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AALAS ALAT Chapter 1 History


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AALAS ALAT Chapter 1 History

  1. 1. AALAS ALAT Manual Chapter 1- History & Purpose of Laboratory Animal Science & Animal Care Programs Tamara Goodman Kuhel RVT, RLATG, CPIA
  2. 2. Review of Chapter 1 • Animal Experimentation • AALAS • Other Associations • Ethics of Animal Use • The Three Rs: Replacement, Refinement, & Reduction • Who has Benefitted from Research with Animals? • The Role of the Assistant Laboratory Animal Technician in Research
  3. 3. Animal Experimentation • Aristotle’s animal observations laid foundation for comparative anatomy & embryology • Erasistratus’ contributions to identifying veins/arteries/heart valves & understanding blood flow • Galen established principles for experimental research • Little scientific advancement during Dark Ages • Renewed interest in scientific discovery during the Renaissance • Significant number of major medical advances during latter half of 19th century • 1915- 1st laboratory animal veterinarian • 1950s heralded beginning of laboratory animal sciences as an organized field…
  4. 4. Evolution of AALAS Association for Guide for the the Assessment American Southern Ohio Care & Use of & Accreditation Association of Branch of Laboratory of Laboratory Laboratory Mattingly AALAS Animal Care Panel AALAS Animals Animal Care Animal Science President 1950 1952/1963 1963 1965 1967 1983 1st Meeting held “Chicago Five” in Kettering Founding Fathers: Laboratory in Animal Facilities UC’s own Dr. Brewer, Bond, 1952; officially Accreditation Steele Mattingly Cohen, Flynn, & affiliated with First edition of the Board becomes ACP becomes elected AALAS Schroeder AALAS in 1963 Guide published AAALAC AALAS President
  5. 5. ACP forms AALAS & AAALAC
  6. 6. AALAS Today • Principal means of communication between individuals & organizations within laboratory animal science • Provides internationally recognized professional certification program for technicians • Publications • Comparative Medicine • Journal of AALAS • Tech Talk • AALAS in Action
  7. 7. Other Associations • Association for Assessment & Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International • National Association for Biomedical Research • American Veterinary Medical Association • American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine • People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals
  8. 8. Ethics of Animal Use • Definition of “ethics” • Principles of honor & morality • Accepted rules of conduct • Moral principles of an individual • Knowledge gained for the benefit of humans AND animals more than justifies animal experimentation, but it must be done in an ethical manner & certain rules of conduct followed…the Three Rs
  9. 9. The Three Rs • Replacement, Refinement, & Reduction • Based on Russell & Burch’s 1959 publication “The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique” • Sought to minimize the increasing number of animals being used in medical and veterinary research. • Reports results from research on ethical laboratory techniques.
  10. 10. Replacement…the 1st R • Replace experimental animals with alternatives when possible. • Computer models? • Grow cells artificially in the lab? • Use cells instead of whole animal? Collaborate? Also example of reducing • Replace with “lower” species? • Develop transgenic mice rather than using dogs? • Replace mice with zebrafish? Drosophila?
  11. 11. Refinement…the 2nd R • Refine to reduce animal pain & suffering • Analgesia… Give after animal is anesthetized so 2nd injection not felt? • Training vs. Restraint device Especially useful with nonhuman primates • Enrichment?
  12. 12. Reduction…the 3rd R • Reduce number of experimental animals used. • Minimize the number of animals necessary to yield statistically sound data & produce scientific benefit. • Reduce total number of animals used by using and/or sharing animal tissue/cells. • Good record keeping is critical for ensuring that the least possible number of animals is used in experiments.
  13. 13. Appropriate Selection of Species Biomedical researchers study animals to understand both animals & humans because of shared similarities
  14. 14. The Three Rs in the Guide • IACUC protocol must address availability or appropriateness of the use of other species, isolated organ preparation, cell or tissue culture, or computer simulation (page 10) • IACUC Protocol (page 10) • Justification for number of animals requested • Unnecessary duplication of experiments • Availability or appropriateness of the use of less-invasive procedures • Appropriate sedation, analgesia, & anesthesia • Conduct of multiple major operative procedures • Avoidance or minimization of discomfort, distress, & pain in concert with sound science (page 2) • Well trained care takers & researchers • Positive interactions between care takers & animals • US Government Principle IV “Unless the contrary is established, investigators should consider that procedures that cause pain or distress in human beings may cause pain or distress in other animals.” (page 117) Anthropomorphism?
