives for both enviromental issues and biodiversity will the landscape around
interests are meet. The area is located in the east of Malmö city, where the and in the city be an important aspect of Malmö as an sustainable city for the
outer city zone meets the rural area with strong agriculture traditions. future.
Micro - biology
Macro - city
Like the micro organism in water form a
pattern of lines, the city forms new lines by
looking for alternative streets/routes in the
purpose of braking down different spaces/
areas. In this way new patterns can be build,
and the social interaction can develop.
Space shapes movement
The problem in Malmø is that all the main streets ( global streets ) is
occupied with car traffic. This becomes both a physical and mental barrier
This streets take you directly from the city
center and out in the rural area. The main streets
( because of the heavily traffic) makes barriers to the different
city spaces. This leads to segregation and different social zones in
the city. By locking for alternative spaces we can brake down these
barriers between these physical and social spaces.
Once we have this line network, we can calculate, say, the integration
value of each line in relation to all others, and color up as usual.
The global structures ( long lines) are given the colors red, yellow
and orange. The local structures are given the colors pink, blue and purple.
When ever tree colors mets in the network ( one global structure and two
local structures) we mark a connection point ( green circle) . A new interesting
space will then occur. And the the lines between the green circles vill guide us
through the city in new way. These green circle can be new green structures
inn the city or new social interactions spaces. The lines between the green circles
will brace down the global structure,
By this a urban development of Malmø can develop in an including way in all the
People move inn lines Interact in segregated space Interact in new visual fields
connecting different lines and
making new spaces for interac-
tion among different people in
Where the different lines (streets) meets ( valued by
Lines are finding new connections color) new interesting spaces are made
The new local connections are braking Local structures (lines) are making new meeting (
down the old global structures green) spaces.
Braking the barrier of the Ring The new green spaces in the city meeting water ( ponds)
-road ( global structure) in the rural area. Together they make a new city strukture
Breaking trough the global
structure ( Ring road )
Case study area includes a
landscape around the Ring road
where strong interests for
urban development and different
nature- landscape conservation
interests are meet. The area is
located in the east of Malmö city,
where the outer city zone meets
the rural area with strong
New ecological landscape
Systems, actions or processes capable
of growing and developing, mutating and
transforming, varying, deforming and being
precise and flexible, at once determinate
No longer lovly volumes under the light, but
rather ambiguous landscapes under the sky.
No longer lovly volumes under the light, but
Fields within other fields.
rather ambiguous landscapes under the sky.
No longer strict geometric schemes but rather
Fields within other fields.
freer and more meaningful configurations. rather
No longer strict geometric schemes but
A new desire more the background to the surface,
freer and to lift meaningful configurations.
in short, to desire to groundbackground to theinto
A new turn the lift the and the surface surface,
the object of to turn the ground and the surface into
in short, the project.
the object of the project.
Landscape to develop
Landscape to define Landscape to explore
for developing new
New ecological food
cr os hig
ew r the
Exploration of potential - Three key con-
cepts, drawn from the fields of urban
ecology and landscape urbanism has
been used to examine and identify how
the potential of green architecture might
bee in a growing region: Availability,
resilience and readability. The last two
concepts are described by the American
landscape theorist Julia Czerniak as
essential for the social, ecological and Streams
generative role in large green spaces in and ponds
the contemporary city. Resilience is also in the land-
an important concept in environmental scape
research where ecological resilience is
the ability for ecosystems to resist or
adapt to change without losing the
capacity to produce ecosystem services
Means of links
informal entrances. Attraction as a
Combining new hous- starting point.
es with water Experimental design
area for food production
to cover up/
go over the highway
With build land- Stepping ponds.
scape Ponds linked
together with new
open landscape with
under the highway
Using water (Risaberga-
Means of entrances Walking and bike path
To combine New
the west side To
and the east
side of the highway wc e
s ing hway
Ne er th
Concept model: Floating landscape un
Crossing 1. Over
Crossing 2. the highway
Under the highway
1. Floating landscape over the Ringroad
Models of possible crossings
over and under the highway
Working with 1:1 sketch.
Exploring the landscape 2. Risabergabacken as an open installation under the highway
View from under the crossing landscape Leading the way out in the open landscape.
Ponds: Designing the new landscape
Old ponds ponds as
regestred in elements in
the traditional forming a new
landscape Ponds are
Old pond. Not active. Have
little effect on the sur-
with new in-
Restored pond. Increasing
its effect on the surrounding
Restoring the traditional
and natural ponds in the Like a rhizome, the water
agricultural landscape gives life to many spe-
gives multiple effekts cies, and at the same
time cleans up the nutri- The water are giving structure
ents before it goes into to an transformation of the
the ground water landscape. A new landscape
Land and water are two opposites, like yin and yang that produce growth and
prosperity when they come together. Dynamic processes of nature often ap-
pear where land meets water. To understand the water as part of a dynamic
Isolated ponds. Do not work By small water canals in the
landscape ponds are starting to landscape, both as urban and ecological and rebuild the industral agricultural
together.The potentianal is not
work together. Icreas the wild landscape into a new sustainable land of multiple food production.
life and the production in the area
Agricultural land outside Malmö today For producing
in the land-
New “green” water infrastructure Water are giving life Increased production
Example of an new renovated “active pond”
in the landscape. Giving life and an sustain-
able structure for a multiple agriculture by
new water structures in the landscape.
The fabulous cultural landscapes which the
territory of Skåne is renowned for. From this
point of view the new water structure could
be treated as a platform from which the es-
sence of life and healthy interactions with
nature could be grasped from.
Agriculture land outside Malmö tomorrow. New field of permaculture. Water structures are giving life to a sustainable agriculture
tal fields for
in the New
hous- new eco-
ing. logical food
Example of design ponds integrated in the production land and new gardens
Ponds in the new
Protection zone. A zone be-
tween water and arable land
with grass, herbs and trees.
Green space for the pro-
duction of organic food and
For new ecological
products. Residential area integrated in the
stream (Risabergabacken) and
restored ponds. The subject of land-
scape investigation is a matter of
dealing with resources, primarily
Exampel of an pond in the landscape in a new sustainable residential area ground and water: The articulation
of the inhabited with the territorial.
Malmö Today Malmö Tomorrow
TH E LANDSC
Sustainable ecological Möllevången Tomorrow.
gardening Selling local products
Agricultural production Möllevången today. products
today specialist for transportation
Industrialized agriculture, mass production of
selected products, specialized tasks.
the soil becomes depleted, desiccation and
erosion. Need to supply more and more
fertilizer to keep up production of food. With Elastic is a body, system, order, organisation
the consequence of contaminated groundwater or relationship that is deformable or alterable
and polluted oceans. by the action of a force, in an evolutionary
logic. This elastic dimension can guide us in
a new direction in which the producer and the
consumer can be seen as one for a sustaineble
People, plants and animals need water
to live and flourish. No city can exist
without water. Water can be used to
enhance the liveability of cities. But
water, whether in a stream or ponds is
a natural element and requires careful
management. After centuries of living
with water, it are the no-developed
cultures, in particular, which have
Malmö a new city to walk developed the wisdom and experience
to exploit nature and construct a
landscape as a solution. We also had
this knowledge, when every man had a
a new city to feel relation and knowledge of the landscape
and the elements. It is time to take
this wisdom back. This wisdom of the
landscape makes a culture sustainable
for the future.
No landscape, no culture.
G.A. Bergen School of Architecture, Norway, Autom 2009
Architecture Natur Water Sustainable society Landscape Landscape strategies