  15. 15. The Three Rs in the AWARs IACUC review of activities involving animals (page 34) • Avoid or minimize discomfort, distress, & pain to the animals; • Consider alternatives to procedures that may cause more than momentary or slight pain or distress to the animals; • Assure activities do not unnecessarily duplicate previous experiments; • Procedures that may cause more than momentary or slight pain or distress to the animals will be performed with appropriate sedatives, analgesics or anesthetics; • Animals that would otherwise experience severe or chronic pain or distress that cannot be relieved will be painlessly euthanized at the end or during the procedure; • Personnel conducting procedures will be appropriately qualified and trained in those procedures; • No animal will be used in more than one major operative procedure from which it is allowed to recover.
  16. 16. Who Has Benefitted from Animal Research? Those who have used antibiotics to combat infections Children & adults who have been immunized Pet vaccines against rabies, leukemia, & more Drugs to fight infections, parasites, & cancer (human & pet animal) have all been first tested on research animals.
  17. 17. Polio Milestones… Franklin D. Roosevelt & the March of Dimes National Foundation for 1st Known US 1st Major US FDR Contracts FDR Elected Infantile Epidemic Epidemic Polio 1st Iron Lung President Paralysis FDR dies 1894 1916 1921 1928 1932 1938 1945 Preserves Increasing breathing FDR founds number of Not just function in NFIP, now outbreaks children at risk- patients with known as each year FDR was 39 acute polio March of Dimes April 12th
  18. 18. Polio Milestones… Vaccines & Eradication Last Worst US Salk’s Incidence Sabin’s Reported America W. Pacific Europe Epidemic Vaccine of Polio ↓ Vaccine US Case Polio-Free Polio-Free Polio-Free 1952 1952-1954 1955-1957 1962 1979 1994 2000 2002 European 57,800+ Injectable US Americas W. Pacific Region cases Polio Incidence Oral Polio Caused by certified certified certified reported Vaccine ↓ 85-90% Vaccine wild virus polio-free polio-free polio-free
  19. 19. The Role of the ALAT in Research
  20. 20. Role of ALAT… • Regulatory guidelines require training of people caring for & using experimental animals • Duties typically entail day-to-day animal husbandry & facility maintenance (e.g. room sanitization, cage wash) • Sanitation & sterilization procedures • Observe & report changes in animal room environment • Handle, restrain, & determine sex of common laboratory animals • Recognize & report animal care problems, differentiating between normal & abnormal • Perform various identification methods • Provide routine treatments (e.g. clipping toenails)
  21. 21. Role of ALAT… • ALAT is member of research TEAM • Researchers depend on consistent & thorough animal care • Be aware that changes in environment or handling of animals can introduce variables to research projects • ALAT’s work has direct impact on experimental data • Accurate records- Mistakes could invalidate data and/or result in animal euthanasia (waste!) • Validates results • Must be able to maintain & provide accurate, legible records for his/her areas of responsibility
  22. 22. Role of ALAT… • Absolutely vital that ALAT learn to ask questions if there is any confusion as to a procedure to be performed. • Mistakes on animal records, ear tag, improper dilution of disinfectant can all result in serious problems if not discovered & corrected. • ALWAYS ASK if you are in doubt & notify your supervisor immediately if you discover a mistake.
  23. 23. Definitions • Animal Model • Ethics • Laboratory Animal Science • Reduction • Refinement • Replacement • Russell & Burch • Three Rs • Unconscious
  24. 24. Acronyms • AAALAC • AALAS • ACLAM • ALAT • AVMA • NABR • PETA
  25. 25. Acknowledgements • AALAS 50 Years of Laboratory Animal Science • AALAS 2005 ALAT Manual • Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals • Animal Welfare Act Regulations • March of Dimes website • Numerous websites for images!